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COMMITTEE. 



CM< 



Tbt Rickt Bob. LORD BROUGHAM. F.R.S.. Member of Um NaUowd IstUtaU of Franct. 

KiM-CJUiniMm--JOHN WOOD. Rtq. 
YVniMTir— WaLIAM TOOKE, Eaq., M.P., F.R.8. 



W. A lira, Rhq.. F.R. m»* R.A.8. . ^ . . 
Capt. F. Beauforl, R.N.. F.R. and RJl.8., 

Hytlrofrapher lo the Admiralty. 
O. HnrrowB, M.D. 
Peter Suffbrd Carey Biq.*A.lf. 
William Cottlaon. Kiq. 
R. I). Cralf . K«q. 
J. Frederick DaoielU Baq. F.B.8. 
J. F. Darla, Ksq., F.R.9. 
H. T. DelaBeche. Esq., F.R.S. 
Ru Hon. Lord Denman. 
Samael Dockirorth» Baq. 
The Rt. Ree. the Blahop of Durham, D.D. 
RL Hon. Viae. Kbrlnfton, M.P. 
91r Henry EUla. Prtn. Ub. BriL Mna, 
T. F. EUla. Eaq.. A.M., F.R.A.8 
John Klliotaon. M.D., F.R.8. 
Thomas Falconer, Eaq. 



I. L. Ooldamld* Eaq., F.R. and R.A.8. 

B. Oomperts, Eaq., F.R. and R.A.8. 

G. B. Greenoafh, Esq., F.R. and LA, 

M. D. HIU. Emi. 

Rowland HIIU Esq., F.R.A.8. 

Rt. Hon. Sir J. C Hobbouae, Bart M.P. 

Dart d Jardlne, Baq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker, Eaq. 

Th. Hewitt Key, Esq.. A.M. 

J. T. Leader. Eaq.. M.P. 

Georfe C. Lewla, Eaq^ A.M* . 

Thomas Henry Lister. Esq. 

Jamea Loch, Eaq^ M.P., F.G.8. 

George Long, Eaq., A.M. 

J. W. LubbockiEaq., A.M., F.R., R.A. and 

L.8.8. 
R. Maiden, Esq. A.M. 
A. T. Malkla. Esq.. A.M. 



Jamea Manning, Eaq. 

J. Herman Merlrale. Esq., A.M., F.A.8. 

The Right Hon. Lord Nugent. 

W. H. Ord, Eaq. M.P. 

The R4ght Hon. Sir H. Pamell, Bart, M.P. 

Dr. Roffet, Sec. R.S., F.R. A. 3. 

Edward Romllly, Eaq., A.M. 

Right Hon. Lord John Russell, M.P. 

Sir M. A. Shee, P.R.A., F.U.S. 

John Abel Smith, Esq., M.P. 

Right Hon. Earl Spencer. 

John Taylor, Esq. F.R.8. 

Dr. A. T. Thomaon, F.L.S. 

H, Wayroouth, Eaq. 

J. Whiahaw, Esq., A.M., F.R.!). 

John Wrottealey, Esq., A.M., F.R.A.8, 

J. A. Tates, Esq. 



Atton, Stufardskir&^fL&f, J. P. Jones. 
^mgimem—ll^w. E. WUItsms. 

Rev. W. Johnson. 

Mr. Miller. 
jIahhmrtun—J, F. EIngston, Esq. 
Banutapie. Dancraft, Esq. 

Wtliiam Oribble, Esq. 
Jfttfiut—Dt. Drummond. 
MI«<»ii~Rer. W. Leigh. 
BirwMj^Aiim— J.Come.Esq.F.R.S. Ckatrwum, 

Paul Moon James, Esq., SVeasiirsr. 
^y^^poff— Wm. Forster, Eaq. 

James Williams, Eaq. 
BriMtol^J. N. Sanders, Esq.. Ckairwum^ 

J. Reynolds, Esq., Trsaserer. 

J. B. EstUa, Esi|., F.L.S., Sfcrwimrf* 
C<i/celf<i'-Lord Wm. Benllnck. 

Sir Edward Ryan. 

Jame* Yoang. Eaq. 
Com^rtiffe— Rev. Jamea Bowatrad, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A.. F.L.S.Ar 0.8. 

Rev. Leonard Jenyna, M.A., F.L.S. 

Rev. John Lodge, M.A. 

Ret. Geo. Peacock, M.A., F.R.S. ft 0.8. 

R. W. Rothm aa . Eaq .,H. A ., K.R. A.S.ftO.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S.& G.8. 

Profcaaor Hmyth, M.A. 

Ree. C. Thirlwall. M.A. 
Cmmt a thm ig John Brent, Baq^ Alderman. 

William Maaters, Eaq. 
Cairfon.— Wm. Jaiilne, Esq.. FresiieuL 

Robert Inglis, Eaq., TVionrer. 

RcT. C. Brldgman. 1 

Rer. C. GnUlaB; iS^cnt^HeA 

J. R. Morrison, Esq., ) 
Gw^liru—ReT. J. Blackwetl. M.A. 
Carfi^— Thomaa Baroca, M.D., F.B.8.B. 
C«nMrae»-R. A. Poole, Esq. 

William Roberts, Esq. 
CUifer— Hayes Lyon, Esq. 

Henry Polls, Eaq. 
C*A<cA<i/er— John Forbes, M.D., F.R.8. 

C. C. Dendy, Esq. 
CbdkersMB^A^ReT. J. Whitridfo. 
C'ei/v— John Crawford, Eaq. 

Mr. Plato Pelrldes, 
Cevewiry— Arthur Gregorr, Esq. 
DmA'f A-^oba Madoekv, Kaq. 

Thomas Evans, Esq. 

THOMAS 



LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Der^— Joseph Stmtt, Esq. 

Edward Strutt, Esq.. M.P. 
Dfonpmt and jSitfuaAoMO— Joha Cole, Eaq. 

— Norman, Kaq. 

LtCoLC. Hamilton Smith, F.R.8. 
Deftlis— T. Drummond, Esq. R.E.. F.R.A.8. 
fffinter^A— Sir C. Bell. F.R.S.L. and E. 
J^frerta— .Tea. Wedgwood, Esq. 
jr^eler— J. Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Milford, Esq. (CMVtr.) 
ff(«jfow->E. FInlay, Esq. 

Professor Mylne. 

Alexander McGrigor, Esq. 

Charles Tranant, Kaq. 

James Cowper, Eaq. 
G/«mor^es«Atre— Ur. Halkin, Cowbrldgi. 

W. Wliliama, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
Ouenuejf^V. C. Lukis, Eaq. 
Ilult-^J. C. Parker, Eaq. 
Krighley^ Yorkskire^Rtr. T. Dnry, M.A. 
J.eamingloH Spa — Dr. Loudon, M.D. 
Leedf— J. Marahall, Eaq. 
I.ewtt'-^, W. Woollgar, Eaq. 
//OMrtdk-Wm. O'Brien. Eaq. 
Liverpool Loc. At.^W. W. Cnrrle, Eaq. CA. 

J. Mulleneux,'Eao., Traociirer. 

Rev. W. Shepherd. 
I.wdhw^T. A. E night, Esq., P.H.8. 
ifisdrtd'-Slfnor A. If nnos ae Sotomayor. 
Maidenhta i R. Gooldeo, Esq., F.L.21. 
JfaUilofie— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
ilaimttbmn — B. C. Tbomaa, Esq. 
Mameknier /.ec. ifs.— G. W. Wood. Esq.. Ok, 

Benjamin Heywood, Esq.,'2Ve«nn*ar. 

T. w. Wlnsualey^ Esq., tf eau See. , 

8tr G. PhlUps, Bart, M.P. 

Bonj. Oott, Kaq. 
Maak a m -'Rev. Geonre Waddiagton. M JU 
Mtrtkyr TyMi^-i. J.Gueat Eaq. M.P. 
ArincAtiOamploii— John O. Ball, Esq. 
J f o e am art J. H. Moggrtdge, Esq. 
ATenlA— John Rowland, Esq. 
A'eipmil/e— Rev. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith, Eaq.. F.G.8. 
Newport, IsUo/ Wigkt^Ab, Clarke, Esq, 

T. Cooke. Jnn., Esq. 

R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq. 



Nettpori PapneU^J. Millar, Eaq. 
Newtown^ Alonigomeryihiro^Yf. Pttgb. Esq. 
JVorwicA— Richard bacon.'^Raq. 
Ortett, S$iex—\)T. Corbeir, M.D. 
0.r^br4~Dr. Daubeny.F.ll.^. Prof, of Chen. 

Rev. Prof. PowelL 

Rev. John Jordan, H.A. 

E. W. Head, Eaq.. M.A. 
Peaoa^— Sir B. H. AiaUcin. 
Petth, /fmyary— Count Ssechenyi. 
Plfmouth—H. Woolicombc, Ksq.. F.A.S.,C'A. 

Snow Harria. Kaq.. F.R.S. 

E. Moore. M.I)., F.L.S., 5*ecreterw. 

G. Wightwick, Eaq. 
Presteiffn^Dr. A. W. Davies. M.D 
nipon— Rev. H. P. Hamilton, M.A., F.R 4$. 
and G.S. 

Rev. P. Rwart. M.A. 
AaMea—Rev. the Warden of 

Humpbreya JoneK, Kaq. 
Rpde, I. of fright-S\r lid. Simeon, nt. MP. 
Sa/ji6«ry— Rev. J. Barfit 
Shefiald—^ . H. AbrMhiini, Esq. 
}^plon M(tllet'~-0. F. Burrouglia, Eaq. 
.SAreieiAery— R. A.Slaiiey, Rnq., M.P. 
South PetherioH—Johu Nicholeiia, Esq. 
St, ifrapA— Rev. George Strong. 
Stockport— H. Marsland, Esq., Treagmror, 

Henry Coppock, Eaq., Seerttorf, 
TaeuloeA— Rev. W. Evans. 

John Rundie, Kaq. 
3V«re— Richard Taunton. M.D. 

Henry 6c well Stokes, Esq. 
Tunbridgo WelU^Dr. Yeata. M.D. 
C7tt0M<«r~Robert Blurton, Esq. 
ir«rwic*^Dr. Conolly. 

The Rev. William Field, {Ummnfton.) 
IFalsr/ord— Sir John Newport, Bt 
IFi»/verAamp(fm— J. Pearson, Esq. 
ITorear^er^Dr. Haatings, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
HVaeAam^Thomas Edgworth, Esq 

J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.S., rrearsrer. 

M^Jor William Lloyd. 
FanaeaCA— C. E. Rumbold. Esq. M.P. 

Dawson Turner, Esq. 
yor*— Rev. J. Eenrlck, M.A. 

J. Phillips, Esq., F.R.8« F.Q.S. 



CO ATE 8, Esq., Seerotorf, No. 19, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 



. . 



I WOJJAm Omwis and 8e«s« Friolorp, 8tamft»id Street 



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ADVERTISEMENT TO VOLUME THE SIXTH. 



The Fifth Volume of the Penny CYCLOPyEDiA being now finished, the Committee of the Society* 
aad tlie Publisher, feel themselves called upon, for the satisfaction of the numerous body ot 
Pni'L'liascrs, to annoimce their intentions with regard to the completion of the work. The great 
a.ixiety of the Committee and of the Editor has been to produce a Cyclopaedia which in 
a( curacy, completeness, and originality, should not be surpassed by any similar publication of this 
ov any other country ; and the Publisher has not hesitated to incur the large expenses which are 
necessary for the attainment of this excellence, although the Avork is sold at a price not amounting 
to a fourth of the cost of any other Cyclopaedia of established reputation. The articles in this 
^vork have been drawn up with the greatest care from the best and most recent authorities. It 
w ill be found, on making a comparison, that the essential differences between the articles in the 
Pinny Cyclopaedia and those in other Cyclopaedias or Dictionaries are sufficient to prove that 
ori<Tlnal sources of information only, and not previous compilations, have been consulted by the 
writers for this work. Independently of this, the numerous references given in all the more 
important articles show distinctly what are the authorities that have been used ; they indicate to 
the careful reader the means of extending liis knowledge on any particular subject, and at the 
^ame time give him the power of testing the general accuracy of the work by consulting the same 
sources of information that have been used by the writers. By means of the gentlemen who are 
uiombcrs of the London and Local Committees, and with the aid of other gentlemen^ not members 
cf tlie Committees, who have in many cases kindly given their assistance, the present work has 
h'd(\ tlic advantage of a careful revision of many of the most important articles, and has received 
a number of valuable additions from documents and authorities which have never before been 
i.iaJc public. 

A publication such as tliis, aiming at the union of excellence with cheapness, requires the 
'^v.p])ort of a very large body of purchasers ; and this support has been obtained. The continuance 
^1 this support must, however, in great part, depend upon the Cyclopaedia being completed within 
a rci>sonable period, and in a moderate number of volumes ; it being borne in mind at the same 
tiiie, that no rate of publication must be attempted which would prevent the carefiil revision of 
oYory portion of the work, and that no scale as to the length of articles must be adopted which 
would destroy their usefulness. It has been the constant endeavour of the Editor and the gentlc- 
ir.cn who contribute to the Cyclopaedia to render the articles as concise as was compatible with 
]'rcser\dng their value ; and experience will no^v enable them to effect this object more completely 
than has already been done. Added to this, many of the articles already published are necessarily 
of greater length than the majority of those which are to come; for advantage lias been taken, in 

No, 339. ' [THE PENNY CYCLOPiEDlA.] Vol. VI.—B 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

most cases, to explain the general principles of a subject on the first notice of a word connected 
with it ; and in many instances it has been considered advisable to give under one head or title 
such a general view of a subject as will render it sufficient in many subsequent heads or titles to 
refer to the general article. Without any material alteration of the present scale as regards the 
length of the more important articles, the Committee feel assured that somewhat more than a fourth 
of the whole Cyclopiedia is now published; and they therefore propose that the work shall be com- 
pleted in Eighteen Volumes of the present size, and they pledge themselves that it shall not exceed 
Twenty Volumes. Having settled these limits, the Committee loc^j forward with confidence to 
the production of a work, which will be useful to the most critical student by its completeness and 
accuracy, and will present a vast body of information, at the cheapest rate, to those who are seeking 
for knowledge in a popular form. 

In order to comply with the >vishes of the bulk of the Subscribers to the Cyclopaedia, it is the 
intention of the Committee, upon the completion of the letter B, to publish at the rate of three 
volumes annually, instead of two ; so that Me entire work may be published in little more than four 
years from the present time. The monthly parts will therefore be raised to eighteen-pence each, 
and four parts will complete a volume, instead of six. 

In making this announcement as to an increased speed in publics^tion, and giving this pledge 
as to limitation of quantity, the Committee and the Publisher beg it to be understood, that they 
consider these arrangements as final They do not think it possible to proceed at a quicker rate 
than they have announced, or to attempt any curtailment that may reduce the number of volumes 
below eighteen without injury to the character of the work. 



^|lft7 21, 1836. 



THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA 



OP 



THE SOCIETY FOR THfi DIFFUSION OP 

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



B u F 

nUFFON. GEORGE LOUIS LE CLERC, COMTE 

])K, son of Benjamin Le Clerc Buflbn, ti councillor of par- 
linn ent, was born at Montbard, in Burgundy» on the 7th 
September, 1 707, a year which was also marked by the en- 
iriince of Linnf into Hfe. We first trace the young Bitffon at 
Dijon, where he was entered at th^ Jesuits* college as ft stu- 
deiu of law; but it would appear that the legal profession, 
\N hirh his Ikther Wished him to adopt, had no charms for him, 
and that astronomy and mttthemfttics were his ftivourite pur- 
suits. The parent, observing his son's disgust at the former 
study and his zealous application to the last-named sciences, 
\vi>eiy suffered him to follow the path which he had chosen ; 
and he became so wedded to his geometry that some of his 
biouraphers assert, that while his companions were at their 
si)orts he Was generally to be seen ih some retired nook 
]>oring over his pocket Euclid, which he seems to have che- 
rished at this early age with no less afiijction than Parson 
Adams had for his ^^schylus. Such a mode of spending 
hours, which WOuld otherwise have been hours of idleness, 
brought forth its fruits in due season, and there are stones 
current that he had anticipated NeWton in some of his dis- 
cjverics, but that he withheld his claim, observing that 
people were not obliged to believe the assertion. We re- 
ceive these nri diti with some grains of allowance, for, to say 
nothing of dates, vanity was certainly not absent as an in- 
trrodient in BuflTons character. 

An acquaintance which he had made with Lord Kingston 
a! .d his tutor, at Dijon, soon ripened into friendship, and Buf- 
fon travelled through Italy with these companiohs, the latter 
of whom appears to have been a man of science, while the 
lormer was the ready partner in his pleasures. The death 
of iii!» mother^ whom he lost during this expedition, put him 
in possession of a large income* nearly 12,000/., at an early 
a je. and having become entangled in sottie affair, on his re- 
turn to Montbard, he found it advisable to leave that place ; 
and he accordingly Went to Paris, and visited England. We 
do not find him settled on his estate ' for good* till the age 
of twenty-fiVe. In this retirement he resolutely pursued his 
>>t udies, and as it may not be Uninteresting to those who think 
life was not given to us to be passed in mere frivolities, to 
know how Bufibn passed his time, we select the following ac- 
rt.unt from a modem biographer, premising that the history 
ot one day seems to have been that of all the others, gene- 
rally speaking, throughout a period of fifty years. 'After 
he was dressed he dictated letters, and regulated his domes- 
tic affairs ; and at si5L o'dock he retired to his studies at the 
Pavilion called the Tower of St. Louis. This pavilion was 
situated at the extremity of the garden, about a furlong 
from the house, and the only ftirniture which it contained was 
a large wooden secretary and an arm-chair. No books or 
p'tures relieved the naked appearance of the apartment, or 
dt^tracted the thoughts of the learned possessor. The en- 
t:.iiice was by green folding-doors, the walls were painted 
t.'*'< en, and the interior had the appearance of a chapel, on 
m«ount of l^e elevation of the roof. Within this was ano- 
ther cabiiie^ where Buflbn letided the gi^Mr pan ^ the 



B U F 

year, on account of the coldness of the other apartment, and 
where he composed the greater number of his works. It 
was a small square building, situated on the side of a ter- 
race, and was ornamented withtlrawings of birds and beasts. 
Prince Henry of Prussia called it the cradle of natural 
history ; and Rousseau, before he entered it, used to fall on 
his knees and kiss the threshold. At nine o'clock Buffon 
usually took an hour s rest ; and his breakfast, which con- 
sisted of a piece of bread and two glasses Of wine, was 
brought to the pavilion. When he had written two hours 
after breakfast, he returned to the house. At dinner he 
spent a considerable portion of time, and indulged in all the 
gaieties and trifles which occurred at table. After dinner 
he slept an hour in his room, took a solitary walk, and, 
during the rest of the evening, he either conversed with his 
fiimily or guests, or sat at his desk examining the papers 
which were submitted to his judgment. At iline o^clock he 
went to bed to prepare himself for the same routine of judg- 
ment and pleasure.' Among his other studies the alleg^ 
burning or the Roman fleet, under Marcellus, by Archi- 
medes, on its approach within bow- shot, by means of mir- 
rors, attracted his attention, and he commenced a series of 
experiments, with the view of verifying the fact. After 
several experiments and considerable expense, he con- 
structed a great mirror, composed of 168 pieces of plain 
silvered glass, six inches by eight. Between each was an 
interval of four lines. These intervals ga^'e the expert^ 
mentalist a view of the point on which the machine was tb 
be directed, and the contrivance allow^ed of extensive mo- 
tion ; for the whole of the pieces were set in an iron frame, 
with an apparatus of screws and springs. Having made his 
preparations he commenced his experiments, and, oh the 
23rd of March, a plank of beech, which had been covered 
with tar. Was set on fire at the distance of sixty-six feet, onlv 
forty mirrors being brought to bear on it, and without their 
being set in the stand. On the same day ninety-eight mir- 
rors, under some disadvantageous circumstances, ignited a 
tarred and sulphured plank, at the distance of 126 feet. Oh 
the 3rd of April, at 4 o'clock p. m., a board, covered with 
small pieces of wool, was placed at the distance of 1 38 feet, 
and the tays from 112 mirrors slightly infiamed it The 
next day, at 11 o'clock a. m., 154 mirrors caused a tarred 
plank, fixed at a distance of ISO feet, to smoke densely in 
two minutes ; but just as the experimentali>ts were expect- 
ing it to burst into (lame, the sun was obscured. At 3 
o'clock, on the 5th of the same montli, 154 mirrors fired 
small sulphured chips of deal, mingled with charcoal, at the 
distance of 250 feet, when the day was not bright : a few 
seconds were sufllcient to produce ignition when the sun 
shone powerfully. An unclouded and clear sun, soon after 
mid-day of the lOth of April, inflamed very suddenly a 
tarred fir-plank, the distance being 150 feet, and the num- 
ber of mirrors brought into action being 128; at half- past 
two on the same day a beech plankt partially sulphured* and 
covered in other parts with small pieces of wt>ol, was in- 
kau«d BO suddenly And strongly that it became neceisairy io 

B2 



B C F 



B U P 



tut IJtLl^ 



theiie;! 



A 4 . 



Mis 



UkKjbsWF 



of IM fied. On 

flask, € Ibi. in weight, 
djtftnneew and some 
D were bnwgtit Id a red heat by 
M him to others, having for 
of miiTon hf bending glass upon 
bet his great difficnltj a|ipears to have 
m the cooling and grinding, and only 
preeerred oot of twenty-lbnr. He pre- 
having a diameter of 46 inches, and 
po«erfal burning-glass in Europe, to 



have seen Bafion devoting himself to his 
stoQjes wiih nnwearied diligence ; but the more abstruse of 
the s cieaftcs and the f*vnnation of his st}!e appear to have 
alsMwt entirely ocenpied him up to a certain period. 

Some lev yean, however, before he commenced the ex- 
periments above recorded, he was, at the age of thirty-two 
(shoot the year 1 739), called to succeed M. Dufay, who, 
sCniek by a mortal disease (the small-pox), had recommended 
Bnftm to the minister as the only man capable of following 
np his projects in the office of intendant of the Royal Garden 
and Museum, where he planted the two avenues of lime- 
trees which terminate towards the extremity of the nursery, 
and mark the limits of the garden at that period. The 
appointment seems to have at once awakened his dor- 
mant love for the study of natural history. His ardent mind 
took an immediate and comprehensive \iew of the subject, 
and commencing with the theory or history of the earth as his 
basis, he followed it out through the great work which has 
immortalised his name as a zoologist, calling to his assist- 
ance the talents of men who were most deeply versed in 
particular branches of the study : — the names of Daubenton 
and Lacf pdde stand pre-eminent among those who were 
thus associated with him. 

His marriage with Mademoiselle de Saint Belin, in 1762, 
appears to have been productive of great happiness to both 
parlies, for she is recorded as anxiously watching all his 
steps on the road to fame, and rejoicing with him at the 
honours which were showered upon him by crowned heads 
and learned societies. Louis XI V., in 1 776, raised his estate 
into a compt6, and inrited him to Fontainebleau, with a view 
of inducing him to accept the office of Administrator of the 
Forests of France, but Buflfon declined the office. 

His days appear to have been passed in great tranquillity, 
uninterruptea till a late period of his life, when that cruel 
disease, the stone, came to imbitter the rest of it. Tliis 
torturin|( malady seems to have become seriously distressing 
about his 73rd year. He was importuned to submit to an 
operation, but he never would consent, though his medical 
attendants assured him of relief : their opinion, it is stated, 
was conftrroed on examination after his oeath, which took 
place on the 16th of April. 1788, at the age of 61, after 
eight years of intense suffering. Fifty-seven stones, some 
of them as Urge as a bean, are said to have been found in 
his bladder. 

His body was embalmed, and placed in the same vault 
with that of his wife, at Montbard. 

The respect paid to his niemor>- va« great, and reflected 
honour on the aKserobla^e of aca«lemician« and persons of 
rank and distinction «ho foliomed bi« retn^ins to the tomb. 
It is said that above 20,vtO peojile hVi ootitrre23ted to see 
the funeral pass. 

Condoroet, Br^uftsonet, Virq d Ai\r, ztA La^^p^de were 
ais principal eulo^uu. 

Buflbn left an onU vn, it},*j^ »* .' »'«-^ -w^^f*? ^r/n^^'lerable. 
and whose attach m.^-'m xo Ki« y*:":.* -* 
filial love can e^er 1^ extr*^'..-:. He 
had risen to the rank r.i m*/^ .r, t-* r^-y » • m *4 Ahisou 
mois. We have m^^ u.-i 't- ^"t ^, **'. .^» 4a. *:',r=if#.d U 
the great and go^-^i. at.d >f«^;-d •/» • >t r*^->/-. t, a t.u I 
homage to a irreai e^^.i* -^i* v,,-. \t', * ^t. nWv, i >- •♦//ffn 
that darkenc<l the \>'» r."*! i, ,? / o '/ ».; F r';^, I'u*. vn 
of the great 0»rot«? d»- B .T/Ti «rtp v-. •? * *-.- • .♦ tA h.« {/ nh 
on the scafTuld wiucU hvl %\r*--^,y t^».^'i » t, «:." f>v<.,".i 
blood of France; arvl v*r-\ ir.<^ •*„.*-♦ r/ i*^ («• .^_*j,.. 



. « »'\'"- :: <\ if i n'l eed 
• •4 ,:. *'A 4rff,», and 



man whom the pe<*pl« \ix*\ ',«•. /.• *; v. r ,t-'.*st ~*.. . \ i^,\, 
escape desecration. Tlip r« m » ■ of t-^ ,.;- v^« t/^^/rj w 
were torn from the gr*v'? \\.\^.Vy\ ,fj » ..• , ;.^ •»>♦ v , r v 'J 
was plundered, and Ui» ru^mntu^^ut. %%% fM^A */, r-^ yv*' 'i 
It ift confidently Oatei, that axfc/x,^ i.> Ui:f t^. r^rr. ;»/•* 



who perpetrated this sacrilege were many of his own re* 
tainers— of those who had f<41owed him to that very grave 
with reverential mourning. Nor were this baseness and 
disgrace confined to a host of furious madmen, drunk with 
political excitement ; for when a citizen, ta whom science 
was dear, complained to the Committee of Public Instruc- 
tion of the outrage, and proposed that BufTon should ha\e 
a place in the Pantheon, he was answered that the temple 
would be profaned by the presence of oue who bad been 
connected with the aristocracy of France. 

The character of Buffbn's mind seems to have been com- 
prehensive, exhibiting an insatiable desire of knowled^ 
joined with a persevering fondness and appetite for ^tu'ij 
rarely to be found : to these gifts nature had added a m<>>t 
fervid imagination, and his biographers have superadded 
no small portion of vanity. If by vanity be meant an 
anxious solicitude for a literary immortality, ' that last 
infirmity of noble minds,* which was continually betra%tug 
itself, Buffbn was without doubt a vain man. He would 
read to his visiters those passages in his works which were 
his greatest favourites, such as portions of his natural hts« 
tory of man, Uie description of the Arabian deserts in the 
account of the camel, and his poetical pa^es on the swan. 
The last affected Prince Henry of Prussia, to whom the 
author read it when he was on a visit to Montbard. so 
strongly that he sent to the zoologist a service of porcelain 
on which swans were represented in almost every attitude. 

Buffon was of a noble countenance and commanding 
figure, and his fondness for magnificence and dress seem 
to have amounted almost to a passion. It is curious to 
observe such an intellect as his finding time in the mid»t of 
the severest studies to submit his head to the friseur often 
twice and sometimes three times in the day, and to make 
his toilet in the extreme of the fashion. On a Sunday, 
after the service of the church, the peasantry of Montbard 
came to gaze on the count, who, clad in the richest dre^*, 
and at the head of his son and retainers, was wont to exhi- 
bit himself to their admiring eyes. This last exhibition 
however may have been a trait of the times. 

His devotion to study soon ripened into a habit, and be- 
came his solace under the excruciating torments which 
imbittered the last years of his life. When asked how he 
had found time to do so much, he would reply, ' Have I 
not spent fifty years at my desk ?* 

Buffon's stylo was brilliant and eloquent even to the verge 
of poetry ; and it is worthy of remark that a mind which had 
been trained and disciplined in the severity of the exact 
sciences should surrender the reins so entirely to the mo^t 
luxuriant but wildest imagination. Hence, as is observed 
in the article on birds, he was often arraigning nature at 
the bar of bis fSancy for some supposed defect of dei^ien. 
when ih« fault was in his own want of perception o^ the 
end 10 which that design was directed, arising from his not 
being acquainted with the habits to which it ministered. 
His observations on the bill of the avoset, on the structure 
of the sloth, and on the melancholy condition of the wood- 
pecker (picus), are examples of this habit ; upon the wood- 
pecker he is quite pathetic, but, as in all such cases, he 
bestows his pity upon a very unworthy object. 

He has been charged with infidelity ; but this, like some 
others, is a charge easy to be made and hard to be disproveJ, 
though it must be admitted that his works afford ground 
for it. There is no doubt that his opinions drew down the 
censure of the Sorbonne, and in the 4th vol. of his • Histo:re 
Naturelle' will be found the letters of the Faculty of Theo- 
logy and the answers. His moral character, we are coni- 
pclled to add, was far from good, there being too moch 
evidence in pixwf of his licentious habits and conversai oo 
to admit of doubt on the subject. 

His works were numerous, and have obtained for h*m 
that fame which he is said to have so mnch desiRHL H;» 
translations of Haless * Vegetable Statics,' and of Neut. n> 
• Fluxions,' both of which he prefaced with great ability, ap- 
pear to have been undertaken with a view of impioving i».> 
«tyle as well as of advancing his knowledjje. The Meroo:n 
of the Royal Academy, of which he was so disiinguisho- • i 
member, contain many of his papers; but without enter:..- 
into tli*»se and other compositions, we proceed to the no;. -• 
of his ftpuM magnum, the • Histoire Nalurelle." Of tX.e ^t.-^. 
Hition^ the first in 36 vols., printed at the rojal prc>K 
appeared in 1749, and was in a course of publicalion J. -^u 
to l7bB; another was published in 1774 and the f.»;k>wir.^ 
}tnr§, in 28 toIs., but this is comparatively of less value, for 



B U L 



6 



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tt» tM9t «edt regelMe, tnd witbout 
v^tr^ tbr «srr» snftre voiiM be blown away. The oow- 
s alwft frvsh frott the cov-hoose. {Gardenef^t Ma- 
c^ LrodcB^s l fn c yt ' / ytf< te* qf Bcriiatiture,) 
rr.18 w.tb ttsar balboos plants the gardeners of this 
U:^ «r DO sncvess is obnously owing to one 
:c tie 5.'.~w:!:< raoses. TbeT do not expose the plants 
T >e =. :. j». *g t> a sufEdent qaantity of light, keeping them 
-^ ^: - I L j-hic^ rreeohouses or fratnes, or in the windows of 
- • ' i "icia** ; oc if iher do expose them IVeely to light, 
t*-T r:t protect them with sufficient care fVom the 
e*5-' i> f n ,:htlT 6tsts, by which the leaves become injured 
a- ■! r-i:<aiihT/ Thus CKiemsey lilies (Nerine samiensis) 
«• *.:2 flrw^r in onr gardens the seeond year, although 



t- 1 mv hire blossomed finely the first year of their im- 
t« '•ifrin. The ressoo is, that the first flowers exhaust the 

-^ ml the leaves appear so late in the season, that 
V: veeo the short and gloomy days of autumn and the 
i..-.-^*^t««i sreenhoQses in which such plants are kept, they 
are *j^ibV to prepire a supply of food suflicient to replace 
t ■«! ^:i:rh the first year's tlowers consumed; and conse- 
q-;-*r'lT ilow^ers in tfce second year are either not formed 
r: i'.:, or if r'»rmed. cannot be developed. Mr. Knight put 
1^ t>^e principles to the test by stimulating Guernsey lilies 
j. . , iTfce'ation sufliciently early for their leaves to enjoy 
tVv fii;i jntluence of the summer's sun ; and he found that 
1 .. ' s ^3 treated flourished as well the second as the first 
Tear. Another cause is our not attending enough to the 
nnture of the soil in which bulbs are grown. It should be 
altrnrs remembered that their scales are not only succulent, 
Lut very absorbent; and that if the soil is retentive of 
moisture, they will not only become gorged with fluid, and 
consequently unhealthy, but the nutritive matter which 
they coutain will be so much thinned as to be less fit for the 
food of the young leaves. This is doubtless the reason 
why the Dutch are so carefUl to select the lightest soil they 
can find, and, for the fluid necessary to support the 
growing plants, they trust to the watery stratum which is 
fi)und some distance, from 9 inches to 2 feet, below the 
station of the bulbs themselves. 

As bidbs are very much cultivated in this coutitry in 
glasses of water for the ornament of sitting-rooms, the 
man tier in which they can be most successfully treated 
under such circumstances deserves a brief notice. Tt has 
been already stated that if bulbs are placed in contact with 
water they are liable to rot; it is conseouently desirable 
that the water into which thev are to root snould be at least 
an inch below their base. To enable them to bear their 
leaves and flowers with vigour they should be abundantly 
furnished with roots, and this should have been secured ibr 
some short time before the stems and leaves aie allowed to 
grow. But as the leaves are easily excited by light and 
warmth it will frequently happen, when bulbs are placed 
in water-glasses in sitting rooms, that their leaves are formed 
before the roots, and that the flowering is consequently 
weak and imi)erfect. To prevent this, it is desirable always 
to commence the forcing of bulbs by placing them in a 
damp closet or cellar where there is just warmth enough to 
excite them into growth ; in such a situation the roots will 
strike out freely, but the lea^'es will remain at rest. After 
the roots are sufficiently formed, the glasses may be gra- 
dually removed into the light, and the leaves and flowering 
stem will then bo developed with great vigour. After this 
there is nothing to guard against except too much heat and 
too great an absence of light; the former will cause the 
leaves to grow too rapidly, and to become what is techni- 
cally called dratrnt unless a much larger Quantity of direct 
wjlar light is permitted to act upon them tlian we can have 
the onportunity of procuring in the months when bulbs are 
forced. They should therefore be kept in a south window 
in a cool room, and never removed to the interior of the 
aptirtmctit until their flowers arc ready to unfold. 

\Vc have only to add a word or two upon the propagation 
of bulbs. Tliey generally multiply by fonning cloves in 
tlu* uxiU of their hculet ; sudi clows or young bulbs are in 
rcuiiiy \i\uU, and one such must exi»t in a rudimentary 
stale at the bavs of every scale [Buo^l. But it is only in a 
few M|Ks(:ics that more than two or three develop ; in the 
common garlic a larger number than u^ual i« constantly 
pi'(>fluc4*d. When the nun)b<*r naturally de\elopc<l is smalit 
thn multipliration of a ttew variety would be very iilow if 
ielt to the unuftsisted ofiurts of the parent plant ; a little 
simple appUeatioa vt the pnociples of vegetable physiology 



shows bowever the tt&tit)«r of inct^asing the number ^t 
cloves. The priticipal reason why bulbs sueh as hyacinth*, 
for instance, produce only two or three cloves is, that the 
powers of development inherent in the axillary buds cann't 
be called into action because of the exhaustion produced l)> 
the formation of a fine flowering stem ; if this be pre- 
vented, that sap which would otherwise be consumed I y 
the flowers is directed into the axillary buds, which thc^ 
become cloves or young bulbs in much larger num'H*;> 
than other>vise. Consequently the destruction of t ^^ 
flowering stem when quite young is the most effectual 
mode of forcing the bulb to produce young ones. 

BULGA'RIA, a province of European Turkey, now in 
eluded in the Ejalet of Rum-Ili. [Rum-Ill] 

BULrMIA (fiovXifiia), canine appetite* insatiable dc^^ire 
for food. The statement of the quantities of food consumid 
by some persons labouring under this disease is scarr«f!t 
credible, yet it rests on testimony the veracity of which tlierw^ 
is no reason to Question. In the third volume of the 'Me- 
dical and Physical Journal * an account is given, by Dr. 
Cochrane of Liverpool, of a man, placed under his own pT- 
sonal inspection, who, in one day, consumed, of raw o^ s 
udder, 4 pounds, raw beef 10 pounds, candles 2 pounds, n. 
all 16 pounds, besides 5 bottles of porter. M. Percy, a stjr- 
geon-in-chief to the French army, made a report to it. • 
National Institute of the case of a soldier who was in t';.- 
constant habit of devouring enormous quantities of bmkMi 
victuals, basketsful of fruits, and even living animaU; (':• 
details given of the quality as well as of the quantity of art 
cles consumed by this man, without ever satisfying his ra^v 
nous appetite, are too disgusting to be related. Dr. C- ', - 
land gives an account of two cases of this disease, %% In- 
occurred in his own practice in children, one seven } ear^ •> 
age and the other nine. ' In both these, but in the youn^vr 
especially, the quantity of food devoured was astonishinir. 
Everything that could be laid hold of, even in its raw state. 
was seized upon most greedily. Besides other articles a:. 
uncooked rabbit, half a pound of candles, and some butter, 
w&re taken at one time. The mother stated that this lit: . 
girl, who was apparently in good health otherwise, to k 
more food, if she could possibly obtain it, than the rvs.t . 
her fkmily, consisting of six besides herself. In both lb:-* 
and the other case the digestion seemed to be good. A 
nauseous smell emanated from the bodies. These children, 
who were both very intelligent, complained of no other ur.- 
easiness than a constant gnawing or craving at the p:t < : 
the stomach, which was never altogether allayed, but whui , 
shortly after a meal, impelled them irresistibly to devour 
everything that came in their way, however disgusting.* 

The real nature of the morbid condition of the stoma \i 
and of the system in this disease is very imperfectly kno\» i.. 
In several cases the health in other respects has Bp^yeaLrifi 
good, but in most cases there has been evident di»ea>e i 
various organs, and death has usually taken place &: 
an early age. On the examination of the body aitr.- 
death the stomach has commonly been fbund enorniou^S 
distended and sometimes misplaced; the duodenum and iK. 
rest of the intestines are usually in the samd state of di^ton 
sion ; the coats of all these organs are commonly thickentyl. 
and the valvulsD conniventes (the fblds of the inner or u\i- 
cous membrane of the intestines) as large as in camivori*j« 
animals. Various organic changes have at the same tintc 
been found in the mesentery and its glands, as well as .:: 
the liver, the pancreas and the spleen. 

There can be no question that most cases of this disea«' 
might be greatly mitigated, if not wholly removed, hy t* •* 
firm and constant restriction of the food to that quanti.t 
only which the wants of the systiem really require. Unle^n 
the individual have strength of mind to submit to the ni*cv> 
sary privation, or unless, in the case of children, a stea'N 
and undcviating restraint be imposed, every attempt to rv 
medy the evil will be vain. If a rigid regulation of the diet l>e 
enforced, the cure will be materially assisted by a course -l 
nauseating purgatives, as oil of turpentine rendered mon? 
active by castor oil. Several cases of great intensity h.i\e 
been completely cured by a steady treatment conducted on 
these principles. 

When inordinate appetite is merely the result of soir.c 
other unusual or morbid condition of the system, that u. 
when it is what is called symptomatic ; when, as i^ often 
the case, it is the consequence of great fatigue, or of inani 
tion, from long-continued acute disease, or of some malaUy 
attended with on extraordinary degree of secretion and ex 



B U L 



B U L 



cretion, and therefore witb the removal from the system of a 
proportionate quantity of its nutrient matter, the diseaae 
can be cured only by the restoration of the sylstem to its 
ordinary and sound state. 

BULI'MULUS, Leach's name for a genus of terrestrial 
molluscs, which he thus defines : — Shell univalve, free, coni- 
cally acuminated ; spire elevated, regular ; the last whorl 
very large ; mouth entire, lon^ ; pillar smooth, simple ; ex- 
ternal lip thin^ internal lip inflected towards the middle, 
with a hollow beneath. To this generic character the Rev. 
Lansdown Guilding observes that there should be the fol- 
lowing addition : * Tentacula 4, the two upper ones lung 
with terminal eyes : no operculum.* The last-named author 
observes that it differs from Bulimus in the delicacy of its 
outer lip. It is indeed ViButimus of Lamarck. [Bulimus.] 

Leach observes that Bulimulus tri/asciatus (Bulimus 
Guadalupenais, Brug.), a very common existing West In* 
dian species, occurs imbedded in the same limestone which | 
incloses the fossil human skeleton from the Grande Terre of' 
Guadaloupe, now in the British Museum. * Several skele- 
tons of men,* says Lyell (in the 3rd vol. of his * Principles 
of Geology,* p. 190, last edit.) *more or less mutilated, have 
been found in the West Indies, on the north-west coast of* 
the main land of Guadaloupe, in a kind of rock which is 
iLnown to be forming daily, and which consists of minute 
fragments of shells and corals, incrusted with ^ calcareous 
cement resembling travertin, by which also the different 
grains are bound together. The lens shows that some of 
the fragments of coral composing this stone still retain the 
same red colour which is seen in the reefs of living coral 
which surround the island. The shells belong to the neigh- 
bouring sea, intermixed with some terrestrial kinds, which 
now live on the island, and among them is Bulimus Guada- 
lupensis.' There is another human skeleton from the same 
rock in the Museum at Paris. Mr. Konig has published 
an interesting paper on the skeleton in the British Mu&eupi 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions.' 




[Bulimolm txifciciatiia*.] 

BULI'NUS or BULI'MUS, the name of a very extensive 
genus of terrestrial pulmoniferous molluscs. Lamarck 
arranges it under his Colimaces, a family of phytophagous or 
plant-eating trachelipods, respiring air by means of lungs, 
and protected by a spiral shell which is more or less elon- 
gated, oval, oblong, or turriculated, with an entire aperture 
longer than it is wide, and with a very unequal border, 
which is reflected in the adult. The columella is smooth, 
without any notch or truncation at the base, but with an 
inflexion in the middle at its point of junction with that 
part of the peristome which it contributes to form. De 
Blainville places it under the Limacinea^ his third family of 
Pulmobranchiata, whose organs of respiration are retiform, 
and line the cavity situated obliquely from left to right u{)on 
the origin of the back of the animad, communicating with 
the ambient air by means of a small rounded orifice in the 
right side of the border of the mantle. Some of the species 
were placed by Linnieus under his genera Bulla and IJelix. 
Scopoli and Bruguieres began the reform, and Lamarck 
carried it still further. But before we proceed, it may be 
necessary to say a word as to the origin of the term used to 
designate the genus. ' We constanUy hear,' says Broderip, 
in the 4th volume of the Zoological Journal, ' among con- 
chologists the question, what is the meaning of Bulimus ?' 
The author of the article entitled Lamarck's Genera of 
Shells, in the 15th volume of the Journal of Science, thus 
derives the word ' /SovXi^oc, insaHable hunger — ^what title 
this genus has to so strange a name we know not.* It may 
not then be unacceptable to give a plain statement of the 
origin of the word. Swainson observes {ZooL Illusi^ vol. i, 
Bulimus Melastomus) that * the genus Bulimus was long 
ago formed by Scopoli, out of the heterogeneous mixture of 
ihells thrown together in the Linntean genus Helix.' Let 
us now turn to Scopoli's account of the source whence he 
derived the name. ' Proprium,* says Scopoli, * itaque ex 
his coQStitao et duce celeberrimo Adansonio Buliiftos voco, 

• TIm ■hdl variM much in oolow. 



ut eo facilius adgnoscantur. Solam lestam nee animal in* 
habitans vidi, quod diversum esse iL Limace affirmat Adan« 
sonius.* (Delicicff, &c., p. 67.) Now Adanson has no such 
genus as Bulimus, but he has such a genus as Bulinus. 
At plate 1, fig* G 2, in his Natural History of Senegal, will 
be found ' Le Bulin, Bulinus,' but the letters * n and ' u are 
so confusedly engraven, that, at first sight, the word looks 
like BuUmus. In the text (p. 5), the word is printed 
Bulinus very plainly ; bui neither Scopoli nor any of his 
successors appear to have noticed it. Till the time of 
Lamarck, who confined the genus (still calling it Bulimus, 
after Scopoli and Bruguidres) to the land-shells with a re- 
flected lip, which now range under it, many land and fresh- 
water shells which have not a reflected lip, such as Achatince^ 
Phvsie, Limncsee, and Succinece, were also congregated 
under the name of Bulimus. The Bulinus of Adanson was 
a fresh-water shell, apparently a Physa or Limnsea.* 

The shell is never orbicular, as in the Helices^ but of the 
shape noticed at the commencement of the article ; the last 
whorl is always larger than the penultimate, and, indeed, as 
a general rule, may be stated to be larger than all the 
others put together. The mouth or opening is an oval 
oblong, and the border is disunited. The adult reflected 
lip or border on the right side is generally very thick, but 
this reflection is sometimes absent. The animal is very like 
that of Helix; De Blainville says entirely so {tout-afait 
semblable). The head is furnished with four tentacula or 
horns, the two largest of which are terminated by the so- 
called eyes. There is no true operculum. The geographical 
distribution of the genus is very general, and tb«re is 
scarcely a part of the world where the form does not occui . 
The great development of it takes place in the warmer 
climates, where some of the species are very large. 

The reproduction is by means of eggs, which are white 
and have a firm shell Hke those of birds : some of these eggs 
are of considerable size. The Bulini are androgynous, true 
hermaphrodites {Paracephalophora monoica of De Blain- 
ville), both the sexual organs heing distinct, but existing in 
the same individual, and requiring the union of two for the 
continuation of the species. Three eggs were laid by one 
of the snecies, Bulinus ovalis, from Rio in a hot-house in 
the garoen of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick. It 
was brought over in October, 1828, by Mr. William M'Cul- 
loch, then gardener to the Right Hon. Robert Grordon, and 
presented by him to the Society. At first it appeared 
rather sickly, but after it had been kept in the hot-house 
for some time, it recovered and began to move about. Mr. 
Booth, who was on the spot, says, ' It cannot now be cor- 
rectly ascertained when it produced the first egg, but it was 
very shortly after its arrival ; I should think fU)out the be- 
ginningof November. This egg was sent, by the desire 
of Mr. Sabine, to the Zoological Society. About the same 
time this year (1829), it produced a second egg, and, three 
weeks afterwards, a third; the latter was unfortunately 
broken by the animal itself, but the former is still in pre- 
servation. It fed upon lettuces and the tender leaves of 
cabbages; the former seemed to be its favourite food. 
Sometimes it would devour two large lettuces, and then 
remain for days afterwards without touching food or moving 
from its place, except when cold water was sprinkled upon 
it. During the day it was usually in a dormant state in the 
shade ; but towards the evening, when the house was moist 
and warm, it would spread itself out, and move from one 

Sart to another. It seemed to like moisture, and I have no 
oubt that it might have been preserved for years, if it had 
not been aoeidentally killed. On Saturday last it was at 
the end of the house where the fire comes in, and ventured 
too far upon the hot bricks after they had been watered. 
In the morning it was found fixed to them and quite 
dead.* * Bulinus ovalis, though it a good deal resembles 
Bulinus hiffmastoma, which is here figured, is considerably 
larger. 

The species are multitudinous. Mr. Cuming lately 
brought home numbers of new ones from South America, 
and we are indebted to that gentleman, who has just de- 
parted on another voyage which has for its object the collec- 
tion of subjects of natural history, for the following account 
of the habits of Bulinus rosaceus. In the dry season he 
always found the animals adhering to the under side of 
stones, generally among bushes, and close at the edge of 
the sea-shore, within reach of the spray at times. On the 
hills, about 1000 feet above the sea, they were observed ad* 

•^Zoologtcal lonmal, toL ▼. p> l^ 



B U L 

aanni! b««vMn tbe lower lemTC* of an aloe-like plant on 
^■iC booer ef vhoM Ilowpn the friant humniing-bird (Tru- 
dMw Gr>-j«) ferds. The natiTes burn don'n clumps of 
ttMse fJants Ivr the uke of the rings at the bottom of the 
Kvrtiialki «r the leaves, vhich thrj use for buoy ■ for their 
bkin^ neti and lor baking the coarse eanbenirare n-hich 
ibej make oo the hills, because this part of the plant, 
^rbea i)^tcd. throws out a E""* beM. Between these 
Wns tbe Bulini lie, in the dry season, in a torpid state. 
Id tbe sprin:; ((be months of September and Octobor), they 
burrow in \ht shadj places at the roots of IhU plant, and 
antoD^ the buihe* on the sea-shore. At Ibis period (the 
spHn»). tfaef Ujr their cges in the earth, about tffo inches 
beknr the surface, Mr. Cuming never saw them crawling 



8 B U L 

about. In the dr? season thej were evidently lybenuillnz. 
for tlieir parchment-like secretion, which opeiatcs in pi:..' 
of an operculum to seal up the animal, was stiongly form- ;, 
and they stuck lo the stones so tenacioniily that >!r. 
Cuming broke many of them in endcavourini; to pull ihf.^ 
off. Chill and the neij^hbouring coasts ot South Amcrvj 
Renerally were the localities where the species was tul.- ti 
Caplain Phillip Parker Kin^, R.N.. who described the ijiei-. i 
in the Zoological Journal,* has the following notice of il . 
power of the animal to e\ist in a dormant slate : — * S>- ' 
after the return of the expedition (his Majesty's shiiK A.J- 
vcnture and Beagle,— Siht(T/, 1826—30). my frieml >!: 
Broderip, to whose inspection Lieutenant Graves had su'- 
mitted his collection, observing symptoms of life in some >.: 





a. tlMtf! K,>lM«U'*^*U l>n>l<«>- ikawlBt Ilia foung uiiBal willi ilt 1 In Ilia IjrokMor SI, Vlnoi 
•IwU iBiiiii) c. 111. thaiofsjomf i™ joiljn«r«cluiion troin Ihs tgtl; ibcll ia icmilraiiipiiiiiit. bi 

BdiiltibelL Till •pKtm«i> Biund wen bimflil ham Tdnidsd. li ii foand I eotoand Dwutli. E'^dnmii 







B U l4 



10 



Q U L 



provet, tb&t, where 6t Paul speaks of justifieatson hj Mh, 
he intends the whole condition of the Gospel-covenant ; that 
the faith rea uircd imphes ohedience ; that it cannot he sepa- 
rated from obedience ; and that obedience is made necesMry 
to justification. The pubUcation raised much dispute among 
divines. Tho first open antagonist was Mr, John Truman, 
a Nun-conformist minister. Ur. Morley, bishop of Winches- 
ter, and Dr. Barker, the one from the divinity chair at Ox- 
ford, and the other, in a charge to his olergv, forbade the 
reading of the book, as a rash intrusion into things too high 
fur such discussion. Though, for a while, much prejudice 
was excited against our author, yet, when he published his 
answer entitled ' Examen Censurse,* and his ' Apologia,* 
his reputation increased, and the soundness of his view was 
gunc rally acknowledged. In testimony of his merit in this 
particular instance, L^rd Chancellor Finch presented him 
lo a prebend in the church of Gloucester. In 1685 he pub- 
lished his * Cunfcssio Fidei NicensD,' a work directed against 
the Anans and Sociuians. and Sabellians and Trithcists, by 
which he gained great celebrity both at home and abroad. 
In the same year in which he was preferred in Gloucester 
Cathedral, 1C7S, he received the rectory of Avening in 
Gloucestershire, from Philip Shepherd, Esq. ; and in the 
next year he was installed archdeacon of LlandafT, on the 
nomination of archbishop Sancroft, and about the same 
time was complimented with the degree of doctor of divi- 
nity by tho University of Oxford, for the service he had ren- 
dered the church in his * Defensio Fidei Nicenn.' In 1G9«4 
ho published his * Judicium EcclesisB CatholicsD,* in vindi- 
cation of the Anathema, as in his * Defensio * he had vindi- 
cated the faith established at the council of Nice, against 
K pi tropins. For this publication the thanks of the whole 
clergy of France were transmitted to him through Bossuet, 
hishop of Meaux. His last work, published hefore his death, 
was his ' Primitive and Apostolical Tradition, &c.* in which 
he proved, againat Daniel Zuicker, that the pre-existence 
and divine nature of our Lord was an apostolical doctrine. 
In 1704 he was nominated to the bishopric of St. David's, a 
promotion which he at first declined, alleging his years and 
infirmities ; but at length he gave a reluctant consent, and 
was consecrated at lAmbeth on the 29th of April, 1 705. His 
conduct a^ a bi:>hop, as well in the House of Lords as in his 
diocese, was such as to justify a belief that, had he been 
earlier advanced to that dignity, he would have been of 
signal use. Close application to study had impaired his 
health, and he expired on the 17th of February, 1709, and 
was buried at Brecknock. After his death his sermons 
were published by his only surviving son, in compliance 
with his directions. Perhaps no sermons have more of a 
primitive character than those of Bishop Bull ; none more 
clearly discriminate between primitive doctrine and modern 
error. Their great ' aim is to infuse into the hearts of 
C*hriatians right apprehensions of the doctrines of Christian- 
ity, and therefore ne dc^uceth tliem from Scripture, and the 
purest ages of the church ; and at the same time endeavours 
to make ^uch an iniprcs^ion upon their minds that they 
might pursue their duty with some warmth, which he doth 
Willi so much mure autnurity by how much it appeareth 
that he was affected himself with what he delivered to 
others.' Several tracts which it is said cost him mucb 
luWuur, were lost by his own neglect. His works, with a 
copious account of bis life and writings, were published bv 
Robert NeUon, E^q. His Latin works were collected, 
during his lifetime, into one volume folio, by Dr. Grabe. 
(Neisun, and liio^irayhia Bntaiinica.) 
BULL-DOG. FDoG.] 

BULL- FIGHTS, a \ery antient and barbarous amuse- 
ment, which, under difleient modifications, has descended 
tfi murium times, and is found in many of the countries of 
Kuro)>e, though the EngU&h form of it (bull-baiting) may 
almost lie i>aid to have gone out of fashion. 

Bull-fights were known to the antient Egyptians : and also 
to the Greeks mure than 300 years before Christ. TheThes* 
Kalians hod their regular festivals or days of bull-fighting. 
As the ThessaUans were celebrated for their skill in hurse- 
inan:»hip, it is probable their combats resembled those of the 
Spaniards, the mo»t celebrated of modern bull-fighters, and 
the only European people that have preberved the sport in 
its perl ect ion. The bull- fight, as we understand it, was not 
included in the games of the Roman amnhitheatres. It 
appear n to have been common among tho Moors, who are 
generally suid to ha\e introduced it with the djerid and 
oih«r equestrian wA wuiiikc spotts into Spain in the eighth 



ceatttiy. Thoosk dltgoaliiig fimm te maatiqr •! bload of 

buUs^ honet, and men that frequently flowi in the arena, a 
true Spanish bull- fight, like tiioae exhibited a| Madrid, 
Seville, Cadix, and the great cities of the south, is a gaUani 
and imposing spectacle. It has often been described in 
prose and verse. In the first canto of Lord Byron's Chikie 
Harold, there is a description of one at Cadix, which is not 
more poetical than it is correct. A few words in plain prose 
may convey some notion of the game, to which Spaniards 
of both sexes and of all ranks are passionately attached. 

The amphitheatre, or plaza de loros, in the gieat cities, is 
an extensive edifice partly built of stone and partly of wood 
it is open at top, with seats running round it and rising above 
each other* and is capable of aocommodating from 50U0 to 
10,000 spectators. The lower tier of seats is protected by a 
parapet, in front of which a very strong wooden fenoe» about 
6 feet high, is erected ; this fence runs (tike the seats) all 
round the arena, at the distance of from 1 2 to 20 feet from 
tlie lowest tier of seata. The ground-plan of the plaxa 
thus describes two circles. No. !• or the inner oirde, being 




the battle-ground, and No. 2, or the outer cixde, beiiiK the 
place where the men on foot take shelter when hard prei»M»d 
by the bull. To allow of the latter movement, openings 
just large enough to admit a man sideways are made in lite 
strong i^nce which separates the two circles. 

The actors on the arena are, first, the bull, which ought 
to be of the fierce Andalusian breed ; second, the picadores, 
or men who attack the bull on horseback; third, the ban- 
derilleros, who attend on the picadores, and are armed 
with sharp goads furnished with coloured streamers; 
fourth, the cbulos, or men witli glaring coloured cloaks* 
with which thev distract the hull's attention; and fifth, 
the matador, wno directs most of the movements, gives 
the bull his finishing stroke, and who, in reality, may 
be considered as the chief perfumer. Each matador, as 
well as each picador, has generally two chuloa attached to 
his person. When all is readv, thero is a Hourish of tnim* 
pets ; then the picadores with lances in rest caracole within 
the barricade, and the banderilleros and chulos, in their old 
Spanish and bespangled dresses, step lightly into the arena. 
'Hie trumpets sound again — the combatants take up their 
places, and all is quiet in the amphitheatro. Another 
flourish, and the holts of the hull-stall are withdrawn, the 
gate in the barrier is thrown open, and the spectators shout 
El tore I (the bull ?) who, if he be a good one, gets into the 
midst of the arena at a single hound. The picadores awsii 
his furious onset, their object being to wound him with the 
lance, and then give him the go-bv, avoiding tlie shock c>; 
his charge, which is sometimes fatal both to man and horsv 
Generally speaking, however, the Andalusian horses u««.d 
for the sport are thoroughly well in hand, and on the4t 
haunches, turning most nimbly on their hind legs ; and tU** 
men, by long practice, have such sure eyes and handis aaa 
are altogether so adroit, that any serious misfortune is tu be 
looked upon rather as an accident than as an ordiuar> 
result. When any picador is closely pressed, the footmen, 
both banderilleros and chulos, rush to his assistance, and. 
by nricking him with their darts, and waving their red, 
scarlet, and yellow scarfs before his eyes, nearly alwa>!» 
succeed in drawing oflf the bull's attention. These attacks 
and defences are repeated until successive wounds from the 
lance and the shorter goads of Uie banderilleros cause tlic 
poor bull's flanks and shoulders to stream with blood. At 
first these wounds madden him, hut the loss of blood aiui 
his furious exertions gradually weaken and dispirit hnu. 
In most approved bull-fights, at a certain stage, the pica* 
dores or horsemen withdraw, and leave the combat to the 
banderilleros, each of whom carries a banderiUa or goad, 
about two feet long, ornamented with a pennant, in each wi 
his hands, but no cloak or dazzling acari of any kind ou h.a 
arm. Thus armed, the banderillero runs up to the bull, and 
stopping short when he sees the animal s head loweted to 
attack him, he fixes the two shafts, without flingini^ then., 
behind the horns of the hull, at the very moment that ii u 
preparing to toss him. The pain thus oocasKMied mako 
the bull throw back his head aod lose his Uqw, oa vhwh 



B U L 1 

tiM DimUe-AxitBd tMndcriUero ntreats, one or bii eonndes 
comM up to the char^^, or & chulo throw* a cloak over the 
bull'i born*, and bo. by blindini: it, prevents the renewal of 
the cembkt for Mrao aeconds. Should the bandcnllero fail 
in fixing hi« darts, and ihould tho bull be still freth, he 
must rush to one of the openings left in the wooden Tenre, 
and creep into the outer circle. The nimblest of the ban- 
dsrilterot. inttnd of seeking the openinfr, which may he tiw 
distant (br them to make in face of the bull's horns, will lay 
theii- hands on the top of the fence and ipring over it ; and n 
line bull of the Iruo breed has sometimes been knoi»n to pro 
over alter them, clearing the six-feet fence as an English 
hunter takes a fin-bar gate. 

At length, bellowings of rage and pain, and tiii wavering, 
uncertain onsets, show that the poor bull's death is near. 
Then a great man in tbe privileged government boxes 
waves his handkerchief, and another flourish of trumpets 
gives tho signal to the matador to come forward and do his 
last office. Fbllowod by some chulos as auxiliaries and 
assistants, the matador advances with a red mantle, or a 

Eiere of red cloth attached to a short handle, in his left 
ami, and a long well-proved twonl in his right. He first 
of all drops on one knee in Iront of the royal or govemnient 
box, duff's his cap, asks permission to Snish the aOair, 
draws hts arm acroM bis breast to the right and left, throws 
down his cap a* a pledge that he must redeem, and then 
rises to do his work. The perfection of his perfonuance 
consists in this — he must wait the bull's ofaarge, his person 
being ijartially, and his loledo blade wholly, concealed bo- 
hind the extended cloak, and he must so receice the bull 
on its point that the sword shall penetrate up to the hilt in 
that pftrllcular part of the animal where neck and shoulders 
meet When this happens, the bull staggers for a sacond 
or two, and then drops in the midit of the enthuaiaaiic 
aho'Jts of men, women, and children. As soon as the bull 
is dead, and sometimes before, another blast of trumpets is 
beard, and four powerful and richly caparisoned mnlea, with 
large bella round their occks and harnessed a-hreaat, trot 
into the arena. Their traces are hooked to a cross bar, 
which is Bttaehed to the hull's horns ; trumpets are sounded 
and hands dapped, and away gallop the mmea, bull and all 
The barriers are again closed, and the lists ready for another 
exhibition of torture and blood. (See a very graphic amount 
in Madridin IS3J; see also Doblado's Letleri/nm Spain, 
and Townsend's very accurate and lively Tntoelt in Spain.) 
BULL-FROG. [Fboo.I 

BULLACE, the EngUsh 
prunus insiLtia of botanists, 
of llie sloe. 

BU'LLADjB, a family of r 
seem to a^ree in placing in tho vicinity of Aplytia or l,a- 
}<lytia, as It is more generally but erroneously written. 
Thus Lamarck ammges it among bis Gasteropods, between 
the Calyptracians on one side and the I^plysians on the 
other, making the family to consist of the three following 
genera, Aetra or Akera, Builaa, and Bulla. Cuvier finds 
a situation for it in his fourth order of Gasteropods, the 
Tceliliranchians (Monopleurobrancliians of De Blainville), 
which includes both Aplysia and Umbrella. De Blainville 
places il next but one lo bis Aplysians (his family Patet- 
loidea intervening) under the family Akera. the fourth of 
bis third order iMoaopieurobranchiala), of his second sub- 
class iParaeep/iahphtnv Monoica), of his second class (Para- 
eepftalophora.) 

Lamarok's Jcera and De Blainville'* Lobanii are identical. 
Lob ASIA.. 

Body onl-oblong, snbglobular, aBpearlng to be divided into 
four parts : one anlerior for the nead and thorax, one on 
each side for the natatory appendages or fins, and one 
paatctlor tbr the viMSra. The anterioT fleshy disk termi- 
nalea in an approach to a point near the middle of the body ; 
the branchin covered by the mantle are so posterior that 
they seem to be almost at the extremity of the body, and 
below them would bo the analogous situation for tho shell, 
of whloh tiiere i> not even a rudimentary trace. Acera 
eamma. Lam. ; Bulla eamo*a, Cuv. ; Lobaria ramota, 
Blatnv., an EutoMan species, is the only example known ; 
but De Bltinville observes that it nay perhaps approach 
the small InoompMely known moUusk on which MM. Quoy 
and Gaimard have founded ttwir genus Triplire, and which 
is Bgured in the atlaa of the voyage of the Uranie. Rang 
eonauters thia cpinieB to be I 'wweco a , Ibr b* daalana diat 



le of a kind of plum, the 
s probably a mere variety 



le moUusks, which authors 



the Triplire of Qnoy and Gaimard evidetitly belongs to 
the genus Cleodora. 



BULLSA. 

Lamarck BMigned this name to thoee of the family whinh 
have the shell entirely bidden in the substance of the 
mantle. This shell is very open and delicate, and can 
hardly be said to have more than the first rudiment of the 
rolied-up form which is in Bulla carried to greater per- 
fection. BtiUara aperta, Lara. iHullaa Planaana, Lam. in 
the early edition of the SysL des Anim. sans Vert.) Amtff^- 
dala marina (Amande de mer). Plane. Bulla aperta, Lin., 
Bulla aperta and Lobario quadrilnba of Gmelin, which is 
found in almost all seas, generally on sandy bottoms, will 
serve for an example. The animal is whititib, more than 
an inch in length, and, as Cuvier obsorves, the fleshy shield 
formed by the vestiges of the Tenlocula, the lateral borders 
of tho loot, and the mantle occupied by the shell, seem to 
divide it into four portions, whence Gmelin's term quadri- 
lobii. The shell is delicate, while, semitransparent, and 
consists almost entirely of aperture. The stomach or 
giizard is armed with three very thick rhomboidal bones or 
rather shelly p' 





tB.llH.pilta.] 
[; 1. itdeKgo. Ihn tu[1il; 3. the I 



Bullma has been found at a depth ranging from near the 
surface to 12 fatboms. Mr. W. Clark found three English 
species, two of them {Bulkea catena ond B. punclala) at 
Exmoulli and Torquay in pooli at the time of the lowest 
springtides; and a third [BiiHiea pruinosa) by dredging 
offBudleigh Salterton. The depth is not mentioned, hut 
it is probable that it was considerable, for the author says 
that it is rare, and only oorasionally to be procured by deep 
ilredging seven or eight miles from the shore. The tlrst of 
Mr. Clark's species, which is Bulla catena of Montagu, 
had a testaceous gizzard, but the gizzards of the other two 
were unfurnished with shelly appendaces. (See Mr. Clark's 
description, Zool. .loum. vol. iii. p. 337.) G. Sowerby, when 
speaking of the use of the shelly pieces and iheir powerful 
adductor muscles, states that the animal of Bullcea aperta 
il sometimes distorted fay having swallowed entire a eorhuitt 



C3 



B U I, 1 

mieUtu, which m a nry thick and ttnag iliell, neulj 
equal in liie to iUelf. 

Dc Blninville taj» at this genut that he cbarmcteri*es it 
■omcnhat iliffenntly from Lainarek, wtio calabliihed rt, and 
«ho only placet under it the Acirei (AMrata), wboaa ihell 
i* internal ; but aa De Blainville conndere the animal to 
ba oTlhe Arat coniequence, he diatinguiabes under the name 
at BulliBa thoM apcclei which, whether their ihell be cx- 
lernai or interna), have the foot thickeat and not dilated 
into Dktatoiy appeodaKea, havini^, in fact, habita different 
from the BuUm, accordinff to hia acceptalion of the term, 
which awim vmj well aod neep -nrj badly. Be dividet 
Sulliea into 

lit. Thoae apectea which have an iotemal shell Tery in- 
completely Tolled up without Bpire or columella, and aelects 
•• his example Bulltea aperia, the ipeeiet flf^ured above. 

2nd. Those tpeciea whose shell is internal and very incom- 
pletely rolled up, with a columella and alveolar spire {tpire 
rmlree), and gives aa an example Bulla ampulla. 

3nl. Sprain whose shell is internal, the lateral lobes rir- 
rbous and more developed, and civet as an example Fe- 
matac's BulUra (Quoy et Gaimard), here figured from the 
Atlaa Zoologiqne of the voyage of the Uranie. 



[r<nHc'( Bnnin.] 

In the • Additions and Corrections' to his Malacolopie. 
De Blainville sajs that, in studying more altcniirely (he 
species of these two genera, it seems to him that the grrater 
part would be better placed under Bulla than under BuUaa, 
uhero he would leave only the species which serves for the 
type, and another lately brought from the seas of New Hol- 
land by Quoy and Gaimard. He then proposes an en- 
tirely new arrancement into seven groups represented by 
the fullowing |;enera: 1. BuUina (HuUint) of Ferussac, 
with n projerting spire (example Bulla Lajonkairiana, 
Bast.) 2. Aplutlre (Sebum.) 3. Bulla. 4. Atyt. (Montf.) 
5, The form represented by Bulla/Togilu. 6. Scaphandrr 
(Montr.), which it BiUla tignaria. 7. Bulkea (Um.). 
SoMfirua. 

Cuvier observea that this Tonn approaches very closely 
to that of his BullEem, but lie adda that he does not find 
•uflirient certainty in the imperfect materials sITorded by 
Adanson, to enable him to found either a genus or even a 
Hpecies on tbera. De Blainville plam it aa a genus next 
to Lobaria, but his description and Agure are taken from 
Adanson, and he is obliged to add (hat it ia established 
upon an animal ' assei incompUtement connu.' We give 
Adansun'a figure, but we do not think any saliafactory in- 
ference can be drawn from it aa to the position which Sor^ 
melut should bold among the testaceous molhisoa. 




Besides tho tnio Butlade, the heterogeneous Bulla of 
Linnnus compriaed some of the Phyia and Achalinte, and 
of the Ofidu, TfTtbfUa, PyniUr, &c. : in short, the genus 
comprised animals of entirely diflerent organiiatiiin : ter- 
Ratriul and marine testacea — the furmer breathing sir and 
the latter respiring water— were there placed side by side. 
J^mank retains the name (and Cuvier seems to adopt bis 
■rrange-nent) fur tho species whose slietl cover«d by a slight 
vpidennis u sufficiently large to aflbrd a retreat to the 



! B U L 

animal, and is more perfectly nlled op than th» ahet) of 
Bulltea. Laraarok describes the shell of hia Bulla as rom* 
pleiely rolled up (enroulh), showing itself constantly un- 
rorerod. It ia, generally speaking, only partially envclope-j 
by the animal, which can retreat into it almost eniir«)T. 
hat no distinct columella nor any true spire, unless indnil 
that terra be applicable to the apex of Bulla Jragitit, whicli 
we now proceed to describe. Its shell is ovate-oblong, vrry 
thin and fragile, of a horn colour, with very small trans- 
verse strin. and the apex ritei into the mdiment of a pro- 
jecting spire. 




Lamarck says that it inhabits the Enghsh obannel (La 
Mancbe), near Nantes and Noirmoutiers. We now pn) 
cced to give an example of those speciea which while thr? 
have a little more solidity than Bulla Jragitit are stall very 
delicate and rtngile in their texture. 



[BnlU VtlamJ 

The shell is very delicate, of a very light hom-oolnur 
when in fine condition, with a snow-white band aboiil tin- 
middle, bordered on each side with a broad dark-LrowTi 
one ; the apex and bace are while, both bonjered with dark- 
brawn bands. There has been some confusion about It:iF 
shell. Lamarck refers to the figure of il for his or ratbit 
Bruguiirea' Bulla /ata'ola, but we do not tee why Gmel:n'j 
name should be changed. Bom figures it as B. omplutir- 
of the Systema Nulurie. which is a diflerent shell, and h 
described by LinnEeus as having red hands. Bulla rWur-: 
is said to he Oriental, 

As an example of the more solid j^uf/or, we take the wi-:i- 
known species Bulla nmpulla. The shell is ovate oni! 
Eubglobose, beautifully mottled with while, p)iim-roli>i;r. 
and redrlish. Instead of a spire there is an umbilical alMM- 
lus. Lamarck gives ds a locality both the Indian ai. I 
American oceans; Deshnyes, the European ocean and il.- 
Indies. The fine apecimens which we have seen wi-nr 
slulcd to have been Oriental. 



A nlnnr. tlw >brT1 h 



B U L 



14 



B U L 



eessaiy befbro t!ie Urd acquires what amateurt cdl firm- 
x>efl8 ; for if one ceases before this time, tbey murder the air 
by suppressing or displacing the different parts, and they 
oflen forget it entirely at their first moulting. In general 
it ts a good thing to separate them from the other birds, 
even alter they are perfect, because, owing to their great 
qtuckness in learning, they would spoil the air entirely by 
infroducmg wrong passages ; they most be helped to con- 
tinue the song when they stop, and the lesson must always 
be repeated whilst they are moulting, otherwise they will 
become mere chatterers, wbich would be doubly yexatious 
after having had much trouble in teaching them/ The 
translator adds to this that he does not recommend the 
employment of bi id-organs for instruction, because thev are 
rarely accurate, and their notes are harsh and discoraant ; 
fbr bullfinches repeat the sounds exactly as they hear them, 
whether barsh or false, according to the instrument used. 
' The good and pure whistling of a man of taste,* he further 
observes, ' is far preferable ; the bird repeats it in a soft, 
flute-like tone.* When one cannot whistle well, he recom- 
mends the use of a flageolet. 

In oorroboratton of this, the Hon. Datnes Barrington, In 
his interesting letter to Dr. Maty, then (1773) secretary of 
the Royal Society, detailing experiments and observations 
on the singing of birds, states that, though many of them 
are capable of whistling tunes with our more gross intervals, 
as is well known by the common instances of piping bull- 
finches and canarv-birds, this arises from mere imitation of 
what they hear when taken early from the nest ; for if the 
instrument from which they learn is out of tune, they as 
readily pipe the false as the true notes of the composition. 
And he adds, that as birds adhere so stedfastl v to tne same 
precise notes in the same passages, thougn they never 
trouble themselves about what is called time or harmony in 
music, it follows that a composition may be formed for two 
piping bullfinches, in two parts, so as to constitute true har- 
mony, though either of the birds may happen to begin or 
stop when they please. He procured such a composition hj 
Mr. Zeidler, which he sent with his letter, remarking that it 
need scarcely be observed that there cannot possibly be 
much variety in the part of the second bullfinch. Slaney, 
on the information of a fHend, states that the bullfinches 
imported firom Germany have been chiefly taught to sing by 
weavers whilst at work at their looms, which is said to ac- 
count for the birds beginning to sing when the head of a 
person standing before him is moved backwards and for- 
wards. A single air with a short prelude is generally as 
much as the bird can learn and remember ; but Bechstein, 
who asserts this, allows that there are some of them which 
can whistle distinctly three different airs, without spoiling 
or confusing them in the least. In truth, as the same au- 
thor observes, there are different degrees of capacity among 
the bullfinches as well as in other animals. One young 
bullfinch learns with ease and quickness, another with diffi- 
culty and slowly ; the former will repeat without hesitation 
several parts of a song ; the latter will hardly be able to 
whistle one after nine months* uninterrupted teaching. 
Those birds which learn with most difficulty are said to 
remember the songs, when once learnt, better and longer, 
and rarely forget them even when moulting. To these 
attractive qualities of the bullfinch must be added its obe- 
dience and capability of strong attachment, which it shows 
by a variety of little endearing actions ; and it has been 
known even to repeat words with an accent and tone indi- 
cative of sensibility, if, as Bechstein obser^'es, one could be- 
hove that it understood them. Of its attachment the fol- 
lowing are instances :— Buffon asserts that tame bullfinches 
have been known to escape Arom the aviary, and live at 
liberty in the woods for a whole year, and then to recollect 
the beloved voice of the person who had reared them, re- 
turning, never more to leave her. Others, when forced to 
leave their master, are said to have died of grief. They 
well remember an injury. One of them having been thrown 
down, cage and all, bv some low people, did not seem at first 
much disturbed by tdc fall, but adcrwards, when it saw a 
shabbily-dressed person, it fell into convulsions, and died in 
one of those fits eight months after the first accident A 
bullfinch belonging to a lady was subject to frightful dreams, 
under the pressure of which it would fall from its perch and 
beat itself in the cage ; but no sooner did it hear the affec- 
tionate voice of its mistress than, notwithstanding the dark- 
ness, it t>ecame at onoe tronquil, and mounted its perch to 
•leap again. Btiflbn's itory of the return of the escaped 



bullfinch IS corroborated by the amiable qualities aseribed to 
it by Bechstein, for he says that, among other feats, it may 
be accustomed to go and return, provided the house is not 
too near a wood, and that the surest means of preventing* 
too long an absence is to put a female bullfinch in a cage m 
the window, or to leave her in the room with her wing 
clipped ; when the affection of the male will soon bring him 
iNiek to her, nor will he ever abandon her altogether. Our 
limits will not permit us to dwell longer on the manners of 
this interesting little bird in captivity, and we must refer 
the reader for such information and the mode of treatment 
to Bechstein*8 'Cage Birds* above referred to. Several 
hundreds of taught birds, we may observe, are annually sent 
to Berlin, London, and other capitals, by the German' bird- 
sellers, and form a small article of commerce, at a price 
varying from one to several pounds sterling a piece, ac- 
cording to the merits of the bird. The time of toe arrival 
of these merchants in London is April or May. 

Food. — In a state of nature the bullfinch feeds on pine 
and fir seeds, corn, linseed, millet, rape and nettle seea« all 
sorts of berries, and the buds of most trees, among which 
those of the oak, beech, pear, plum, cherry, and gooseberry 
are favourites. Bewick says that in the spring it frequcuts 
gardens, where it is usefullv busy in destroying the woi-ms 
which are lodged in the buds. Busy it is ; but we are com- 
pelled to add that its utility, to the norticulturist at least is 
no longer questionable. In its devastation it may now and 
then, and no doubt does find a worm in a bud ; but its object 
is the bud, not the worm. ' They feed most willingly uptm 
those buds of trees which break forth before, indeed ate 
pregnant with, the leaves and flowers, especially tbo«e uf 
the apple-tree, pear-tree, peach-tree, and other garden trees ; 
and by that means bring no small detriment to the gar- 
deners, who therefore hate and destroy them as a great 
pest of their gardens, intercepting their hopes of fruit. 
Such is Willugtiby's verdict ' I have known,* says Selby, 
' a pair of these birds to strip a considerable-sized plum-trpc 
of every bud in the space of two days. These buds are not 
swallowed whole, but first minutely divided by the tomia oi 
the powerful bill.' ' Its delight, obser\'es Mr. Knapp in 
his interesting and liN'ely * Journal of a Naturalist* * is in tl-.e 
embryo blossoms wrapped up at this season (spring) in tl)« 
bud of a tree ; and it is very dainty and curious in its choice 
of this food, seldom feeding upon two kinds at the same 
time. It generally commences \iith the germs of our larvvr 
and most early gooseberry ; and the bright red breasts oS 
four or five cock birds, quietly feeding on the leafless bush, 
are a very pretty sight ; but the consequences are ruinous 
to the crop. When the cherry buds begin to oome forw aM. 
they quit the gooseberry, and make tremendous ^avoc wiili 
these. I have an early wall cherry, a may-duke by reputa- 
tion, that has for years been a great favourite with the bull- 
finch family, and its celebrity seems to be communicated to 
each successive generation. It buds profusely, but i^ an- 
nually so stripped of its promise by these feathered rogur^ 
that its kind might almost bo doubted, llie Orleans and 
green-gage plums next form a treat, and draw their atttn- 
tion from what remains of the cherry. Hanng banqueted 
here a while, they leave our gardens entirely, resorting to 
the fields and hedges, where the sloe-bush in April fur- 
nishes them with food.' 

iVe^/.— Bewick places it in bushes, and says that it i<( 
composed chiefly of moss, — Bechstein in the most rcfirt'd 
part of a wood, or in a solitary quickset hedge, adding that 
it is constructed, with little skill, of twigs whiclk aie covered 
with moss. Graves says that it is mostly found in the 
thickest part of a black or white thorn bu^, and that it i% 
composed of small twigs and moss, and is lined with soft 
dry fibres. Temminck states that it builds in the elevated 
and least accessible forks of trees (dans les enfourchemeni 
dlev^s et les moins accessibles des arbres). Mr. Rennte 
observes, that he is at a loss to conceive on what anthiH^t) 
Montbeillard describes the nest as consisting of moss, lir.<<<l 
with soft materials, with an opening said to be the leas: 
exposed to the prevailing wind ; and no less why If. Tem- 
minck says * it builds in the most elevated and least acre^- 
sible forks of trees ;' and he quotes Latham as dcrlanm: 
that the bird rarely uses moss, observing that he has seer « 
considerable number of the nests, and nearer found an« r{ 
the circumstances stated by Montbeillard and Temmirkrk 
hold good ; and that he * sometimes found them in k « 
thick bushes, but most oommonly on the flat bnuieh of a 
spruce pine or silver fir,* usually about four foet fh>c& itc 



B,U I, 



15 



B U L 



ground, (tnd Mmetimm lower. He U incUiMd to My ibmX 

tiie bird never uae* moid. Belhj agrees with Rennia, gene- 
rally inealLiiig, ind detcrlbes the neat as «ha)bw and furiucd 
of aniall itiuks, lined with a few root-Sbrei in a low tree. 
in Ibe thickest underwood j and lo doe* Jenyni, who places 
it generally in thick buibet, and lays that it is composed of 
dry twi);a and lined with fibrous roots. These discrepanuica 
may peihapi be accounted for by difference of looalily and 
oircumstaaces, for we know hov bird* will modify their 
selection of mateiiali in conformity thereto. The eggs are 
generally four or five; Temminck says from three to six, 
but in this country the number is usually four, of a bluish- 
vfhite, speckled and streaked with purplish or pale orange- 
brown at the larf>e end, and rather obtuse. The young are 
generally hatched in May or the beginning of June, and 
there are frequently two broodt in a year. Time of incuba- 
tion Bfteen dayi. 

Geographical dittribtttion. — Theipeciea is widely spread. 
They ore common in most parts of northern Europe, ex- 
tending into Russia and Siberia : in the south of Europe 
thoy occur only as birds of passage. They ore said to winter 
in Italy. Gemer says that about the Alps the bird is called 
Franguel laveroengk — that is ' winter finch.' Bonapurte 
notes it as 'mro, d'invemo, Awentiiio' near Rome, Thun- 
berg long ago said that the common bullfinch was found in 
Japan, and this ia corroborated by Dr. de Siebohl. for it is 
one of the European species which ho found in that country. 
The bird is particularly common in the mountainous forests 
of Germany ; and it is from Cologne and other spots, 

■ Whne Rhcnoi ■lia;i hii vlnM aBoog,' 
that the market for piping-hull finches is principally sup- 
plied. Berhstein mentloua that there are schools for these 
little musicians in Hesse and Fulda. and at Woltershauscn 
near Gotha. With us the bullfinch is a constant resident. 

Description. — Male : length about six inches and three- 
Quarters, two inches and three-quarters being taken up by 
tne tail, which is rather forked, and of a lustrous black, shot 
as it were with iron blue. Bill sis lines in length, short, 
thick, and black. Bhanki eight lines high, and black. 
Ihdesofa cbesmut Qok>ur. Crown of the head, oircle round 
the bill, and upper part of the throat of the lame hue with 
the tail. Nape, back, and shoulders deep grey, or rather 
bluish-grey. Oheeka, neck, brsait, beliy (to tne centre of 
it), and flanks red. Rqmp and vent white. Qreater wing- 
coTerts tipped and marfioed vith a French or pinkish- 
white, tbrming a tmuverM bar icrois the wing. 



[Pyillull Valllrii. Ual*.*! 

Pratdfc.— Somewhat less than tho male, and of a reddish- 
Ewy where be is red : back brownish-grey : feet brownish- 
Hack. The colours generally less bright than In the male. 

* III piDvinriil nuiKi ITS Miink. I^in, C<nllia»l, Cully lionl. IIiwp, 
Tony iBop, Alp, No,w. V<u Drl^i'* opinion (In hit rulloclilluli) lUl Ilia 
oullODCh li iha rvtuXlrud luXuyaipafi aUhr tintti; \uii ant tkaami- 
"wt ihcnoii, H Bunctr. Tb* ' iiutnla' lo tlw (imU Vb, IW, mnlwi 
U* bnlUiBli kj ilflitHa tgip. 



Young f^tha ytar. — At first ub-colbur. with wing* and 
tail of blackish-brown ) afterwards more hke the female till 
the autumnal moult) but the young males may always be 
known by the greater tinge of rad about the breoat. 

Varieties.- — 1. fliirft.— This variety may be produced 
artificially by feeding the bird entirely on hempseed. in 
which case a change of diet vill often produce the true 
colours, Bechstein says it will arise from being kept when 
young in a totally dark place ; and that females, either from 
age or from the diet above-mentioned, are most subject to it 

2. White. — This is merely an albino of an ashy or dusky 
white, or oreara-colour . the parts which are generally black 
are more shaded than the rest. There ii a specimen from 
Midilleiox in the British Museum. 

3. Speckled or faHe^a (erf.— Spotted with black and white, 
or while and ash-colour, besides the natural hues. Sclby 
hays that Captaiu Mitford killed one, of which both the 
wings were white. 

4. Bechstein mentions varieties under the name of the 
Large Bull/inch, about the size of a thruih. and the mid- 
dting or common. He treats the dinar/ variety, which is 
said to be not so large ai a uhsfTinch, as a bird-catcher's 
story ; for he observes that this difference oF size occurs in 
all kinds of birds, and says he has had opportunities every 

tear of seelnj; hundreds both wild and tama, and adds, th.-it 
e has even found in the same nest some as small as rod- 
breoits, and others oi large as a crossbill. 
HvHH.ns. 

1. The offspring of ,i female reared in the house from the 
neet, and of a mulu canar)'. In shape and colour the hybrid 
partakes of the hues of the parents. Beeh!,tein states that 
its note is very agreeable, and softer than ihat of the canary, 
and that the bird is very scarce, aa the union rarely succeeds. 
When tried, a very ardent and spirited canary nhould bo 

2. The offspring of a bullBnch and female canary. Tho 
translator of Bechstein's interesting little book says, that 
the sexes above-mentioned once produced five young ones, 
that died on a journey which they could not liear. Their 
large beak, and the blackish down with which tliey were 
covered, showed that they were more like their father than 
mother. 

Asiatic Species. 
Of these we select Pyrrhula S^noica as an example. Tlie 



Pjnhida Bfiuik*. UppxIlgiinBiki lonrlfaebMsl*, 



BVh 1 

ftduU mftls U ornamented round the bate of the bill with 
e circle of rich red. going off in epoti upon the cheeki. 
The front ii covered with imeU luitrou* vbitc feetheni. ol 
a lilvery white, liirhily ihedeil upon the borders wiUi ic) ; 
ell the lower parti of the bodf. the inferior roverti of tlic 
tail and the rump are of a hntltant roie-colour, or clear 
carmine ; the upper parts are aih-colourcd. iighlly tinned 
with rose : winn and tail brown, with aih-coloured bordem. 

liie female ii browD, of ft light bruwn or earlh-colour 
above, with longitudinal linee of deeper brown upon eacli 
Teilber. The lower parti are of a very cle,ir brown oi 
Iiabeila-colour, with longitudinal itnoofa «omewhat deepei 
brown upon the middle of the feathen. The tail is ilighlli 
notched at the end. and the bill and feet in both sexei art 
of a clear brown. Length about i inchm and S-Sthi. M 
Hemprich found Ihii ipeciei near Mount Sinai, in Arabia : 
and there are ipecimeni in the muieums of the Pays-baa 
and of Berlin. Temminck, from whole work the Hgui 
and deiwription are taken, thinks it poiiihle thnt ' the boc 
bullfinch' may be found some day in the islands of t 
Grecian Arehipelago, and that it may easily pass in 
mifirations the arm of the sea between Asia and those ialei. 

Temminck received tui specimen from Professor Ucbten- 
slein ; and it was one of the discoveriei of the traveller* 
t long ago by the King of Pruisia into Egypt with 



a view of obtaining objects of natural history. 

A (pecies from the Himalaya mountains, i_ 
IJtracepAala, figured in Mr. Gould's beautiful work, comes 



Pyrrhula Ery- 

ul work, comes 
near to the cotamon bullfinch of Europe except in the form 
of the tail, which is decidedly forked, while in the European 
it ii nearly eren There is a specimen of Porrhula Ery- 
throcephala in thu British Museum, and another in that of 
the Zoobgieal Society. 

AraiCA.'« Sfbcizs. 

We select Pyrrhula Gigalhinea. This apeciei is charac- 
lerited by a very thick bill, and a slightly notched tail. The 
colours of the sexes do not vary gcoatly. In the mate a 
^reyiih colour tinted with bright rose covers all the lower 
parts of the body, the throat, and the circle round the bill ; 
this lint ii palest on the throat The crown of the head h 
pure ash-colour, and vx Btby brown is spread ove; the n^-pc, 



'"j^^V.S.-^ 



[ B UL 

the back, and the wing-eoverto. A faint roae-eckinr tiofn* 
the plumage of the rump and the edge* of the quilln and 
mil-feathers, all of which are bordered towirds the ertd mlb 
whitish upon B black ground. The twomiddle quills are the 
shortest. The wings reach to the extremity of the tjil- 
feathers ; and the hill is of a One red. Length tbnr incbe* 

The fetnate baa no roay tint except on the edge* of iIm 
(juills and tail-feathers, and on the rump, where it is very 
taint. The upper part* are of an Isatwlla-brown, and the 
wings edged with a brighter tint of the same. The circle 
round the bill and the throat are ash-coloured; the loart 
parti of a pure Isabella- colour ; and the middle of the bully 
wbile. Bill same as in the male. 

This bird ii figured in the great French work on Egyft 
(plate 5, fig- 8), uid was lately lent home hy the Germkn 
travellen to the north of Africa. It inbabita Egj'pt snd 
Nubiu. There are ipecimena in the Berlin miueum, atiil 
in those of the Payi-bat and of Frankfort. 

AiiKKtCAN Sfbciu. 

We take Pyrrhula Cinertota as an example. HeaJ. 
cheeks, hack, and Kapulars ashy-bluish, wings and tail 
darker, but alt the feathers of those parts are bordered wi:li 
asb-coiour. There is a small white spot on the winu. fumm! 
by the white towardi the base of the quilli, beginning uiih 
the fourth ; the three Gr^t have no white. All the Iuaci 
parts are white, with the exception of the Banks, wbirli tie 
clouded with ash-colour. Bill comt-red, very strong, \irpi. 
and as it were swollen (bomb£). Feet aih-coloured. Len^''.h 
i\ mcUes, lohAbits Bruil, where it is said tobeKunm^n. 



/flS,1' 



BULLIARD, PIERRE, a botanist, wai born at Aulr 
pierrc-en-Barroii, about the year 1742, and studied at i!. 
college of Langres, where he early displayed « Usio f,: 
natural history. After bis preliminary educalkin wai fitii-di*-; 
a situation wai obtained for him in the abbey of Clair>m:\ 
where he found time to prosecute his favourite studin: i:ij 
though he aflerwardi removed to Paris, with a victr losfr ' 
to meilicino as a profossion, his zeal fur natural bistori .i. 
(Tucedbiui to devoto himself entirely to this subJccL B,.-.; 
previously an able draughtsman, he non learnt to cncd. '. 
and in 1774 published the ' Flora P.irisicnsii.' 6 vols. j\ , 
the figure* being drawn, engraved, and coloured by hiin-> . 
In I77B he published ' Aviceptologie Frau^aiie, ou Tr.<:i 



B U L 



X7 



B U L 



g6n6ral des toutes les rases dont on- peut se servir pour 
prendre les Oiseaux/ Paris, 1 vol. 12mo., reprinted in 1796. 
In 1779 he commenced his largest work, entitled ' Herbier 
de la France,* the first division of which, comprising 
* L*Histoire des Plantes v^n£neuses et suspectes de la 
France,* while in the course of publication in the form of 
numbers, was seized by the police, under the pretext that 
it was a dangerous work. More than 500 copies Were 
seized ; and it was not till after the lapse of seven months 
that the author was able to recover his property. Even 
then only thirty-seven copies were restorea to him. This 
volume is therefore extremely rare, and its very existence is 
to many unknown, owing to the second division, or 'L'His- 
toire des Champignons,* bearing on the title-pago the words 
' Tome premier,' though it did not appear till 1790. The 
remaining six volumes contain only plates, principally of 
fungi, of which one livraison appeared annually, each 
containing 48 coloured plates* making in all A76 ; but at 
the end of the eighth volume are 24 plates, to which how- 
ever there is no reference in the index of that volume. 

This work was discontinued, owing to the death of the 
author in 1793. The letter-press in the first two volumes 
is not now of much value; but the plates of flowering 
plants are in general good, and have, in many instances, 
received the commendation of De Candolle : those of the 
Aingi are frequently cited not only by the botanists of 
Frauce, but by all writers on European fungi. It is to be 
regretted, however, that several inaccuracies in numbering 
the plates have in many instances led to confusion and error : 
a corrected index to the whole work would, by counteracting 
the effects of such inaccuracies, be of great utility. A second 
part of the work appeared at Paris in 1832, entitled ' Figures 
des Champignons, servant de Supplement aux Planches de 
Bulhard. peintes d^apr^ Nature, et lithographi^es par J. B. 
JLetellier/ in small folio, six cahiers, containing the plates 
from 603 to 638. 

BuUiard published also, in 1783, ' Dictionnaire Elemen- 
taire de Botanique,* Paris, in folio, with two plates. It was 
reprinted in the same form in 1797, and again, having been 
revised and remodelled by L. C. Richard, in 1779, in 8vo.; 
and subsequently, with many additions by the same emi- 
nent botanist, in 1802. 

BuUiard was the inventor of the art of printing plates of 
natural history in colours, and he employed it in all his 
works. 

BULLION, a term which is strictly applicable only to 
uncoined gold and silver, but which has been frequently 
used in discussions relating to subjects of public economy 
to denote those metals both in a coined and an uncoined 
state. 

Among the earliest notices of the estimation in which the 
precious metals were held we find (Genesis, chap, xii.) that 
Abraham was * rich in cattle, and in silver, and in gold.* 
For the field which he bought as a burial-place for Sarah 
he gave 400 shekels of silver, not in coined money, but ' by 
weight, according to the currency of the merchants.* (Gen. 
ch. xxiii.) Joseph, the descendant of Abraham in the third 
generation, was sold by his brethren for thirty pieces of 
silver ; which makes it probable that silver bullion was then 
divided into pieces of known weight and fineness, answering 
the purposes of coin, if indeed this money was still uncoined. 
Frequeot mention is made in the book of Kings of the gold 
of Ophir, a large amount of whicJi was procured by Solomon 
for ornamenting the interior of the temple. The statements 
of Herodotus and other Greek and Roman writers con- 
cerning the amount of the precious metals possessed by 
some individuals are mixed up with so much that is im- 
probable, that it is hardly possible to draw from them any 
certain conclusions. The supply of gold and silver in those 
daytf^ appears to have come from various quarters. Asia, 
Sgypt, >«ubia« Ethiopia, Thrace, and Spain, are said to 
have yielded the greater part. Little more than conjec- 
ture can be offered as to the amount of bullion which in 
those remote times was annually added to the stock in 
Europe. 

The discovery of the mines in America did not at first 
add materially to the stock of bullion in Europe. Humboldt 
has estimated ' the amount which America furnished to 
Europe in the years 1492 to 1521 at 52,000/. per annum. 
During the 25 years that succeeded the conquest of Mexico 
in 1521, the annual supply, as estimated by the same 
authority, was 630,000/., making a total addition of about 
17,000,000/. sterling in the course of 54 years. At the end 



of this period, 1546, the silver mines of Potosl were Ais* 
covered, and added very considerably to the produce of the 
American mines. In 1539 some gold mines had been 
opened in Chili ; and the average annual supply of gold 
and silver to Europe from all these sources during the 54 
years from 1546 to the end of the 16th century has been 
estimated at rather more than 2,000,000/. sterling. In the 
meantime the fioLshion of applying the precious metals to 
the making of articles of domestic utility as well as of orna- 
ment increased considerably. Another important vent for 
bullion was during this time found in the trade that grew 
out of the discovery of the route to India by the Cape of 
Grood Hope, in the prosecution of which it was long neces- 
sary to pay for eastern products in gold and silver, be*^ 
cause Europe had then little else to offer at prices whieh 
admitted of exportation to India. The improvements which 
since that time have been brought about in our manufac- 
turing processes have so changed the nature of this trade, 
that the exports from England to India have at times much 
exceeded tne value of the goods imported in return, and 
the balance has come forward in bullion. 

During the 1 7th century Humboldt estimates the average 
annual supply of the American mines at 1 6,000,000 of dollars, 
about 3,333,333/. ; in the next half century at 22,500,000 
dollars, or 4,687,500/. ; and in the 53 years following* viz., 
from 1750 to 1803, at 35,300.000 dollars— 7,354,166/. The 
produce of single years at the beginning of the present 
century is stated to have been greater Uian the average 
here mentioned, and to have somewhat exceeded 9,000,000/. 
of sterling money. 

The revolution in the Spanish American dominions in 
1810 vet'y materially affected the productiveness of the 
mines. The proprietors of many of them were forced to tly 
from the country, and the works of all the greatest mining 
establishments were either destroyed or suffered to fall to 
ruin. The effect of this political convulsion upon the pro- 
duction of the precious netals was immediate and important, 
but has perhaps been somewhat exaggerated. It appears 
from the returns sent to the English government by our 
consular agents, that the total value of bullion produced in 
tlie mining districts of Mexico and South America during 
20 years, from 1810 to 1829, amounted to 60,165,891/., 
being equal to an annual average supply of 3,008,294/. 
sterling money ; the annual average value in the 20 pre- 
ceding years, from 1790 to 1809, was 6,106,705/. The 
produce in part of the latter period has, owing to the ap- 
plication of English capital, been greater than it was in 
the first years following the revolution ; and there is reason 
to expect that hercafler the mines in those quarters may 
yield a produce equal to anything they have formerly 
yielded. By returns received from the British consuls in 
Mexico and Peru, it appears, that the gold and silver 
raised in those two states in the year 1834 amounted in 
value to 3,060.276/. No statement has yet been given of 
the produce in that year of the mines in Chili, in the re- 
public of Rio de la Plata, Brazil, Columbia, and the republic 
of central America, the aggregate of which may be fairly 
estimated at 1,000,000/. sterling. 

An official statement recently transmitted from Mexico 
mentions that the Fresnilla mines in Zacatecas, which were 
formerly worked' on account of the government, have been 
leased to a company of private aaventurers, natives of 
Mexico, who arc already obtaining from the mines a weekly 
produce of fh)m 70 to 100 bars of sUver^ each' bar of 1000 
dollars value. At the mcfan of these, two rates, the yearly 
produce of the Fresnilla mines alone will amount to nearly 
one million sterling. 

It is estimated by Mr. Jacob that the gold and silver 
annually yielded by the mines of Hungary and Transyl- 
vania amount to about 3,000,000 of llorins (312.500/.). 

The official statement published by the minister of finance 
in St. Petersburg gives the annual average produce of the 
gold mine's in the Ural mountains, during the last 11 years, 
at a sum equal in Etiglish money to 606,724/. The silver 
yielded by the Altai and Da-urian mines is more loosely 
given, on the same authority, at 1000 poods per annum, 
equal in value to 130,000/. It is further stated, that during 
1835 a considerable quantity of gold was procured by wash- 
ings on the Altai mountains, but no estimate of the amount 
has been given. The government of- Russia has of hte 
years endeavoured to place platinum among the precious 
metals, by putting into circulation coins made of that metal ; 
but the experiment does not appear to have answered. A 



Mil. 341. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiBDIA.] 



Vol.. VL— D 



B U L 



18 



wmat ^eatMmux in thd suVilitf of itB price makM it im- 
BOMible to earculate anf large amoant of platinum coin. 
Tbeninting of the platinnm is oonftned to the produce of 
the goremttent platinum mines. 

A new souree of supply, as regards gold, has lately heen 
foQi^ in the U.S. of America* The first notice of gold of 
nmti?e produce, on the records of the mint of the U.S.« 
occurred in 1814, when the talue of 11.000 dollars (about 
23001} was received in that esUblishment. The arerage 
teceiTed during the ten following years was very small, vii., 
1500 ddlais, or little more than 500/. lu 1825 the amount 
received was 17,000 dollars (3500/.); and since that time 
the increase has been considerable. The gold region, which 
at first was thought to be confined to N. Carolina, has 
been found to commence in Virginia, and to extend to 
N. and 8. Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama. 
The productiveness of this rejjion since 1824 will be par- 
tially seen from the following Uble : — 



VirgiBu. 



U»4 

1^«1 
ItiC 

isr 

19S8 

inas) 

18311 

l<nj' 

)<» 

1H34 



K.Cmo- 
bna. 



DoUanJ DolUn. 
5.000 

17.wy» 

1S.O(«0 

si.ooo 

46.0«)O 
134. 0W» 

S04.r«o 

294.000 
43«.0*>'» 
475.0O0 
380.0UO 



t.SM 

S4.ff)0 

M.OOO 

»4.WKf 

104.0001 

, SB.OOO 



B. Caro- 

HllA 



DolUx*. 



3.500 
9S.00O 
tt.OtH) 
45.00.) 
6C,000 
38.000 



Georgia. 



DoUan. 



Ten 



j AUba- 
na. 



DoUan. 



SW.OOO 
176.00^)1 
140.0/>0i 
Sl6.0t»4>, 
415»00o 



Dol.. SM,WH S.054.000 S00.500 1.159 



»UUU| O, 

.ooJ It. 



1,000 
1.000 
7.0*W 
3.0U0 



DoUwi. 



TouL 



1.000 



DoUam 

6.O0O 

17.000 

so, 000 

Sl.OOO 

46.000 

140. OOO 

4SR,l»00 

5S0.000 

6;8.ooo 

P68.U00 
998.000 



000 1.0003.679.000 



Hie gold in these states is sometimes found in the form 
of small particles of metal mixed with sand, and it is 
then obtained by the simple process of washing ; in other 
places it occurs below the surface in the form of ore, 
which must be reduced by smelting. The gold of native 
production is said to be much greater in value than is indi- 
cated by the foregoing table, a part of the produce being ex- 
ported in its uncoined state, without visiting the U. S. 
mint This proportion has been variously estimated. One 
calculation carries the total produce of the entire district to 
five millions of dollars, or more than a million sterling ; 
but this is probably an exaggeration. An able mineralogist, 
who lately visited America for the purpose of examining 
these mines, has given it as his opinion tnat, from the scan- 
tiness of the supply, as comparea with the great extent of 
country over which it is spread, gold-mining Cannot be pn>- 
itably carried on upon a large scale, but must be in a 
great measure left to the industry of individual adventurers, 
acting upon a limited scale. 

It is scarcely possible to make any near approach to accu- 
racy, in estimating the consumption of the precious metals. 
Mr. Jacob, who has gone into some curious oilculations upon 
the subject, estimates the annual consumption in Europe of 
gold and silver, for other purposes than that of coined money, 
at vety little less than six millions sterling. But some part 
of this amount is furnished by the re-melting of articles, the 
fkshion of which has become obsolete, and by the burning 
of old gold and silver lace and other worn-out ornaments. 
Mr. Jacob estimates the part thus obtained at one-fortieth 
of the whole. 

Attempts hate been made to ascertain the loss in the 
wear of coins which have been in circulation for various 
periods. For this purpose an experiment was made in 
July, 1833, when Lord Auckland was Master of the Mint, 
upon 1200 sovereigns and 1200 half-sovereigns, 300 of edch 
denomination having been put in circulation in 1817, 1821, 
1825, and 1829, respectively, and upon similar numbers of 
silver half-crowns, snillings, and sixpences, which had been 
in circulation during the same number of years. The result 
of this experiment is given as follows : — 

Goid. 

300 Sovereigns of 181 ^. which had. been 16 years in cir- 
culation had lost at tne rate of 8t. lOitf. per 100/. value. 

12 yrs. „ 9#. la. 



300 „ 1821 

300 „ 1825 

300 „ 1 829 
300Half-sovs. 1817 

300 „ 1821 

300 ,i 1825 

300 ,; 1829 



H 



>ff 



>l 



l» 



<l 



11 



8 


p, ^ 


8 


4 


„ 3 


5» 


18 


« 16 


4 


\t 


., 13 


10 


6 


.. 13 


6t 


4 


M « 


2 



tf 
t* 






»ff 



»t 



300^air-tts. 1817 
300 „ 1821 
300 „ 1825 
300 „ 1829 
300 Shillings, 1817 
300 „ 1821 
300 „ 18*25 
300 „ 1829 
300SixpeQce8,1817 
300 „ 1821 
300 M 1825 
300 „ 1829 



ft 



99 



» 



If 



Bb 

Stiver, 

ie 

. 12 

. 9 

. 4 
H 
li 

8 

4 
16 
12 

8 

4 




per lOO/.Tftluc. 



t* 



fa 



t» 



•» 



The amount of gold and stiver mpqey coined at the £ng 
lish Mint, since 1 790, has been as (bllows : — 



Gold. 
6 years, 1790—1794 £11,595,576 



6 
5 
5 
4 

8 

8 
S 

4 
4 



ft 



ff 



»• 



•t 



>t 



»• 



1795—1799 
1600—1804 
1805—1809 
1810—1813 
1814—1816 
1817—1821 
1822—1826 
1827—1830 
1831-1834 



6,375.859 

i.392,039 

1.130.464 

1,148.921 

iiil. 

17,611.560 

20,658.991 

8.355,831 

5,610,926 



Sifver^ 

£251 

293 

265 

405 

263 

1,805,413 

5,561.252 

1,624.914 

157.719 

466,762 



The small amount or silver stated above as Havini^ be«r 
coined previous to 1816 was what is called Mautfdjf tntme^. 
from the circumstance of its being distributed in aims hj 
the king on Maundy Thursday. 

A considerable part of the gold coined ia the fi%'e \ean 
from 1817 to 1821 was exported to Paris, where it vat 
melted and converted into Louis-d*or. l^Ue large amount 
coined in the next quinquennial period was required to sup- 
ply the place of the W. and 2/. notes withdrawn from c r- 
culatiou in 1821, and by tne commercial panic of lb«JL 
[Bank — Banking.] 

BULLRU8H. the English name of. typha latifolia and 
angustifolia, two wild marsh plants bearing long bla4:k 
cylindrical masses of flowers. The name is also sometimes 
applied to scirpus lacustris, a tall nishy -looking plaDt (t»m 
which the bottoms of chairs, mats, &c. are often manu- 
factured. 

BULLS, PAPAL. Letters issued from the papal chan- 
cery, and so named from the buUa or leaden s»sl which .» 
appended to them. The difference between bulls, bnefa^ 
and other Apostolical rescripts, is noticed under the word 
Brikf. Bulls are written on parchment If they regaid 
matters of justice, the seal is affixed by a hempen oord ; if 
of grace* by a silken thread. The seal bears, on the obver»«, 
heads of St. Peter and St Paul : on the reverse, the namf 
of the pope, and the date of the year of his pontificate, la 
France, in Spain, and in most other kingooms profc&»tti< 
the Roman Catholic faith, bulls are not admitted wiihoia 
previous examination. In England, to procure, to publ.>K. 
or to use them, is declared high treason by 1 3 £ux, c. ^. 
The name Bull has also been applied to certain constipi- 
tiuns issued by the emperors. In affairs of the great «u 
imoortanoe bullco of gold were employed, whence they ^vre 
called Golden Bulls. 

Eleven folio volumes, published ai Luxemburg, betw«es 
1747 and 1758, contain the bulljs issued from the \,oix- 
tillcate of Leo the Great to that of Benedict XIV., from a.p. 
461 to A. D. 1757. The. two most celebrated am r^ 
them are, that In coend Domini^ which is read v\vr\ 
year, as these words imbly. on the day of the Loid's Sup{H-r 
(Maundy Thursday) : it denounces various excommun^. 
tions against heretics and other opponents of tlie Runi;^/. 
see: 2. the bull Unigenitus^ as it is called from its ope;^ ^^ 
words, • UnigenitttsDei, Jflius* issued by Clement A I. :Z 
I7l3. condemning 101 propositions in Quesnel'a work. or. 
in other words, supporting the Jesuits against the Janseni^^a 
in theil* opinions concermng di\ ine grace. 

The most remarkable Imperial Bull is that approvcti \ y 
the Diet of the Germanic empire in 1356, in which CharU'% 
IV. enumerated all the functions, privileges, and pivr^c^* 
tlves of the electors, and all the formalities obser\-ed ut, u e 
electiou of an emperor, which i^ere, considered as fuin'*.- 
mental laws till the dissolution of the Germanic* bo4i\ .i. 
1806. We believe that the Latin original is still prxx^nv 1 
at Frankfort with the gulden seal, or buHa, Ihwi wh«ili it 
derives itd name, lippendaht to it 



B U L 



la 



BUN 



BUI^WBR, JOHN, 4n Snglish p)))r«icUn of th^ ^^eo, 
teenth century, wlio devoted aitnsdf to i\\9 discovery of 
methods for comipunicating knowledge to i\i^ deaf and 
dumb. Dr. Widli^ i^ generally regarded as the originator, 
in England, of an art by whicb the beneftis pf instruction are 
bestowed on the dea( and in the * Memorials* of his own life 
he appears in unrivalled Possession of this honour. But Bui- 
wer, a contemporary of Wallis, has claims wtiich only need 
to be known to entitle him to t^e credit which has so gene- 
rally been given to another. That Wallis ivas disingenuous 
on this atibject, in more than ono instance, is evidept from a 
notice of Dalgamo's works, which appeared in the • Edin- 
burgh Review,* No. pXJ^iv. Whether Bulver apd IVallis 
had received intelligence of wjiat had been accon^plished by 
Ponce and Bonet in Spain cannot noi^ be determined. Jt 
is probable that Bulw^ had obti^ined no sue)] information, 
for his mode of treating ih^ subject is very original, and 
rather that of an inventof than a copyist. The earlier prac- 
tice of Wallis is in mapy respects similar to tlio methods 
pursued by Box)et, §s de(^iled in his work, published i(i 
1620. [BoivsT.] |t i^ probable tha( Bui wer aid not use a 
manual alpliabet, for h^ mentions, with jl degree of admira- 
tion, the employment of this medium of comn^unication, in 
the case of a gentleman w^io ))Qcame ^e^t through disease. 
Wallis used no finger-alp)iabei iQ his fir^t attempts, but he 
seems to have been aware of its utility, fpr ip after- years he 
appropriated, without acknowledgment the one which Dal- 
Bforno invented, ^ir l^enelm jSgby, who lyas deeply im- 
pressed witli Bonot's success in gpain, would proba)>ly send 
the first intelligence of |iis la))o^rs to England. Sir IC 
Digby had much correspopdepce with Dr. Wallis on philo- 
sophical subjects previous to 1669, in which year Wallis 
published the results of that correspondence. As W^allis 
lad publis^^ed a treatise on ^peec^ in 1653, it is highly pro^ 
)able that the results, then new and curious, which I>igby 
lad witnessed in ^pain in the instruction of t)ie deaf and 
lumbf would be communicated \^y )iim to his philosophical 
riend. Wallis did not make pub)|c the inventions which he 
claimed for instructing the deaf tjU 1670, several years after 
Digby's deatb, thougji he introduced his Qrst pupil, Mr. 
kVhalley, before t)ielE^y^l ^ocioty in 166^ after a year's 
nstruction. 

It has been considered Qecesss^ry ^hus to trace what I)r. 
Wallis accomplished, in order to nlace' Bulwer in his proper 
ight, and \o show \\ie yalue ^ nis performances ; in esti- 
aaLing whicl), it must not he forgotten that no English 
writer, as fair as can be now ascertained, had previously em- 
iloycd bixDself on the subject which Bulwer attempted to 
tlucidate. A foW years before 164S Bulwef published ' Chi- 
ononaia, or the Art of Manual Hhetoric/ and 'Chirologia, 
r the Natural I^anguage of tbe Hand.* Tbese are the 
rorks whidi obtained for hifn the surname of ' the Chiro- 
opher.* T^^y ^<>nne<^ P^^^t o^ tnat sptem of artificial lan- 
guage which be designed to' employ m developing his nhi- 
asophical views, and by which he proposed to lead the aeaf 

a knowledge of spoken language. Bui wer's chief work 

1 entitled * Philocqphus, or the Deafe and Dumbe Man's 
Viend, exhibiting thephilosop^iical verity of that subtile 
.rt which may inabte one with an observant eie to heare 
chat any man speaks by the moving of his lips. Upon the 
anie ground, with the ' advantage of an historical exeDopli- 
ication, apparently proving^ tha^ a man borne deafe and 
lumhe may Ve taugnt to heare sounds of words with bis 
ie, and tKence learn to'speaj^ wi^b his tongue. By J. B., 
irnamed (he Cbirosopher. London, 1648.' 

Bulwer's principles of ' instruction may be gathered from 
he above works : they appear to have ^n imitative signs, 
T the language ' of actfon j the labial alpliabet, or reading 
he raoTements of tbelips ; and articulation. !(^bere'was an 
>rigiiiuUty in J^is conceptions which no prior or contempo- 
ury author on tfie subject, in this or any other country, 
;ould claim. ' pe noticed ^lie power which the deaf possess 
)f ^earini^ sounds through the teeth, an experiment which 
nay bo mad^ 'ig various ways,' especially oy means of a 
nusical box or are pealing watch. Jie also produced several 
rther works, among which were the'foUbwing:— 'Tractatus 
Je rembvendis loquelce impedirqehtis f * Tractatus de remo- 
rendia audltons impedinientisV I^ Ts probable that these 
treatises were rio^ published ; their titles occur at the end o( 
one of Vis curious works, which appeared in 4to'. in ^653, 
called * Anthropo-inetamorphbsis,' man trahsformedf or the 
artificial changeling, itl which he s^iows (he great variety of 
bhapes and ^^ses whic); men have assumed in lEe ^igerent 



ages and nations of the world. He also publislied ' {(at^o* 
piyotomia, or a dissection of the significative muscles of the 
fifiections of the mind,* 1649, 12ma 

Bulwer must he regarded ^s a va^ of persevering re- 
search, and though not an instructor of the aeaf and dumb, 
he was undoubtedly the first in England to point out a 
safe and certain path which teachers might pursue. 

BUNDELCUND or BOONDELA, a division of the 
prov. of Allahabad, in flindu^tan, lies between ^4? and 
26° N. lat., and 77° and 82° E. long. Tbis territory is 
bounded on the N. by the river Jumna ; on the £!. by Bacr- 
hulcund; on the S. by Malwa and Qerar; and on Uie W. 
by the possessions of Scipdiah. In its form, Bundelciind is 
an irregular parallelograip ; its greatest length is in the 
direction from S.E. to N.^.; its area comprises nearly 
24,000 sq. miles ; and the population consis|s of 2,400,000 
souls. 

There are threo ranges of mountains in Qundetcund, 
which extend in continuous ranges para^el to each other. 
One of these ranges, which forms part of Uie Vindhyaii 
chain, is less sterile and rugged ^&n the part of the same 
chain which passes through 3ahar. On the summit of this 
range a considerable extent of tablo-land occurs, w^iich is 
1200 ft. above the level of the Gangetic pla^n. T^ie second 
mountain range, called the Panna ghauts, runs parallel to 
the Vindhyan chain at the distance of about 1pm. 'fhe 
third range, called the Bandair, occurs at about an equ^l 
distance beyond the second to the N.W., and comprises th^ 
most elevated part of the province. 

Tbe soil of Bundelcund presents a very g^ea^ variety. 
The valleys and low lands consist principally of rich black 
loam : the hilly country and elevatea table-land are ^i great 
part composed of poor and sterile soil. The fertile tracts, 
when assisted by irrigation, produce abundant harvests of 
every kind of grain and plant that is cultivated in Hin- 
dustan : the principal produce of the poorer lan^s is millet. 
There are no forests in this division of the province. Iron i^ 
found among the hills, where also catechu or terra j^^poiiica 
is produced in abundance. 

The principal rivers of Bundelcund are the Betwah, the 
Qesan, and the Ken or Cane. The Qetwah rise^ in Gund 
wan a, 3 m. S.W. of the Shahpoor ghau^ and flowing ^ 
enters Bundelcund at 25° 3' N. lat, ancl 7df^ 19' % \o]ig 
It crosses tbe prov. in a N.E. direction, and falls into t)fta 
Jumna, near Kalpee, in 26° 10^ N. lat. an4 79° 41' P. lon^. 
The pesan or Desaun rises in the Vindhyan chain *ii| 
Bhopaul, and Aowing N.E. through Malwa, enters Quiidol* 
cund in 24° 12' N. lat. and 78° 47' ]^. long.; following the 
same course, it joins the Betwa^ near to its junction with 
the Jumna. The Ken or Cane rises in 23° 53' N. lat. and 
80° 8' E. long., flows N.E., and enters Bundelcund in 2^^ 
34' N. lat. and 80° 01' E. long. ; its course' is then N.fi., and 
afterwards nearly due N., until it falls into tli^ Jumna in 
25° 47' N. lat and 80^ 28' B. long. Neither of these rivers 
is navigable. Some very large reservoirs have been con- 
structed for purposes of irrigation in difiererit parts of tl^e 
country : these works must have cost immense labour. 

The principal towns are Banda, the capita^; Bejour, 
Jeitpore, Jhansi, Chatterpore, Callinger, and Tehree. 
' Panda is situated in 25° 30' N. lat and 80° 20' 1^. long.* 
about 90 miles W. from Allahabad. This town has much 
increased of late years, having, early in ibe present centu^, 
been only a village of moderate size. The cotton brought 
for sale to its market is of superior quality. Bejour is in 
24** 38' N. lat and 79° 27' E. long. Jeitpore is in 25** 17' 
N. lat. and 79° 32' £. lon^;. Jhansi, the capital of ^ petty 
Boondela state under British protection, is situated in 25^^ 32' 
N. lat. and 78° 34' E. long. This is a coiisiderable town, 
t|ie centre of an active trade carried on between the t)|eccan 
and the towns of the Doab : it contains a bonslderabtle carpet 
manufactory, and large quadUties of the warlike weapons, 
use4 by the Boondela tribes, such as bows, arrowy and 
spears, are made there. Chatterpore. in 24° 56' ^1 j(a^ and 
79"^ 35' Ei long., is about 135 miles TV'.S.W. from t^e ci^ 
of A11^&1>^ • ^t was formerly a place of consiaerahle trade, 
hut has much decayed q{ late years. The manufacture o^ 
coarse cotton cloths, used for wrappers, is carried on there. 
Callinger is a fortified town in 25^ 6^ N. lat and 80'' 25'' S. 
long. : it stands oii a lofty mountain, the base of which is 
10 nU^es in circuit ^he walls include ^e whole sumn^t 
of the hill, and are composec^ of rough uncut stones. 1^ 
fortress was a place of j^reat strength, and occasioned con- 
I siderable loss |o the Bn^sh he^eging army before ^ijfaii 



BUN 



20 



BUN 



cimed ia 181S« The fortress was dismantled and the 
wks were destrared by the British government in 1 820, 
ai which time the town was of considerable extent. Tebree, 
or TeaiT. is <m the N.W. frontier of Rundelcund, in 24" 45' 
K. lat. and 78^ 52' E. long. This town is the residence of 
an ladepeDdent Booodela chief or rajah, possessing; several 
Tillages, and having a revenue of four lacs of rupees 
(4«.0«0/.). 

The Britiah eoanexion with the chiefs of Bundelcund 
ecigiiialed in an arrangement concluded with the late 
Ji^tshwa in Deeamher, 1803. by which he ceded to the 
British tcrritorr in that province of a certain value, which 
tfaey were at liberty to select from those quarters of the 
Mmiui e most contiguous to the British possessions, and the 
best sotted to their convenience. In carrying this treaty 
inla eftct, anrangements were made with several chiefs on 
the frontier of the province, who were allowed to retain pos- 
■e 11100 of the lands which they held. With some of these 
duefr treaties atiU exist similar to those contracted with 
other protected states, except that they contain no stipula- 
tioa for the payment of tribute ; but the far greater number 
of Bondelcund ehiels, having been considered subjects of 
thePeiabwa, are now considered British subjects. These 
rfaiefs have been guaranteed by the British in their pos- 
lessioDa, and in return have subscribed engagements of 
aUegianee and subjection. In general, the British govern- 
ment has allowed these chiefs to govern their territory as 
they pleased ; but occasionally, during the minority of the 
ehieC or when by misgovern men t the country has been 
thrown into disorder, the government has exercised its sove- 
reignty by appointing a manager. 

The territory of Bundelcund has preserved its Hindu 
usages in a greater degree than most other parts of Hin- 
dustan that have come under foreign rule. Among the 
nsagea thus continued is the system of punchayet for 
settling disputes by arbitration under the superintendence 
of the mocuddums or heads of villages. The selection of 
the arbitrators has always been made by the disputing 
parties, and they are chosen generally from the most re- 
apeetable of the tribe or profession to which the parties 
belong. Disputes arising out of matters of account, and 
claims of bankers, are settled by arbitrators consisting of the 
most respectable persons of that profession ; and tlie same 
prmetiee is observed with regard to other professions. If the 
subject is rent, the head zemindars are generally chosen, 
and residents of neighbouring villages are commonly pre- 
ferred to their own townsmen. Boundary disputes are 
aettled in the same way, and a large assemblage from the 
rarroundin^ villages are often invited to witness the settle- 
ment This in former times has sometimes led to violent 
affrays, and has even occasioned the loss of lives, thus 
causing continual feuds, and laying the foundation for future 
disorders. Under these circumstances, the officers of the 
former government forbore to interfere, except the realization 
of the revenue was endangered, when their influence was 
interposed for the adjustment of the dispute. Under the im- 
mediate and active superintendence of European authonty, 
such disorders have been suppressed. The greatest evil 
arising from this system of punchayet lies in the frequent 
futility of the award, from the want of power to enforce it. 

(Rennell's Memoir of a Map of Hindustan ; Mill's Hiit, 
qf British India; Report of Committee of House of Com- 
mom, 1832, Public^ Revenue, Judicial, and Politioal 
Sections.) 

BUNDER ABBAS. [Govbroon.! 

BUNGAY, a m. t. in the bund, of Wangford, Suffolk, 
on the Waveney. which surrounds it in the form of a horse- 
ahoe. It is 31 m. N.E. of Ipswich, and 91 m. N.E. from 
London. Bungay is divided into two parishes. Holy Trinity 
and St. Mary, the combined pop. of which, in 1831, was 
3734. The gross annual income of the living of St. Mary 
is 115/.; that of Holy Trinitv, 306/. : both are in the diocese 
of Norwich. The market day is Thursday ; Uiere are two 
annual fairs on May 14th and Sept. 25th. 

Bungay is a vil. of considerable antiquity, formerly de- 
pendent on Bungav Castle, supposed to have been erected 
Dy the Bigods. earls of Norfolk ; some ruins of the castle 
ttill remain. There are also the ruins of a Benedictine 
nunnery. Bungay was nearly destroyed by a fire in 1688, 
and the town is consequently of modem date. There are 
two handsome crosses m the market-place. A considerable 
trade is carried on in grain and articles of provision, the 
Waveney being navigable up to Bungay for small barges. 



A printing establishment here formerly had considcralile 
reputation, and was a kind of depdt for the issue of pubb* 
cations and reprints of works in a cheap form. 

Bungay has a free grammar school, endowed with s 
school-house and premises and two estates, from the pro- 
ceeds of which ten children are educated ; twenty-two daut 
schools ; two boarding-schools ; four Sunday schools ; and 
one infant national school. 

(Education Returns of 1835 ; Beauties qf England asri 
Wales ; Pep. and Ecc. Returns.) 

BUNKERS HILL. [Boston.] 

BUNTING. [Emberiza.] 

BUNYAN, JOKN, was bom at Elstow, near Bedford, 
in 1628. His parents, who were of very mean oonditittn, 
were Puritans, and Bunyan was strongly imbued with th-* 
principles of that sect After being initiated in hia father s 
profession as a tinker, he served in the Parliament armt. 
and was present at the siege of Leicester, in 1645. Ten 
years afterwards, he was admitted member, and choM-n 
preacher of a Baptist congregation at Bedford. At tb« 
Restoration, he was convicted of holding unlawful as^ftena- 
blies and conventicles, and sentenced to banishment. Until 
his transportation could take place, he was imprisoned, and 
he was not released until after a confinement of twehe 
years and a half, when Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln, applied 
in his favour. He maintained himself in gaol, during tU* 
most cruel persecution, chiefly by making tags and lare<. 
After his release, upon the declaration of James II. for 
liberty of conscience, he resumed his occupation of preacher, 
at Bedford. He died in London of a fever, in 1 688. 

His works were collected in two volumes folio, 1736-7: 
among them the ' Pilgrim*s Progress ' has attained the 
greatest notoriety. If a judgment is to be formed of t))e 
merits of a book by the number of times it has been reprinted, 
and the many languages into which it has been tranbUte<f, 
no production in English literature is superior to this coar«e 
allegory. On a composition which has l^een extolled by Dr. 
Johnson, and which in our own times has received a ven* 
high critical opinion in its favour, it is hazardous to ven* 
tura a disapproval, and we perhaps speak the opinion of s 
small minority when we confess tnat to us it appeara to be 
mean, jejune, and wearisome. 

BUNZLAU, a circle in the government circle of Lieg- 
nitz, and in the province of Prussian Silesia. Its area is 
about 422 square miles, and it contains two towns (BunxUu 
and Naumburg on the Queis), a colony of Hermhuthcrs. 
and 87 villages, with about 48,900 inhabiUnts. It is in 
general a flat oountrv. and is watered by the Bober aii<1 
Queis. neither of which streams is here navigable. It is full 
of forests, and has numerous low hilU ; it growa little graio 
but much flax, and large quantities of potatoes, vegetabl<-i, 
and fruit; and breeds numerous flocks and herds. The 
spinning of yarn and weaving of linen are cairied on to a 
considerable extent 

The town of Bunzlau lies on the Bober, and ia sur- 
rounded by a double line of walls and a deep ditch ; it 
possesses three churches (one Lutheran and two Roman 
Catholic), an orphan asylum and school, an hospital, a semi- 
nary for teachere, and manufactures of woollens, linens, 
stockings, earthenware. &c. and has well-frequented markets 
for horses, cattle, and grain. Population about 4700. 
Much earthenware is exported. Topazes, agates, chalce- 
donies, and other valuable stones are found in th« neich- 
bourhood. It was the birthplace of Opitz, the poeU who 
died in 1639. About 150 miles S.E. of BerUn : 61*^ U' N 
lat, 15° 32' E. long. 

BUNZLAU, a cirole of Bohemia, which extends nearlr 
from the centre of that kingdom to the confines of Saxoo'v 
and Prussian Silesia in the N.W. and N.E. lu area li 
about 1617 souare miles, and it contains 28 towns (among 
which are Yung-Bunzlau, Nimburg (2407 inhabitant* C 
Reichenberg (11.500), Althalberdorf (3600), Priedlaod 
C3100), Reichstadt (1900), and Gablonz (3250), 16 market 
villages. 1034 villages, and about 395,850 inhabttantiL 
The principal river is the Iser, which traverses the couotrr 
fVom the borders of Biczow and falls into the Elbe: th^ 
latter river skirts Bunzlau for a short disUnce in the S.W. 
The Giant Mountains {Riesengebirge) extend through it« 
W. and N.W. districts and are covered with extensire 
forests, which yield much timber and potashes. In this 
part there are some iron mines and glass-works, as well as 
a considerable growth of flax. The plains are aandv and 
destitute of water; yet they have been rendered very pro- 



4 u ? 



* ItFnM only, ll>*t riBnwd mt ibe bend of ihe 
■tiirlr, mil I BUI I nil two (peciei, i» knowti, Tbe fullo>iDg li 
Tacnmiiirk ■ itFimtr chancier : — 

Ihll airinit. UrKc uUuitc, naarlf qutdranruliri lower 
nuiililiU (uungor thu Uu uppvri butb iwoDni tovard* 

N'-lrili biul, OTil, halfdoieil bi m tsulled neinbniDe. 

t'rrt luodsritc : ahank Uartuii lonKCt llian tbe mid'lle 
tea : thm tiin bcfnre. uno behind, the lalenl loei equal, 
tho exl4Tna] too oonjuined st the bxe, the inlenial ooe 
divi'M : rUiri hmkMl. compmied. 

H'ingi modarato ; Ihe fint quill very thort. (he Mcopd 
nearly the leDKlh of the tbinl. which ii the luiiK«*t. 

Tbe otiljr ivD iperic* known Ihe pnncitially upon thoM 
parkMlie mterla, tbe larva (matfttuta) of whkh are hitrhcil 
under the akia or mme of ih? lirifcr ruminanti and binli, 
k in'»U of life whirh i» follnwcil li)- aome of the crows (cor- 
viil*) and Ihe pMturi, Tbe quflnipwli on whom tbe 
Bupha^ WBili an pnnripaJlf thoae uf toe ox fatnilj . the aii- 
telopra. and the rameU, aiiil. xrncraUjr, the other ruminniiU 
hath wihl and lame. Kixe-l on Ihe Uacka of tbete by bii 
rramp imna ofdawa, the BerffaUr. •« he btu been called 
by the EnKliah. and Piijueb-ruf liy Ihe Frencb. diica and 
aqurezea 'lut with hia furce)>a uf * beak the larva thai lies 
baicMiiit undrr the loii|ch hid* of the quadruped. 

|.e Viill'inl nio^a the fijIluninK account of the habit* of 
Buphaga A/nmii'i. which ia ilnliibul«l through aouilicrii 
Afrira. and f^ulid al«i at 8<.m-/nl. Tho bill oF the Ptque- 
hirnf ia bihiunn] u a pair of aulid pinrcn to farililale llic 
rauins up out uf tlie hidva of quwirupcdt the lartic of llie 
gadiii-a. wbii'h ar* tlipm depnaitcd and nourished: liic 
apirica, ihiTL-forv, aniioualy ai'i-k« out the lienia of uxL'n, of 
DU(r.il«-a. of anicloiwa — uf 4II tbe quadnipeda, in ahorl. ui>-in 
which theau gadOiea depoail their eesa. It ia while aleo'ticd 
bf ■ itrvnit uripe of Iho clawa in the tou^h and hairr 
hide of Uime aoimala thai, with alron| blowa uf the bill mid 
powerful aiiuecio* of the akin, at the place where the bird 
porrrivea an elevation which indicatea tbe presence of a 
auKirit- ha entracta it with efTirt Tbe animala, accua- 
totnol lo Ihe Imlment, bcsr with the binia compiacenlly, 
■Dd appannily pern-ive Ibc aervice which they tvnder to 
them in fnfinK iliem ftuio thuae true paraaite*. which live 
■I the vxpeuM of ll.eir proper aubalance. The I'lque- 
hni/t boweirr are nut the only hiidi thai perch upon the 
barka uf quj'IrupeiU aod liruo bifU, fur many other omni- 
TOTuu* aprriea hale the aame habit ; but Iheae Inat content 
tbemielvaa wjih only taking away tbe paraiulea which are 
•llaehad lu the akin uf ih-ne animal*, nut bavin); in their 
bilta th<> nereaaary aln-n|tlh for exur|uitinir the Ian n i*hii;Ii 
are lo-liti-l Irnvaih it ; an office which the mrvut albkoUit 
(I« t.>ibi»au) exerutca aa woU ai the Piqur-btFuft. 

The Pi-iu'l"rttfi are Kencrally a'-en in company, but 
they Devrr I)y in Unte Uockn. Le Vaillant rarely aaw mure 
than *ix ur right m Llio aanic herd of butTiiluea or antelopei ; 
•nH M, Riipiicll neter o1>aerv«) tliem except in bandi 
conanlihg but of few indi^iduaU ab<mt the cumela of hii 
eanvan. Tlicy anvrry wild and difficult of appronch, ao 
UmI there la no rhanre of obtaininu citiicr tbe unc or titv 
Mber aprrii-a eicvpt by bidmit behind an ni or a camel 
and dnimg it itently. m iho manner of a atalkin^ hone, 
lowanla thiae beaat* on wboae hacka the birda are pi'rchcd. 
When auffinrnll) near, the fowler thovri himaclf, and bnnKi 
them diMin wlnlo on the wiiik. B<^i<ln the lan«j of the 
f a^Mt. thvM- binU pal Ibc lii-ka wlicn they ate full of blood, 
and all anrla of uiMX-la aenenlly. 

\\» aelwi a* an caampli- ItuyhiX^a erulrnrMifha ('ry- 
llkfrhj/nrAj}, the apcriii lail rrcuidnl. iliirrilied by Tctu- 
nii.<-k and rrnioil In liira ai.me vcar. tinre from the Cape 
MO-^A Hope, whiilivr 11 had Ui-n bruusht with a amull 
num>-rr of oilier apet'iia from M.iilo|^scar. Muuf aince 
thai lime ha'e rearhrd Europe, part of the fiuiii of tlie 
(raiela of Kbren>ief)t and Riippell in northern Alrica. 
' NoliT Rui-Sitgii nflmrhfrifka uu royaee de Sail,* aay^ 
Temminrk. ' it di>liiit;ui>bi'd frum ita nmK*ner h> a amallcr 
•ltd Iraa piwrrf^il hill, by tlie n-d rolnur of that uritan 
(whenr, II la ralW in French /^7«r i-r^/; Hr r-.ri.l - 
C<m) bill, IW(ratPT)— by the mute auuibce tinia of ila 
iinper piumjit*. and. flDalW. by ita atnaller pnipnttinna. 
T^ vpi^r pacta, head, and thniat in the adult are a>b- 
W*wn, lUfnl aa il were with bluiab ; the k><>er parli are 
JWllowiah-tvit or ^rk t*«beUa-ruluur. Tbe total IcDglh ia 



> Bflit 

HtTOi ineba^ i/fotA (gtv-thiql laaa than Btrty Afneoaa, 

whose bill i« ydluw, and wboae ^eta^pniaTJliwi^ui.. :. 
aetma la lie in tbe aoutbeni ditmcta aod on the wetur-. 
roaata, paTta of the oounuy \o wbieh Temminck expn-tui 
bii belief thai BitfAaga nytkrurhyntka does not peortraie. 
Temminek, inn wboM work out figure and deacripi. . 
ar« taken, tvfa thaf no nuticulara aa to the atnictiuc of U- 
neat, ita poutioD. or Um patiod e( iacubation. are >r; 



^- ^,^-,r'~ 



'^^'J^W 



BUPRE'STID^ (Loach), aramiljorcoleopteroiw in **«■:■ 
of the aeciiun Peotaraera. and Bubaeclion Slernuii (Ijtrx-. 
The acction Stemoxi is composed of two great KToiipa ei j 
milies, Ihe one of which we are ahdut tn treat (Puprt-ti.li , 
and Ihe Elaleridin ; the spcciea of the (onnar gri'up 'fv 1 j- 
tinguishcd from the latter principally in having iKc ta-- 
dilaled (the pCBullimale ioinU of whieh are biloU-iII 1 ." 
furniahedbenealh with velvet-like pellew: the thorax nci-j 
atraight behind, and the mandibtes entire, i.e., witboui 1 ■ 
notchea internally near the apex— and likewiM in hiv., 
tho terminal joint* of the palpi ejlindrical, or nearly au. 

Tlie form of the body in the Bupreiitid* it aimrul:;! 
ovale, Ihe apex of the elytra being mureor )e«s Wioit-d. 1 " 
the ba»e of the thorax of nearly equal width with that .if : 
elytra : the head it placed almost vertically, and i* lie- 
inserted into the thorax, to that the eves ncarlj conn. ' 1 
contact with that part. 

In splendour of colouring, this family ofin^etta surpa'^- 
all others among the Beetle tribe, iho Cctuniadte p^r.. . 
excepted : preen appears to be llie most fluent cut ut, ' .' 
alia'les of blue, red, gulden or copperlike hue ore not tir.- -, 
mon, and tht^ colour* are in mo*l easci brilliani or, j- : 
were, buniished. 

The Buprestidn an Ibund on Ihe tninfca and IcsTr- ' 
trect, and likcwiie on flowers (on tbe latter, morv j^- , . 
larly tho tmaller ipeciea), and when touched, or fre^^, . . 
even when approached, they apply their lege and anL.v « 
cl.mc to the Wy, and allow tbemtelveafoUl to the pr- .- '. 
B nuani of eseape ^uently practised by intectt 
crawl slowly, but in hot aunny weather are f^enueni^i .. 
Ihe wing and fly rapidly. 

Abuut 9U0 tpeciet have been discovered belonging la .- ■ 
tribe, which arc for the moat part &um the tropica. Id r 
fountry almul twenty have lieen found al large, 0/ i; - 
hoviuier Mvcral have most probably be«n imported ■ 
limber in which llieir l»rv» feed." 

The genua Buprettiat, « hich ia nor only nnriclr^ t- i 
1.T Wr, ■ 




BUtt 



t>r the IbUowiDg ch&racters 

:hiril or Tourth Joint to the ipei ; labrum attenuated tnd 

tlightlf emuginKted tnteriorlj ; KateUum distinct; body 

BtJRA, one of the twelve cities of Acbrnti, situated an n 
lill nearly forty ■IsdiK from the leo. When Helice, another 
if the Acbson towns, «as swallowed up with all Its in- 



.he «latuHi in the t«iiitiles were thrown down, Alt tni 
habitant* fwrithed except such u happened to be absent 
>ii military service or for other reasons, who formed the 
uture population ef Bura. (Herod, i. 14S ; PauMinias, tii. 
(9 ; StnbOi pp. 94, 39, 3SSi Gasaub.) 



BURBAOK, or BURBADGE, RICHARD, tbe ori^nat 
lerfbrmer of the principal tragic ohantcters of Shaicspear«, 
rai the son of James Burbae« or BurbadKe, also 



he fint n>yal patent conroded in this country to perfni 
>f plays. James Burbad^ built tbe BlackfHars Theatre 
n 1976, knd in 1S9G we And the name of bis son Richard 
ippended with Shakspeara's to a petition to the Lord 
!7haniber1un to be allowed to continue their performances 
herein. In 1603 ' Richard Barbara' is one of the actors 
ncluded in the license granted by Kins James I. to I..BW- 
'enc« Fletcher, William Shakspeare, and others. In Mveh, 
:G15, WB And him and other 'stage players' lummonrd to 
ippcar belbte tbe privy council for disobeying a special 
•roer of the Lord CbarolMrlain, prohihitinK the acting of 
ilays during JjbM; and in 1620 hit name is again men- 
ioiied In the grant of a new patent by King James licensing 
lis ' well-beloved servants to act. not only at the Globe, on 
he Bankside, but at their private house situate in the pre- 
incts of the Blackfrisrs ;' hut he is said (o have died on or 
ibout the 13th of March in thst year, and the patent bears 
bte the 27th. He was buried in tho nhurch of St. Leonard, 
ihoreditcb, having resided in Holywell Street in that parish 
rom the year 160D. His will is Htill extant in the Prero- 
:ative Office, but it contains nothing remukahle. By his 
rife, WlnKM, he had tbur daughters, two of whom were 
bristened 'Juliet,' his partiality for that name arising, 
t baa been supposed, from his having been the original 
wrfbnner of Romeo. Riohartl Burbadge is intiuduced in 
lerson in an old play called the ' Retume from Parnassus,' 
ind instrticli a Cambridge scbolar how to act the port of 
iichard ill., in which character he appears to have been 
Teatly admired. Bishop Corbet, in hia ' Iter Boreale,' 
peaking of hi* host at Leicester, (ays; 

■ When hs •nuM h»vii uid Kitf Hichird dwH, 
UDd oILid - ■ hone. ■ tiBw," lie Bucbtge criai.' 

In the 'Gentleman* Mag,' for 1B2S tliere is an elegy 
in tbe death of R. Buijsadge, long preserved in MS., and 
ilr. Payne Collier, in his " Annals of the Stage,' quotes 
mother copy, subsequently found with the important addi- 
ion of some lines naming four of the parts in which Bur- 
adge especially excelled, vii., Hamlet, Hteronymo, Lear, 
md probably Othello. According to the anonymous author 
Burbadge's disorder first attacked his speech, and he thus 
adverts to the lOss the stage sustained by hit decease :— 



chTi» refined tnb«r»»ivTd»oe: 
[uon jouDir llnnkleii, old HLrTaaymo*. 



laliudocflDB tb SiUmolDCT,' 



- tbit ItloM ibirrti l>e)aas«it to & trib« 



i B U K 

the what ele^ extendi to St liniiii i It enOs (fibi .- 

' And IKoi^ immia rutfa, llul dihI mdiiiaa tU doal 
Hj hririTs now cninmlilrd Ui ihy liurt. 
Ke*peit iBpfvttDiiau tbeiielicfttDilH 

TTijil alVj timti miy kihw IhkL murU.1ov«dlDOul4 
Pro olh>F. diut. ud <^h>ri.h il M gold. 
On it be UU' una un bat buli>K uw. 

' 'n> Ent^MIid'i Bneluh ButbulK, thai I kH^" ' 

A shorter epilnnh is h 
adilitiuiis loCamuen^ B 
well-known o 
badj-e.- 

Fiecknof, in his short discourse of the English utage, 
1664, hpeaks most highly of bis abilities, and a similar tes- 
timony ie paid to tbein by Sir Richard Baker. The foinier 
calls biro 'a delightful Proteus,' the latter pro noun ucji him 
to have been 'such an acbir as no age vaunt ever look to sea 
the like.' 

Burbadge it said to bave possessed also consideiahle 
talent as an artist. In the * New Particulars concerning 
Shakspeare* lately published by Mr, Payne Collier allusion 
is made to tbe fact, and the portrait of Sbakspcore (com- 
monly called the Felton), now in possesKiau of Mr. Nicol of 
Pall Moll, U, from the circumsUnce of the initials R. B. oh 
tbe hack of it, supposed to he his painting. 

(Annalt of the Stage, and Netc Farlicutars, &c by 
J. P. Collier; Flecknoe's Short Ditcourse, 1664; Bishop 
Corbet, Iter Sorea!e, 8tc.) 

BURCKHARDT, JOHN LEWIS, was bom at La^- 
saune, in Switzerland, about the ve» 1764. His fatb^, 
who was of an antiecit family of Basle, being oblised to 
leave Switzerland in 1798 in consequence of the French 
invasion, entered a S«ii>s corps then serving in t^rmanf 
in the pay of England. In the year 1800 youcic fiurck- 
hantt went lo study at Leipzig, from whence he afterwards 
removed to GiJitlngen. Havmg left (K>tlingen he c^me la 
England in tS06, nitb recommendations la Sir Joseph 
Bunks, then an active meiuber of the committee of the 
African Asaociation. The asiociption having lost all hopea 
of receiving inlelligence from Mr. Horncmatin, who had 
attempted to penetrate into Central Africa by tbe vraf 
of Fezzan, resolved to serid another traveller in the sama 
direction. Burrkhardt made an offer of his services, and 
his offer was accepted in ISOS. Meantime he bad been 
preparing himself by studying Arabic and attending lec- 
tures on chemistry, aslrciiomr, inedicine, and surgery. In 
January, 1809, he received n is instructions from the com- 
mittee ; he was to proceed first to Syria, there to remain two 
years to perfect hitnseir In the Arabic, and afterwards to 
proceed by Cairo 1o Mourzook in Fczzan, from whence he 
was to cross the great desert to Soudan. Ho arrived at 
Malta. in April, 1B09, and reached Aleppo in September, 
having first assuined the eastern dress and tbe name oT 
Ibrahim. From Aleppo he made several journeys io Da- 
mascus and Palmyra, and into the Haonran. and among 
a tritie of Turkmans who live to the N.W. of Aleppo. 
He also fpiined mucli inforination concerning the Bedowoen 
tribes of Syria and Arabia, and concerning the 'Wahabees, 
who were then inuking incursions near to the gates of 
Damascus. After remaining two vears and a half in Syria, 
tlurckbardt proceeded towards Egypt by Palestine and 
the country east of the Dead Sea. and then by the great 
valley of Ghor. or Araba, which extends from tne soutnem 
shore of tbe Dead Sea to Akaha on the Elanitic gulf of 
the Red Sea. This interesting valley and tbe neigb- 
bourini; monuments of Wsdi Mousa bad been unexpired 
by foriner travellers. Burckhaidt did not go as far aa 
Akaba. but struck across the desert to Suez, and thence to 
Cairo, where he arrived at the beginning of September^ 
1812. As there was no favourable opportunity of proceed- 
ing to FeEzan for tbe present, Burckbardt set off for Upper 
F);ypt and went Into Nubia, where no European traveller 
had evei; been beyond Derr. He left Assouan towards tb4 
end of February, 1813, and passing the cataract of Wadi 
Haifa, went as far as Tinareb in tne country of Mahasa, 
and on his return visited llie temples of Abousambul, Dan- 
dour, Gyrshe, Kolabshe, &c. He passed the rest of thaf 
year in Upper Egypt, and on the 1st March, 1814, set off 
from Daraou with a caravan which was proceeding to Upper 
Nubia across the desert east of tbe Nile. In Uiis journey 
he fallowed nearly (ho same track as Bruce on ^is return 
from Abyssinia. After suffering muck through iba deaeit. 



BUR 



24 



BUR 



he urrived in the country of Berber, and thenoe went to 
ShendL At Shendi he set oft wilh a caravan for 8uakin 
on the Red Sea. After having forded the Atbara (the 
Abyssinian Taeaxse) above its junction with the Mogren, 
a river that rises in the mountains of the Bishareen, and 
which after its confluence with the Atbara gives its name 
to the united stream which flows into the Nile, he proceeded 
to Taka, a remarkably fertile and populous district in the 
midst of the desert Its fertility is owing to the periodical 
inundations of large torrents coming from the S. and S.E. 
(probably the Abyssian Mareb). Burckhardt gives an in- 
teresting^ account of Taka and of the country of Beja, of 
which it forms part, and which to the S. borders upon 
Abyssinia. [Bkja.] Taka was the most southern point 
of burckhardt's travels. He thence proceeded N.E., and 
crossing the Langay Mountains, arrived at Suakin towards 
the end of June. From Suakin he sailed for Jidda, where 
he arrived in July, 1814. 

These two Nubian journeys of Burckhardt, the journals 
of which were published together in one volume, furnished 
much interesting and for the most part novel information. 
The appendix contains also many valuable notices on Borgo, 
Bornou, and other countries of Soudan weist of Darfur, 
which Burckhardt coUectod in E<fypt and Nubia, as well as 
extracts from Makrizi and Ibn Batuta. 

From Jidda Burckhardt proceeded to Tayf, five days* 
journey inland, where he found Mehemet Ali, who after 
having taken possession of Mecca and all the Hejaz, was 
preparing an expedition into the Nejd. the country of the 
Wahabees. The pasha, who had known Burckhardt at 
Cairo, received him favourably, and he was also fortunate in 
obtaininfT a supply of money from the physician of Tousoun 
Fasha, Mehemet Aii s son. 

Buickhardt next visited the city of Mecca, which till 
then had been forbidden ground to Europeans, and went 
through the whole of the ceremonies in the character of a 
Mussulman pilgrim, without, as he believed, having excited 
any suspicion as to his real character. He spent three 
months at Mecca; and on the 25th of Nov., 1814, per- 
formed the hac^i or pilgrimage to mount Arafat, in the 
company of more than 80,000 piljrrims from all parts of 
Islam. In Jan., ]815, he visited Medina, a city of which 
still less was known in Europe than of Mecca, He felt ill 
at Mediua, and after some months, having recovered suffi- 
cient strength, he went to Yembo, where he embarked for 
Tor, in the peninsula of Sinai, and thence returned by 
Suez to Cairo in June, after an absence of nearly two 
years and a half, of which he had spent nine months in 
Arabia. 

The particulars of Burckbardt's Arabian journey furnished 
the most complete account of the Hejax and its two holy 
cities Mecca and Medina, ever transmitted to Europe. 
Ali Bey (the Spaniard Badiu) had visited Mecca a few 
years before Burckhardt, who said that he had no reason 
to doubt his general veracity, though his description of 
Mecca was incorrect in some points, and his information 
rather superficial. Ali Bey spoke only the Moghrebin or 
western Arabic. Seetzen, a Cierman traveller, sent by the 
Duke of Saxe C^tha, and of whom Burckhardt speaks with 
great respect, travelled in Arabia about the same time as 
Ali Bey, and died of poison at Mocha, in 1811. Since 
Burckhardt, Mecca and Medina have been visited by several 
Europeans in the service of Mehemet Ali. (Planat, IH- 
generation de VEgypte, with a f)lan of Mecca.) 

One of Burckhardt's objects m vi!>iting Mecca as a pil- 
grim was to be enabled to assume the title of Hadji, which 
he conceived would prove of great advantaj^e to him in his 
traveU in the interior of Africa. But his residence in Ara- 
bia undermined his cunsstitution, and he never recovered 
from the cHects of the deleterious climate and unwholesome 
water of that country. He spent the following nine months 
after his return from Arabia partly at Cairo and partly at 
Alexandria, endeavouring to recruit his health impaired 
by repeated attacks ot fever, and preparing his Nu- 
bian and Arabian journals to bo sent to the Association. 
In April, 1816. the plat;ue having broke out at Cairo, he 
set off for tiic desert of Sinai. He visited that mountain, as 
well as the Hhores of the Klauiiicgulf. and returned to Cairo 
about the middle of June. Hero he proposed to Mr. Salt 
the project of removing the head of Memnon from Gourneh, 
and having it conveyed to England as a present to the 
British Museum : for which purpom; they engaged, at their 
joint expense, Bclxoni, who accomplished its removal to 



Cairo. [Bblzoni.] Borokhardt remained at Cairo waitinf 
for the long-expected caravan from Fezzan, with which he 
intended to proceed on its return to that count r}-. F- r 
several years past no caravan from Fezzan had made t:» 
appearance at Cairo. In Oct., 1816, he forwarded to tl«e 
Association his * Notes on the Bedoweens and the Wah^- 
bees,' which were afterwards published in a separate volume, 
and contain much new information. Burckhardt felt a 
]N!Cu1iar interest for the Bedoweens of Arabia, whom be 
considered ' as the original stock from which the Arabian 
population of Syria, Egypt, and Bartiary is derived ; and 
also as the only Mohammedan nation who in the midat of 
the utter depravity of manners and morals, and the dechne 
of laws and civil institutions throughout the MohamcnedaB 
world, have preserved unchanged tneir antient eitstoms and 
the manners of their forefathers, and still continue to be 
what they were 1200 yeara ago, when their emijFratini; 
tribes conquered part of Asia, Africa, and Europe.* (Burck- 
hardt's Letter from Ccuro, 15th of Oct., 1816, inserted in 
his life.) 

In the autumn of 1817 it became known a^ Cairo that 
among the pilgrims collected at Mecca that year was a party 
of Moghrebins or western Afric4kns, who were to return hooe 
by way of Cairo and Fezzan ; and it was believed that the cara- 
van would take its departure from Cairo about Deeember. 
Burckhardt had now transmitted to England all bia joumalt, 
and was contemplating with the greatest satisfaction the 
moment when he was at last to set out on the main object 
of his mission, for which he had so long and so aaaaduottaly 
been preparing himself But at the beginning of Oetobcr 
of that year he fell ill at Cairo of the dysentery, mud not- 
withstanding every medical assistance, he expired in tbs 
night of the 15th. He communicated his last intentiooa to 
Mr. Salt, in a composed and collected manner, Hk last 
words were about his mother, when he became stroB(!ly 
affected. ' As for my body,* said he, ' I know the Turkj 
will have it (as he had passed in Egypt for a Mussulman) . 
perhaps you had better let them.' Accordingly he wa^ 
buried as the Mohammedan sheik Ibrahim, and hia funeral 
was eonducted with all proper regard to the retpeocable 
rank which he bad held in the eyes of the nativea. He had 
won the universal esteem of botli Christians and Mussul- 
mans. His death, at the early ago of 33, when he had so 
well fitted himself for the purposes of African ditooverr. 
was greatly deplored in Europe. Burckhardt's petmooal 
character stood deservedly high, as any one who peruses 
the extracts of his correspondence with the Aaaociatiun, 
and the account of his last interview with Mr. Salt, botk 
inserted in his Hfe, must feel convinced. (See also Salts 
Curreepondence in Hall's Life qf Salt.) He left his cai> 
lection of Oriental MSS. to the Univenity of Cambridirf. 
His journals were published after his death by the Africaa 
Association. They consist of-*]. * Travels in Nubia,' 4tA, 
1819, with a * Life of Burckhardt :' 2. * Travela in Syria and 
the Holy Land,* 4to., 1822 ; 3. * Travels in Arabia,' 2 \x>U. 
8vo., 1829: 4. 'Notes on the Bedoweens and the Waha- 
bees,* collected during hia travels in the East, 4to., T^widffa, 
1830. 

BURDWAN, one of the 1 7 districts into which the pra* 
vince of Bengal is politically divided, is situated to the «e« 
of the river Hoogly, between 22** and 21° N. lat., and »;• 
and 89° E. long. Burdwan is bounded on the north bt 
Birbhoom and Rajshahy, on the west by Midnapore and 
Ramghur, on the south by Midnapore and Hoogly. and on 
the east by the last-named district and Nuddea. Its arva, 
which is computed at 2400 square miles, is covered with 
a dense population. A census taken in 1814 established 
the fact that the district then conuined 262,634 dwellintrs. 
of which 218,853 were occupied by Hindus, and 43.7H1 h% 
Mohammedans. Computing the number of eaeh family ait 
five and a half persons, the average rate in that paxt of 
India, the total population of Burdwan must at that Ume 
have amounted to 1,444,487 souls, of whom five-sixths «ere 
Hindus, and one*sixth Mohammedans. The popakiiAB 
thus ascertained gives an average of 602 persons to esta 
square mile, being three times the average pioportioa la 
the United Kingdom. 

The district of Burdwan, which forms part of the vallev 
of the Ganges, is a level tract The principal river flowiDC 
through it is the Dummooda, which enters Uie distrvt at 
iU western extremity, flows east to the town of Bitrdwsn, 
and then making an abrupt turn to the south, JQtn» iiir 
Hoogly a few miles below Fulta. Except for a short 



BUR 



26 



BUR 



BURGEON or BOURGEON, an obsolete English and 
modem French name of a leaf Bud. 

BURGBR, GOTTFRIED AUGUST, the son of a 
clerffyman, was born at Walmserwemde, near Halberstadt, 
in January, 1748. While at school he showed no apti- 
tude for grammatical studies, but a great liking for poetry. 
In 1768 he went to Gottingen, where he wasted his time 
and money in dissipation, in consequence of which his 
friends withdrew their assistance from him. But having 
formed an intimacy with several distinguished fellow-stu- 
dents, Voss, Count Stolberg, Sprengel, and others, who 
bad established a literary club for their mutual improve- 
ment, Burger, encouraged by them, began to mend his 
course of life, and to apply himself earnestly to the study 
of the classics as well as the modem poets. Among 
the latter Shakspeare became his favourite. Some ballads 
which he wrote at that time having attracted notice, he 
obtained a situation at Alten Gleichen, and his grandfather 
agreed to pay his debts and to give him further assistance, 
but through the dishonesty of a friend Burger lost the 
money. An imprudent marriage increased his embarrass- 
ments. He however soon after separated from his wife, and 
went to live at Gottingen, where he passed the femainder 
of his Ufb, first as a private teacher, and afterwards as pro- 
fessor of philosophy, but without any fixed salary. His 
misfortunes imparted a tinge of melancholy to several of his 
poetical compositions. After lingering some yearn in bad 
healUi and poverty, he died in 1 794» He published two 
volumes of poems, which were republished aAer his death 
with additions by his friend Karl Reinhard : ' Burger's 
Gedichte»* 2 vols. 8vo. Gottingen, 1796. A third volume 
was published by Reinhard in 1797, containing several spe- 
cimens of translations from the Iliad, both in iambics and 
hexameter verse, with dissertations by the author. Biir- 
ger*s ballads and romances have long been popular in Grer- 
many. His* Leonora' has been translated into English: 
* Burger's Leonora,* by Wm. Robt. Spencer, fol. London, 
1796. A few more translations from Burger are contained 
in the * Specimens of the German lyric poets,* Lond. 1823« 
with a short biographical notice of the author. Burger's 
lomancea are grounded upon local traditions and legends, 
and he makes great use of the feeling of terror produced by 
apparitions and other supernatural agency, always directed 
however to the object of moral retribution. His ' Wilde 
Jiiger/ or ' Fierce Huntsman,* is a good specimen of thi^ 
sort. Burger*8 amatory poems are soft and pleasing, and 
unexceptionable on the score of morality. His language is 
easy and dear. He is altogether one of the first German 
lyrio poets, although Schiller has judged him rather se- 
yereiy. A. W. ScUegel says of Burger, that ' he is a poet 
of an imagination more original than comprehensive, of 
feelings more honest and candid than tender or delicate, is 
more successful in the execution than in the invention of his 
subjects, and more at home in romance than in the loftier 
regions of the lyric muse.* (Mad. de Stael, L'Allemagne; 
Sclilegel ; a«d the Biographical Notice above mentioned.) 

BURGER, a German appellative, denoting a citizen or 
freeman of a municipal town. It is derived from ' burg* 
(BoRoo), and is wiore particularly used in speaking of those 
inhabitants of a free town in Grermany or Switzerland who 
have the right of voting at the election of members for the 
legislative council. The ri<;ht of burghership, whether in 
a fVee town or in a mere municipal town of the above-men- 
tioned countries, is, or was until very lately, acquired either 
by inheritance or by purchase. The French word * bour- 
geois* was originally synonymous with ' biirger,* but it now 
means simply any native inhabitant of a town, without ne- 
cessarily implying the possession of municipal rights, which 
in Prance have been much restricted by the encroachments 
of the central government, and are become of much less 
raaportance than in Germany. 

BURGESS. n^OROuoHs ov Enoland and Walis.] 

BURGil CASTLE, an antient Roman encampment, is 
situated on the borders of Suffolk, and on the east side of 
the river Waveney, near its confluence with the Yare. Its 
form is nearly a regular parallelot^ram, 642 ft. long by 400 
A. broad : the walls are about 14 ft. high and 9 ft. thick. 

On the east side, the walls, which are furnished with cir- 
eular watch-towers, are almost perfect, but those on the 
north and south aides are partly in ruins ; the west wall, 
if there ever was one, has entirely disappeared. The site of 
tiM eneampment it sligbtlv elevated towards the west, and I 
t^ interior la imgttlart which maybe accounted for on the I 



supposition that the small eminences are occasioned by ths 
rums of former edifices. The whole area of the inclo<ur« 
was about 4 acres and three- qua iters. The walls arc of nil.: V 
masonry, faced with alternate courses of bricks and timt^ : 
and on the tops of the towers, which are attached to xlx 
walls, are holes 2 ft. in diameter and 2 ft. deep, supposed t*. 
have been intended for the insertion of temporary watcL- 
towers probably of wood. 



BiTer W»T«B«f. 





tPlan of Burgli Caille, the antirat Garianonnin, SafR^.} 

A, B. Kaitoti mounds. 

C, Groand falls at this point. 

D, Porta Decumana. 

E, Walls in a ruined state. 

On the east side the four circular towers are 1 4 ft in dii* 
meter. Two of them are placed at the angles, where the «-«!•« 
are rounded, and two at equal distances from the ancK^s : 
an opening has been left in the centre of the wall, which is 
considered by Mr. King to be the Porta Decumana, but b> 
Mr. Ives the Porta Pnetoria. The north and aoalh sides 
are also defended by towers of rubble maionry. The foun- 
dation on which the Romans built these walis was a thirk 
bed of chalk lime, well rammed down, and the what 
covered with a layer of earth and sand, to harden the ma^ 
and exclude the water : this was covered with two mrh 
oak plank placed transversely on the foundation* and omtt 
this was a bed of coarse mortar, on which was rouishh 
spread the first layer of stones. The mortar appears to N> 
composed of lime and coarse sand, unsifted, mixed ^\*b 
gravel and small pebbles or shingle. Mr. Ives thinks tbe> 
used hot grouting, which will account for the tenacity of t:^ 
mortar. The bricks at Burgh Castle are of a fine red co 
lour and a very close texture — ^they are one foot and a \uii 
long« one foot broad, and one inch and a half thick. 

The west side of this station was probably defended > 
antient times by the sea, which is now however at eooie di^ 
tanoe, the river Waveney being at present the welter, 
boundary. The fact of the sea having receded is proved h\ 
an old map of Gariensis Ostium, as it is supposed to ha%v 
appeared in the year 1000. A oopy of this map wa<i m» « 
frum the antient plan in the time of Elizalieth, and is pro- 
served in the archives of the corporation of Yarmouth. I. 
confirmation of this circumstance there have been discori^'v •! 
at Burgh Castle, parts of anchors, rings, and other Urv:-* 
pieces of iron. 

Garianonum may have been founded by Ostoriue ScapuTi, 
who subjected the Iceni in the reign of the Emperor CUu- 
dius. Both Camden and Mr. Ives place the prsetorvure m 
the S.W. corner of the station, but King, in his * Mun>. 
menta* (vol. ii., p. 53), considers it to be an additional «>• i 
by the Saxons or Normans, similar to the Saxon ke^p tx 
the S.E. corner of the Castrum at Pevensey in Sussex. \n^ 
accordingly he places the preetorium indefinitely on the tii-«t. 
Camden and Ives both assert that the towers were addr%i 
after the walls. There are some remains of a Ibsse on the 
south side. 

Mr. King calculates that Burgh Castle was ca^bli* c-^ 
containing one whole cohort ana a half with their aU»*« 
(ii., p. ]16). Several Roman coins and other antiquir«« 
have been discovered here : the oldest is a copper cmn *' 
Domitian. A coin of Gratian, of silver, and some evun« • f 
Constantino have also been found ; some silver and sr^Kl 
coins were given by J. Smith, Esq., the former poieeesor sf 



B.vn 

tiMplHOitoDr. HoonibiibopofNoTwith. BesidM tbew 
coins foand both in the iaclosure and in a Geld conti^ous 
to the castle, there nave been found coarse urns, a silver 
apooQ with a pointed handle, bonei o( cattle, coals, burnt 
wheat, rings, keys, flbulffi (buchlet), and a kpear-head. This 
field is supposed to have been tlie burial-place. 

Tlie earliest modern notice of Burgh Castle is in the rei^n 
of Sigebert. 636. when Furseus, an Irish monk, havirie 
collected a company of religious persona, settled at Burgli 
Castle, then called, according to Bade, Cnobenbur|;h. In 
the time of Edward the Confeasor, bishop Sligand held 
Cnobersburch by socaKe. The castle was efterwanls hold 
by Robert oe Burgh, from whom the preiont naraa is pro- 
bably derived. It was surrendered in the reign of Honry 
111., who, in the sath year of his reign, eave it to the mo- 
nastery of Bromholde in the county of Norfolk. It afler- 
warda came into the poHCMioa of laymen. For some cu- 
rious particulars cancerning the manor, see Ives' ' Garia- 
iioiiura,' from which much of the sbove informatian is de- 
rived ; Camden's ' Britlania,' and Kinx's ' Munimenta An- 
tiqua ;' also a plan and view in the British Museum. The 
plan and view in this utkle were made by W. B. Ll;,rke, 
architect, in 133d. 



Visw of Uh pslsH Ikti of auiuioDaiDvltb Iwoot Ibi tamn and UiiFnli 
Dccomuu. 

BURGLARY. The derivation of this word is quite un- 
certain. Bt tome writer* it is supposed to have been intro- 
duced by tne 8a\ans, and to be compounded of burg, a 
castle or house, and larroit or latro, a thief. But Spelman 
conceives that the term was introduced into the criminal 
law of England from Normandy, and says that he finds no 
Iracen of it among the Saxons, (Spelman'a Glottary, tit. 
Hurgtaria, and Hameiteften,) The offence of burglary at 
common law is defined to be * a breaking and entering the 
dwelling- bouse of another in the night, with intent to com- 
mit some felony witbin the same, whether such felonious 
intent be executed or not.' By the statute 7 and 8 Geo. 
IV. c. 29, sect. 11, entering the dwelling-house of another 
with intent to commit a felony, or being in such dwelling- 
house and committing a felony, or in either case breaking 
out of the bouse in the night-time, was declared to constitute 
a burslary, and to be punishable with death. The leading 
characlerisiics of this offence are, Ist, that it mustbecom- 
milled in the night-time, that is, at a time when people are 
presumed to be sleeping ; and therefore it is said in the 
books, that if there be a sut&cient dawniQE of ' dayhght or 
creputculam, either begun or leA, enough to see a man'a 
face wiihol,' when the offence is committed, it vill not l>e 
burglary. The reason of the rule is that the offence, to be 
couiplele, must be committed in the dead of night, and 
it I'oUoirs from this reason that a burglary may be com- 
mitted in the brightest moonlight 

1. There must be a breaking and entering of the bouie ; 
which parts of the offence however are completed by the 
robber even breaking a pane of glass and putting in bis 
hand with a febniotu intention. 

3. The house broken must be the dwelling-house, or, as 
it is raltod, iia * mansion- house' of the person injured. By 
tbiii is meant that it must be a permanent dwelling, and 
not a booth or teitt ; and also that it must be the place of 
tlie actual and penonal residence of man, and not a mere 
■uhle, bun, or out-houM: lUkteM nicb buildings an con- 



7 BUR 

nested with the dwelliue-hotise. Upon this part of the 
subject a great variety of nice distinctions have arisen, fbr 
which we refer to HonsB-BRBAKiNO. 

An indictment for burglary is rarely presented or tried 
at the present day, unless in very aggravated cases where 
capital punishment is probable, as several recent statutes 
have rendered the ptosecution for house-breaking a simpler 
and equally efficient proceeding. 

BURGOMASTER, BURGERMEISTER, is the title 
of the chief magistrate of a municipal town, answerioK 
to the English mayor. In the German free towns the 
biirgermeister is the president of the executive council of 
the tepublic. This is also the case at Zurich, Basel, Schaff- 
bausen, and some other Swiss cantons j while at Bern, 
Freyburg, and Luicm, the corresponding magistrate is 
called schultheiss (in French ' avover'), and in the n;st of 
'le cantons landamman ; which last is not a German but 

BURGOS has been supposed to he of Roman origin, but 
the fact is, that, after the most careful research, it ia hardly 
isible to trace the existence of Burgas farther back llian 
I reign of Alphonso I. oC Asturias and Leon, who colo 
niied as it were part of that very territory, which thet 
began to change its former name of Bardulia, or Vardu* 
lia, fur the modem one of Castile. Some of the new gettlora 
having constructed a few habitations on tho fine banks ui 
the Arlanza and Arlanzon, formed six borouglis or hamleta, 
vestiges of which are still recognizable at tbe hermitages 
of Santa Cruz, San Juan Bauti^ta, and Santa Co- 
loma. These six boroughs or biirgos (a name, according 
to Andreas Braccio, introduced into Italy and Spain by their 
northern invaders) were incorporated into a single or rather 
collective borough, by Diego Purccliis, whom Alphonso III. 
I dii'ccled. in the year 8B4,tu erect a castle on a commanding 
I hill on the right bank of the Arlanzon. As in process of 
time the Moors receded farther and further to tbe S. of 
Burgos, the higher parts of (he town were abandoned for a 
lower and more comfortable siluaiion towards the plain ; so 
that the calle alta, the street which is now tbe highest, was 
formerly the lowest of the city, and probably tbe best, since 
in it the native leading patriots, Fernan Gonzalez, and the 
Cid, had once their palaces. A triumphal arch in honour 
of the former hero, and the mausoleum of the second, now 
mark the spot before covered with those structures. 

As long as Burgos was animated by the presence of its 
sovereign alternately with Toledo, commerce flourished, 
industry was excited, and manufactures were multiplied. 
Its crowded fairs displayed wealth and prosperity ; and it 
was the entrepot of all the trade that was carried on from 
the interior of Spain with the several ports on the Bay of 
BiMCBy. It was also the residence of an important factory 
of many foreign merchants ; and the once famous Segovian 
wool cloth was transmitted from this city to every quarter 
of Europe. But when Charles V. transported the seat of 
royalty, in the beginning of the 16th century, to Madrid, its 
prosperity began rapidly to decline, and in three generations 
It was so impoverished and depopulated, that its former 
40,000 inhabitants and upwards dwindled to 9000 and less, 
leaving to Burgos the bare honour, which it litiU retains, 
of being the capital of Old Castile, and of the province 
(partido) and archbisboprio of its own name. 

Burgos retains a certain air of antiquity and departed 
glory. It is a lai^e hut irregular city, forming a sort of 
semicirele, partly surrounded by antient walls. Close lo 
them flows the Arlanion, which is crossed by three freestone 
bridges leading to tbe suburbs, called yega, Burgos has a 
beautiful promenade, enUvetied by the intermixture of de- 
lightful pirdens, constantly refreshed with fountains of 
water. Another promenade for tbe winter and a general 
burial ground (campo aanto) have been recently added to 
tbe ornaments and conveniences of the city. Some of the 
streets are narrow and crooked, hut others are much 
better, especially that leading to the cathedral. Of its 
numerous squares the only one deserving of iiotiee stands 
in the middle of the city, and ts surrounded by a piazca 
supported by lofty pillars, over which are some loleraUy 
handsome houses. In tbe centre of this square is the 
statue of Charles III. There are also other statues which 
ornament the public places, particularly some of tbe foun- 
tains, with which Burgos is well supplied. The principal 
approach to tbe city is by the gate of Santa Maria, which 
opens on one of the bridges above-mentioned. Thit gate 
WBH built lo commemoiate the founden of lb« Castuiui 



BUR 



28 



BUR 



fnonorchy and tbe niustrions men who contributed to 
its honour and aggrandizement, with whose statues it is 
also adorned. Among these are Feman Qonzalez, Charles 
v., the Cid, and Diego Porcelos. The best public buildings 
are the h5tel de vilTe, the palace of Velazco, and the tri- 
umphal arch already mentioned of Feman Gonzalez, first 
Count of Castile. The Cathedral, a very fine and well- 
preserved specimen of Gothic architecture, was commenced 
in 1221 by Ferdinand III., whom the Spaniards call St. 
Ferdinand, but was not finished till some centuries after. 
This church is embellished with columns, statues, and 
other ornaments of exquisite taste, especially at the en- 
trances called del Peraon, Pellejeria^ and ApostolM, It 
has in front two steeples, with magnificent worked spires ; 
and the octagonal chapel called del Condestable is the 
finest part of its interior. 

The climate of Burgos is damp, and one of the coldest in 
Spain. The manufactures are woollen cloths, stockings, 
baize, blankets, hats, and leather. Burgos has also two 
washing establishments {lavaderos) for wool, and most 
of that which is cxt>orted from Spain passes through it. 
The surrounding country is very beautiful. The famous 
monastery of las Huelgas standi at a quarter of a league, 
and that of Miraflores at half a league S.E. of Burgos, 
which is 47 lea^^ues or 1 12 m. N. of Madrid. It is in 4 2"* 
20' 59" N. lat., 0° 0' 10" W. long, of Madrid, which shows 
how conveniently the northern road from Madrid to France 
passes through Burgos. (Minano ; Laborde, Voyage Pit" 
toresqide dEspagne; Viage de Espana de Don Antonio 
Ponz. torn. xii. p. 19, &c.) 

BURGOYNE, JOHN, supposed to be a natural son of 
J..Qrd Bingley, but concerning whoso youthful history we are 
without information, was appointed Lieut.-Col. Commandant 
of the 16lh light dragoons in August, 1759. After serving 
at Belle Isle in 1761, he joined the Portuguese army under 
command of the Count De la Lippe in the following 
year, and greatly distinguished himself by surprising and 
capturing the town of Alcantara. Before his return to 
England he was promoted to the rank of colonel. In 1761 
he was returned member of parliament for the borough of 
Midhurst, and for that of Preston in 1768. A presumed 
political connexion with the Duke of Grafton exposed him 
to the invective of Junius, by whom he was treated with 
great severity. He partook largely in the debates respect- 
ing the Falkland Islands in 1771, and in the following year 
be directed his attention to the abuses supposed to exist in 
the government of the East Indies. 'While serving as a 
subaltern at Preston he had secretly married Lady Char- 
lotte, daughter of the Earl of Derby, with whom, aAer a 
time, the offending couple obtainecl reconciliation. This 
connexion first led nim to write for the stage. His earliest 
dramatic piece, * The Maid of the Oaks,' was written for a 
fSto champdtre given at his father-in-law's seat (the Oaks), 
in June, 1774, by the Earl of Derby, in honour of the mar- 
riage of his eldest son. Lord Stanley, with Lady Bettv, a 
daughter of the Duke of Hamilton. Lad^ Charlotte Bur- 
goyne died at Kensington palace without issue, June 5th, 
1 776, during which year and that preceding it Burgoyne 
8er\'ed in North America. In the summer of 1777 he was 
appointed to th^ command of a large force ordered to 
penetrate from Albany on the Hudson river to Canada, by 
the lakes. His numWrs on paper were 8000 regulars, 
2000 Canadians, and 1000 Indians ; but of these there were 
never really assembled more tluin 7000 regulars, 150 Cana- 
dians, and 400 savages. After some success in the early 
part of his expedition, and the capture of Ticonderoga, he 
became greatly straitened for provisions, and more than 
one of his detachments were cut off. Having crossed the 
Hudson he encaroncd at Saratoga, about 30 m. N. of Albany. 
Here, in October, lie was surrounded by 18,000 Americans, 
under Generals Arnold and Gates, who, perceiving the 
necessity to which their enemy was reduced, prudently 
declined battle, trusting to wear him out. Thus disas- 
trously circumstanced, he opened a convention witli General 
Gates, in which the American commander at first asserted 
that the retreat of the British was cut off, and proposed that 
they should groiftid their arms within their own encamp- 
ments. He was answered with spirit to the first statement — 
that ' LieuL-Gen. Burgoyne's army, however reduced, will 
never admit that their retreat is cut off while they have 
arms in their hands;* and to the second demand — *This 
articla is inadmissible in any extremity. Sooner than this 
army viU oonaeni to groond toeir armi in their encampment, 



they will rush on the enemy, detennined tofmke noqvMuter. 
And again, in similar language, — * If General Gmtes does 
not mean to recede from the 6th article, the treaty ends 
at once. The army will, to a man, proceed to any act of 
desperation rather than submit to that article.' 

It was finally settled that the British troops should mairh 
out of the camp with all the honoun of war, and shouM 
be sent to Europe on condition of not serving in Ame- 
rica during existing hostilities. The ministry in Emr- 
land received the news of this convention with profound 
indignation, since it was chiefly owing to it that France 
acknowledged the independence of the United States ; and 
the press was vigorously employed to shift the blame froo 
the cabinet upon General Burgoyne. Both an audienne 
with the kin^ and a court-martial were refused ; and when 
he defended himself in the house of commons, an attempt 
was made to exclude him from that assembly, under pre- 
tence that, as a prisoner of war, he had no right either i? 
speak or to vote ; but the speaker having been appealed to 
decided in his favour. On that occasion he roluntanU- 
resigned all his appointments. At a subsequent penod, 
when he was allowed to produce evidence before a coia- 
mittee which had been appointed to inquire into the con- 
duct of Sir William Howe, the testimony advanced was 
highly in favour of his bravery and military knowledge. 

On the change of ministry at the close of the AinrricaA 
war, he was appointed Commander-in-chief in Ireland, the 
lost of his professional employments ; ond he appears, en 
his resignation two years afterwards, to have devotfd 
himself entirely to lighter literature. He contributed to 
the • Rolliad,' the • Ode to Dr. Prettyman,' and the ' Wen- 
minster Guide.* A comic opera, the * Lord of the Man<v/ 
had already appeared in 1780, and in 1786 he attempted! 
higher species of composition in the comedy of * The 
Heiress.' Not long afterwards he adapted to the sfoce 
Scdaine's historical romance * Richard CcBur de Ltoo.' 
His political career ended by his being appointed one 
of the managers for conducting the impeachment of Mr. 
Hastings. During the trial of Hastings, he moved sikI 
obtained the censure of the house upon Major Scott, for 
an attack on the conduct of the committee. He did tmA 
Hve till the conclusion of the trial, but was cut off tr 
a sudden attack of the gout, on the 4th of June, 1792, and 
was buried privately in the cloisters of Westminster AbWT 

The dramatic and poetical works of Lieutenant-Gene*^ 
Burgoyne were collected in two small volumes in 1808, asd 
it is perhaps offering praise inadequate to his merits wh^c 
we describe him as a very agreeable and clever writer. I: 
would not be just to subject his lighter theatrical pieces t* 
grave criticism, and it may be enough to say of them that 
after the lapse of about fourscore years, ' The Lord of tU 
Manor' and * Richard Cceur de Lion* still keep oceasiooil 
possession of the stage ; we know not indeed where to fisi 
eii^ht lines of simpler or deeper pathos than the sore 
' Encompassed in an angeVs frame,* introduced into tU 
former. Of 'The Heiress,* it is most probable that tbv 
author of 'The School for Scandal* was a diligent stuJent. 
and that he borrowed and improved some of its situat:«.Tf 
and dialogue, a process by no means uncommon «.:h 
Sheridan. The * Hail to the Lyar and • The Westmtnsttf 
Guide* are inferior in point to scarcely any production is 
the witty volume of which they form a portion. (Ufe pn^ 
fixed to his works.) 

BURGUNDIANS, a peop.e who settled in Gaul upcr 
the downfal of the Roman empire. The origin of the nuiK 
and of the people seems to be alike unknown. Planchrr 
( * Hist de Bourgogne *) has very gravely stated and refui«-2 
the various conjectures on this head. A favourite supp.^- 
tion seems to have been that the Burgundians werv (!«• 
scended from the Romans. They are mentioned by Pl.n« 
the elder, in his ' Hist. Nat.,* lib. iv. c.28, under the nam:* 
of Burgundiones, and he numbers them among the branrhs> 
of the great stock of the Vindili or Vandals ; Ptolemy pLc« 
these Vin'Mli upon the lower Vistula. The Roman historur.f 
and orators give us some intimation of their disputes an i 
wars with the Goths, the Alemanni, and other barbaioL^ 
nations. In the reign of the Roman £mperor Pirobus thor 
came into conflict with the Romans ; Probus defeated them 
and their allies, who were of other branches of the Vanda*< 
In the reign of Diocletian and Maximian they in\a><i 
Gaul in conjunction with the Alemanni ; but their unvuKS 
host was destroyed by famine, pestilence, and the svunl 
In the time of the Emperor Valentinian I. they «cr>: si 



BUR 



29 



BUR 



▼arianee with the Alemaniii, who dwelt between the Upper 
Rhine and the Upper Danube, on account of some brine 
springs that were near the frontier of these two people, which 
shows that the Burgundians had moved from their seats on 
the Vistula to the country near the Rhine. Valentinian, de- 
sirous of humbling the Alemanni, formed an alliance with 
the Burgundians (Ammianus Marcellinus calls them Bur- 
gundii), who raised an armv of 80,000 men, according to 
some writers, and advanced to the Rhine without expe- 
riencing any opposition from their terrified opponents. The 
emperor, having humbled his enemies, refused to perform 
his promises to his allies ; and the Burgundians returned 
home highly disgusted with his breach of faith. In the reign 
of Honorius, about a.d. 406, or the beginning of 407, they 
invaded Graul, like several other of the barbarous nations 
on the frontier, but it is doubted whether they acted con- 
jointly. Shortly after this we find the Burgundians sup- 
porting JovinuSi who assumed the imperial purple in oppo* 
sition to Honorius. The latter prince however made peace 
with them, and ceded to them part of Gaul, near the banks 
of the Rhine (or confirmed its previous cession byJovinus), 
and from this cession arose the kingdom of Burgundy. About 
the same time the Burgundians embraced the Christian re- 
ligion, at first under what is generally termed the orthodox 
form ; afterwards they became Arians. Their kingdom 
afterwards increased so far as to comprehend that part of 
Gaul which was to the east of the Saone and Rhone (ex- 
cept the coast of Provence south of the Durance), Savoy, 
and a part of Switzerland. 

Gundicarius was king of the Burgundians at the time of 
their settlement in Gaul. He was engaged in wars at a 
subsequent period with the Romans uiSer /Etius (a.o. 435 
or 436), and sustained a great overthrow from Attila (a.d. 
4 -^O, or thereabout). Among his successors were Girndeu- 
chus, and after Gundeuchus his four sons Gundobald, Gode- 
gisilus, Chilperic, and Grodemar, who were said to be of 
G)thic extraction. Clotilda, or Clotildis, who married Clovis 
king of the Franks, was the daughter of Chilperic. Chil- 
peric and Grodemar dying, or bemg killed by Gundobald, 
according to Gregory of Tours (whose account is however 
to be received with great distrust), the remaining two bro- 
thers divided the kingdom between them, and fixed their 
residence, Gundobald at Lyons and Godegisilus at Geneva. 

The character of Gundobald has been very unfavourably 
represented by Grregory of Tours ; but perhaps Gregory's 
partiality to the Franks or his desire to win the favour of 
the Prankish kings influenced his judgment. Gundobald 
was in favour with the Romans. The emperor Olybrius 
bestowed upon him, a.d. 472, the title of patrician ; and the 
usurper Glycerins rested on his support. His eloquence, 
nis penetration, his Quickness of invention, are celebrated by 
his panegyrists ; ana his tolerant spirit will be regarded in 
the present day as a subject of just applause. He was an 
Arian, perhaps the first Arian prince of his race, but he did 
i*ot persecute the Catholics. Their bishops assembled with- 
out interruption, and their churches preserved their endow- 
ments. The king attended the discussions held by the ad- 
vocates of the two parties on their points of difference, and 
kept up a correspondence with Avitus, the Catholic bishop 
of Vienne. He improved the laws of bis kingdom, and even 
Gregory admits that his alterations were made with the 
view of rendering the condition of the old inhabitants of the 
country more tolerable, and of softening the barbarism of 
his Burgundians. 

In the year 500 Gundobald was attacked by Clovis king 
of the Franks, whose ambition and military talents were 
raising the Franks to the supremacy of Gaul. Gundobald 
applied to his brother for aid against an enemy whom both 
had cause to fear. Godegisilus consequently joined him ; 
but this treacherous brother was in secret alliance with the 
Franks, and in the battle which was fought near Dijon, he 
went over to them. Gundobald was in consequence de- 
feated and fled to Avignon, where he fortified himself. 
Clovis pursued him to this city, and besieged him there ; 
but meeting with a stouter resistance than he expected, he 
concluded a peace with Gundobald, on condition of a tribute, 
which the latter afterwards refused to pay. 

In this treaty Clovis neglected to secure the interests of 
Godegisilus, who had by this time overrun his brother's do- 
minions and entered Vienne in triumph. Here Gundobald 
came upon him by surprise, besieged the city, and having 
taken it, caused Godegisilus, who had taken refuge in the 
church of the Arians, to be put to death. From this time 
Gundobald reigned over the whole kingdom of the Bur- 



I gundians. In the latter oart of his leign he gave the Ca 

tholics reason to believe tnat he had embraced their views ; 
but it is very questionable if ever he renounced Arianism ; 
and it may be doubted if he designed anything more than to 
cajole the Catholic prelates, and to avert by their mediation 
the hostility of Clovis, who was a Catholic. Gundobald 
died A.D. 516* 

Sigismund, the son and successor of Gundobald, had be- 
come a Catholic during his father's reign. Soon after his 
accession a council of bishops was held ; and from the 
prelates who attended it, the extent of the Burgundian king- 
dom is inferred. Sigismund published, about a.d. 517, a 
collection of the Burgundian laws, which is still extant. 
These laws contain for the most part the original customs 
of tlie Germans, such as are found in the records of other 
German nations. Sigismund was twice married, and had 
children by each wife : by bis first wife, who was daughter 
of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths of Italy, he had a son, 
Sigeric, and a daughter who was married to Theuderic, or 
Thierri, the Frankish king of Austrasia and son of Clovis. 
This son, upon an unjust suspicion instilled into hiiii by 
the children of his second wife, he put to death a.d. 522. 
This act was the ruin of Sigismund. He lost his peace 
of mind, which he tried in vam to recover by a temporary 
retirement to the monastery of St Maurice on the Rhone 
(which he had founded or re-established), and by other 
observances which the religion of the times dictated. 
Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, his surest support 
against the power and ambition of the Franks, was en- 
raged at the murder of his grandson ; the affections of 
Sigismund's own subjects were alienated ; and the calami- 
ties which overtook him were regarded as judgments of 
heaven. In 523 Chlodomir, Clotaire, and Childebert, three 
of the sons of Clovis now dead, instigated by their mother 
Clotilda, attacked the Burgundian kingdom, to which they 
pretended to derive a claim by their mother. Sigismund 
was defeated and delivered up by his own subjects mto the 
hands of Chlodomir, by whom he was carried to Orleans. 
Godomar, his brother, assumed the management of affairs, 
and recovered those cities which the Franks had taken. 
Chlodomu: upon this ordered Sigismund, with his wife and 
some other persons, to be put to death. Godomar succeeded 
to the crown. 

Chlodomir, having perpetrated this cruel deed, set ont 
against the Burgundians, assisted by some troops sent to 
him by his brother Thierri, king of Austrasia, who had 
married the daughter of Sigismund, as already noticed ; but 
he fell in battle near Vienne a.d. 524. This event retarded 
for a time tlie ruin of the Burgundian kingdom, which stood 
for about ten years longer. In 534 Childebert and Clotaire, 
sons of Clovis, and Theodebert, son and successor of Thierri 
king of Austrasia, made an entire conquest of it. Go- 
domar was taken prisoner, and passed the rest of his days in 
captivity ; and from this time the Burgundians disappear 
from history as an independent nation. They have indeed 
transmitted tlieir name to later times, for one of the divisions 
of the Frankish monarchy was called fi*om them Burgundy 
or Bourgogne, and the appellation has been inherited by 
one of the finest provinces of modem France. [BouR- 

OOONB.] 

The Burgundians, like the other Germans, enjoyed a 
considerable share of political freedom. Their laws were 
enacted by the advice of the whole nation ; and when those 
laws were promulgated by Sigismund, they retained their 
Grermanic features : murder was however punished by death. 
They borrowed some things from the Roman laws, and the 
provincials who had been accustomed to those laws were 
allowed, at least in many instances, to retain them. When 
a Roman and a Burgundian happened to be at variance, a 
judge was appointed from each nation. The Burgundians 
are in their own laws distinguished by the designation 
Barbari, 

The Burgundians retained their constitution under the 
dominion of the Franks ^ but they were obliged to pay tri- 
bute, and to serve them in their wars ; and in the Frankish 
laws their subjection was made apparent by the inferior 
valuation of their lives. The death of a Burgundian might 
be atoned for by a payment of one hundred and sixty solidi, or 
snillings : that of a Frank for not less than two hundred. 
(Mascou's History of the Antient Germans^ translated by 
Lcdiard.) 

BURGUNDY. [Bourooqnk.] 

BURIAL. [Intrrmknt.1 

BURIATKS, THE, constitute one of the three great 



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30 



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divisions of nations into whioh tho Mongols aro dlTided ; 
the two others are the Mongols themselves and the EuUth, 
or Cal mucks. The Buriates iahahit the mountainous coun« 
try inclusing the Lake of Baikal on the W. and S., from the 
mouth of the river Bargoosin on the B. side of the lake to 
the sources of the Lena on the W, ; so that more than one- 
half of its shores are in their possession. They are also 
found to a eonsiderahle distance, perhaps upwards of 100 
miles, from its shores. 

In the form of their body they do not differ from the 
Mon^^ols, and there is such a resemblance between the 
language spoken by these two nations that they are soon 
enabletl to understand one another; yet the language of 
the Buriates is said to be much harsher in its pronunciation. 

Tliose tribes of the Buriates which live on the N.W. 
shores of the Baikal lake are pagans, like the other nations 
of Siberia, and have adopted that kind of paganism which 
is called Shamanism. But the tribes which occupy the 
country to the S.E. of the lake have embraced the Bud- 
dhism of the Lamas. These Buriates are said to possess a 
literature which probably consists of theological and meta- 
physical writings. 

A small number of the Buriates cultivate the ground, 
but by far the greater number live on the produce of their 
herds. They have numerous bodies of horses, blark cattle, 
and sheep ; also a small number of camels, which in winter 
time are sewed up in blankets to defend them from the 
effects of the intense frost. Their chief wealth consists of 
horses, of which they eat the liesh and drink the milk. 

The Buriates have made considerable progress in some 
of the arts of civilized life, especially in working iron and 
in tanning. They are well acquaintea with the art of plating 
iron with silver, and they have a very simple method of doing 
it, which is described in the travels of Georgi. The art of 
tanning is only practised by the women, who evince in this 
branch of industry great ingenuity and much taste. The 
women also make all the woollen stuffs which are in use 
among them for dresses, blankets, covers for their dwell- 
ings, Sec. 

As they are obliged frequently to change their places of 
abode to procure pasture for their herds, they have different 
dwellings for summer and winter ; but it seems that both 
kinds ate convenient, and well adapted to the climate and 
their circumstances. 

Many of the Buriates are rich. On the N.W. of the 
Baikal they seldom possess above 100 heads of animals of 
all kinds, and very rarely 500 or 1 000 ; but those to the S.E. 
of the lake have sometimes many thousands. 

According to the most recent information the number of 
all the Buriates subject to Russia who are able to bear arms 
amounts to 73,000, which would give a population of be- 
tween 200,000 and 300.000 souls. Between Selensk and 
Nert>hinsk is the residence of the richest of their princes 
(called tdishas), who, acconling to Cochrane, has about 
23.000 subjects. (Georgi, Pallas, Cochrane.) 

BURIGNY, JEAN LE'VESQUE DE, was born at 
Rheims in 1692. He went to Paris in 1713, and tliere 
applied himself strenuously to philological and historical 
studies. After several vears he went to Holland, where he 
engaged with De St. Hyacinthe in the compilation of a 
literary journal called * UEurope savante,* which began to 
anpear at La Hague, in January, 171S, and was continued 
till 1720. It is one of the best journals of that period, and 
contains many interesting articles on the literature and 
political history of the times. The collection of ' L*Europe 
savante* forms 12 vols. 1 2mo. About one-half of the papers 
were written by Burigny. He published also •Trait6 de 
Vautorit^ du Pape, dans lequel ses droits sont 6tablis, et 
reduits i leurs justes homes,* 4 vols. 12mo., 1720, a work of 
close reasoning, on a subject which is very intricate and has 
caused much controversy among Catholics. The author 
professes the principles of the Grail ican church, and carries 
them to a verv great length. The questions of the sub- 
ordination of the pope to the councils, — of the fallibility of 
the pope and of the Roman church itself, and of the con- 
sequent right of the Catholic world, in such a contingency, 
to choose another pastor, — of the independence of the 
his^hops, especially in matters of discipline, &o., are all dis- 
cussed at length. The * Histoire de la Philosophie Payenne,* 
1724. was afterwards re-published at Paris under the'title of 
' Thi^olo^ie Payenne ; ou. sentimens des philosophes et des 
pcuplcs payens les plus c61cbrcs, sur Dicu, sur Tdme, et sur 
Ics devoirs de 1 homme,* 2 vols. 12mo., Paris, 1754. This 
•econd edition is much superior to the first, and is con- 



sidered by lOTBe as Burigny*8 best work. Bracker wrote 

some critical observations on the first edition, in his * Otiura 
Vindelicum/ Augsburg, 1731. Burigny having returned 
to Paris, was made a member of the Academy des B«;I1^< 
Lettres. His other works are, ' Histoire G^n6rale de Sicile/ 
2 vols. 4to., 1 745, a work of great research, and one of the 
best on the subject. — ' Trait6 de Porphyre touchant I'absti- 
nence des viandes,' translated ttom the Greek of Porpb«- 
rius, with the Life of Plotinus, 12mo., 1747. — ^Histoire 
des Revolutions de I'Empire de Constantinople depui» h 
fondation de cetto Ville jusqu'& Tan 1453,' 3 vols, irvu^ 
1750. The last book contains a retrospect of the vani>ui 
controversies, ruptures, and attempts at a reconciltati k: 
between the Greek chureh and that of Rome. — * La \*te 
de Grotius, avec THistoire de ses ouvrages et des nepv- 
tiations auxquelles il fut employ^,* 2 vols. 12mo., 1 752. — * Li 
Vie d'Erasme de Rotterdam,' 2 vols. ]2mo.. 1 757, with mnn? 
interesting particulars concerning the age of Erasmus. Tbi* 
work was translated into German by Reiche, with ad<litiont. 
2 vols. 8vo, Halle, 1 782. — * Vie de Bossuet,* 12mo., 1761.— 
* Vie du Cardinal du Perron,* 1768. These two last bio- 
graphies are considered much inferior to the two yre- 
ceding. — ' Lettre sur les D6m8l^ de Voltaire avec M. d« 
St. Hyacinthe,* 8vo., London, 1 780. Burigny wrote abo a 
number of dissertations, which are inserted in the * Recucil 
des M£moires de T Academic des Belles Lettres/ Hi» 
learning was very extensive, and his memory excellent, but 
his style is cold and rather diffuse. Burigny was Rmial>l'; 
and unpretending ; he lived entirely for study, and he wa» 
much surprised when, in his old age, he learned that Lo :s 
XVI. had bestowed on him a pension of 2000 francs. H; 
died at Paris, in October, 1785, ninety^four years of ai:^ 
having preserved his mental faculties to the last Durje: 
wrote his eulogy for the Academy, of which he was a mem ; % r 

BURIN. [Graver.] 

BURKE, EDMUND, was bom in Dublin on the K? 
January, 1730, O. S. His father, Richard Burkc« tr 
Bourke, a Protestant, and the son of a gentleman of lau'lt i 
property in the co. of Cork, was an attorney in large pn-.' - 
tice. His mother was a Miss Nagle, a Catholic lady. S!.' 
was, it seems, great niece of Miss Ellen Nagle, who niarr: i 
Sylvaims Spenser, the eldest son of the poet. Edmuni, 
whose Christian name may possibly have descended to him 
from the author of the * Fairy Queen,* was the second : 
three sons, who, with a daughter, were all that grew up m. 
a familv of fourteen or fifteen children. 

Mr. trior, in his • Life of Burke' (2d edit. vol. i. p. 7). -u 
refuting the common calumny that Burke entered politiril 
life almost a penniless adventurer, has stated that U 
' received from nis familv at various times a sum little sh r. 
of 20,000/.,' a fact of wnich he was assured from unquo- 
tionable authority, and which was frequently mentioned bi 
the late Dr. Lawrence to Burke's friends. But the propv-r 
authority for this fact is a document which appears to have 
been overlooked by all his biographers. We refer to the 
preface or introduction, extending to nearly seventy pa::^. 
prefixed by his executors to the celebrated • Obaervatum* 
on the Conduct of the Minority in the Session of 179^ 
when thct pamphlet was first published in an authect.. 
form immediately^ after his death. This interesting sta:<-- 
ment, which reviews the whole of Burke's history, and t- 
full of curious and valuable matter, is not found in any <( 
the collected editions of his works, having probably bec' 
withdrawn in order that it might be incorporated in tJw 
life of him long promised by his principal executor, D- 
King, the late bishop of Rochester, which however h-.* 
never appeared. The passage relating to the matter now 
before us is as follows: — * He was daily viUfied as u. 
obscure and needy adventurer, yet he did not tell, what hv 
had in his hands the means of substantiating, that he «;^a 
sprung from a family antiently ennobled in several of u* 
branches, and possessing an ample estate, which his irrani* 
father had actually enjoyed ; nor that he had himself su.nk 
a handsome competency in his adherence to his part*. 
Once, and but once, in debate, he was provoked to decl i.-v 

his private ciroumstances He said, that by 

the death of a brother whom he loved and lamented he 
had succeeded to upwards of 20,000/.; part of which U 
had spent, and the rest then remained to be spent in tf 
independent support of his principles.' It may be obs^TVt i 
that what is here affirmed about his grandfather hai .: 
actually enjoyed the ancestral estate is contrary t> ih 
common statement. Mr. Prior's account is, that the e^t* . 
> in question, which was in the county of Limerick, had been 



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31 



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brfeited * some time in tbe troubled period between 1641 
md 1653/ and tbat Bdmand*s ^reat- grandfather was tbe 
Irst of the family who removed to the county of Cork, 
^hcre he had another property, which he left to bis de- 
scendants. This last estate was of comparatively small value. 

Young Burke, whose health in his childhood was very 
lelicate, being sent to live with his grandfather in the 
county of Cork, was first put to school at the village of 
Castletown Roche, where he is supposed to have remained 
ibout five years. On his return to Dublin he was sent to a 
(chool in that city; but he was removed in May, 1741, 
ilong with his two brothers, to the classical academy at Bal- 
itore in the county of Kildare, which had been established 
lome years before by John Barcroft and Amos Strettel, two 
nembers of the Society of Friends, and has ever since sub- 
iisted under the direction of persons of that communion. 
iVhen Burke was sent there, the institution enjoyed a very 
ligh reputation under the management of Abraham 
Suackleton, a Quaker of superior talents and learning, who 
lad been brought over from Yorkshire to conduct it about 
iftecn years before. Here Burke remained for about three 
'ears, during which time he always considered that he had 
icquired the most valuable of his mental habits. With 
Hichard Shackleton, the only son of his master, and after- 
vards his successor in the school, he preser^*ed an intimate 
riendship to the end of his life. 

On leaving Ballitore Burke proceeded in April, 1744, to 
Hrinity College, Dublin, where he does not appear to have 
greatly distinguished himself; but on the 26th of May, 
746, he was elected a scholar of the house. He com- 
Dcnced A.B. the 23rd of February, 1748, and proceeded 
V.M. in 1751. Meantime, having been intended fur the 
Snglish bar, he had entered at the Middle Temple on the 
t3rd of April, 1747; and in the beginning of 1750 he left 
Dublin for London. 

Of his legal studies nothing is known with certainty; 
>ut it is probable that the attractions of literature and 
politics soon withdrew him from all thoughts of the law as 
I profession. It is believed that he became a writer in the 
newspapers and periodical publications almost immediately 
»n his arrival in London. About 1752 or 1753 he is said 

have oSered himself as a candidate for the professorship 
»f logic in the university of Glasgow, and to have been un- 
uccessful ; but the whole of this story is considered very 
loubtful, and the records of the university do not afford 
he means of settling the question, as it is not the practice 
a elections to register any names but those of the success- 
ul candidates.* About the year 1755 he had formed 
he design of going to America, where some place under 
government had been offered him in one of the provinces, 
rhis project however, which he seems to have entertained 
or upwards of two years, he finally gave up in conseouence 
if the opposition of his father, wliom he had already dis- 
deased by his abandonment of the bar. 

His first separate literary work, so far as is known, ap- 
peared in 1756, in the form of an octavo pamphlet of 106 
>ages, entitled • A Vindication of Natural Society, or a view 
»f tbe miseries and evils arising to mankind from every 
ipecics of artificial society, tn a letter to Lord ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ by 

1 late noble writer.' This is — especially for a young man 
>f twenty-six — in all respects a very remarkable produc- 
;ion. In the first place, the imitation of the stvlc and 
manner of Lord BoUngbroke, bv whom the 'Vimlication' 
effects to be written, is so skilfully managed that when it 
Brst appeared, without the preface explaining the design 
nrhich now introduces it, even some persons eminent in the 
literary world — Lord Chesterfield and Bishop Warburton 
among others — are said to have taken it for a genuine pro- 
rluction. But, without reference to its merit as an imita- 
tion, the style is throughout singularly flowing and bril- 
liant : and indeed it would, we apprehend, be difficult to 
mention any piece among I^rd Bolingbroke's compositions 
in which the same spirit and eloquence are so long sustained. 
The performance however is chiefly deserving of attention 
as indicating the peculiar direction that the mind of the 
author had alraady taken in speculating upon the subiects 
which he handles, and as proving how early there had been 
fonned in it at least the germs of that philosophy of morals 
and of society which may be traced in all his writings and 
his subsequent public conduct. The following passage, 
containing the key to the purpose of the pamphlet, will be 
at once recognised bv all who are familiar with his writings 

• Comnmnination from Glaag ow. 



on the French Revolution, as identical in spirit with the 
whole tenor of those his latest productions ; and his various 
speeches on the American war are all marked and pervaded 
by the same cast of thought, which may be defined gene- 
rally as a deep sense of the incompetency of the human 
mind when giving itself up to speculative ingenuity, and re- 
jecting all light and guidance firom the experience of past 
ages, and all regard for things actually established, to cope 
with the comnlex problem of re-arranging society ; and, 
derived from these feelings, a vehement aversion to the in- 
troduction into the practice of statesmanship of any thing 
appertaining to what may be called the metaphysics of 
social philosophy : — * The editor is satisfied that a mind 
which has no restraint from a sense of its own weakness, of 
its subordinate rank in the creation, and of thos^xtreme 
danger of letting the imagination loose upon some subjects, 
may very plausibly attack everything the moat excellent 
and venerable ; that it would not be difficult to criticise the 
creation itself ; and that if we were to examine the divine 
fabrics by our ideas of reason and fitness, and to use the 
same method of attack by which some men have assaulted 
revealed religion, we might, with as good colour, and with 
the same success, make the wisdom and power of Grod in 
his creation appear to many no better than foolishness.* 

A few months after this pamphlet he published his ' Phi- 
losophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the 
Sublime and Beautiful,* which however he is said to have 
begun when he was only nineteen. The leading doctrine 
propounded in this essay is, that the feeling of the sublime 
means the delight we experience whenever we have an 
idea of pain and danger, without being actually in such 
circumstances ; and that the feeling of the beautiful means 
the delight that is excited in us by all such qualities in 
things as induce in us a sense of affection and tenderness 
or some other passion the most nearly resembling these, 
while we are yet altogether unaffected by the physical pas- 
sion the object of which is the beauty of women. These 
views are illustrated by many ingenious and striking obser- 
vations ; but the spirit of the work on the whole is certainly 
rather critical than metaphysical. It was however very 
well received by the public, and immediately brought the 
author into much notice. 

This year. Burke, having gone to Bath to re-establisb 
his health after an attack of illness, and having there taken 
up his residence with his countryman and distant relation. 
Dr. Christopher Nugent, a physician, formed an attachment 
to that gentleman's daughter, and married her. Dr. Nugent 
was a Catholic, but his daughter had been brought up a 
Presbyterian by her mother, who is said to have been a 
very ri^id one. 

In April, 1757, Dodsley, who had been the publisher of 
the * Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful,* brought out 
* An Account of the European Settlements in America,' 
in 2 vols. 8vo., a performance of which, although it has not 
found a place in any collected edition of his works, there 
can be little doubt that Burke was the author. Indeed his 
receipt to Dodsley for the copy money, fifty guineas, was 
sold a few months ago by Evans at an auction of auto- 
graphs. The work, although somewhat unequally written, 
is an animated and interesting sketch of American history 
up to the date of its publication ; the general views are 
often ingenious and comprehensive, and the information is 
the result of very considerable reading. The fondness for 
the study of the subject of commerce, by which Burke was 
aflerwards so much distinguished, is strongly displayed in 
this early production. * My principal view.' he says in his 
preface, *in treating of the several settlements, was to draw 
everything towards their trade, which is the point that 
concerns us the most materially ;' and one of his remarks 
in the body of the work is, that whereas at the time when 
settlements in America were first formed by the Spaniards 
and Portuguese, *the speculative knowledge of trade made 
no part of the study of the elevated or thinking part of 
mankind, now it may be justly reckoned amongst the 
liberal sciences, and it makes one of the most considerable 
branches of political knowledge.' 

There is every reason to believe that Burke had already 
seriously determined to devote his whole strength to the 
attainment of political distinction. With such views lie set 
to work vigorously to store his mind with the knowledge 
most necessary for an orator and statesman, making his 
labours as a writer for the press, as well as his private stu- 
dies, subservient to this ambition. He had been for some 



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32 



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tine «Bmloyed on a hktory of Eiiglaiiil« and thk y<6ar eiriit 
aheaU oi Um work were piinted by Dodaley in quarto. But 
although as much mora was written as brini^ down the 
narrative to the end of the reign of John, the publication 
was ibr some reason or other given up. The whole has 
been printed from the author's papers since his death. He 
soon after engaged in a work which oeeupied much of his 
attention for many years, and which indeed he is understood 
to have in some degree superintended to the end of his 
life, the ' Annual Register,' the first volume of which, for 
the year 1758, was published by Dodsley in June of the 
following year. (Annual Rboistbr.) For the preparation 
of this work, which from the first was highly successful, 
Burke appears to have been paid by I>odsley at the rate of 
100/. per volume. 

He had now become very generally known in the litmry 
cireles of London, and also to many persons of political 
consequence. Among the latter was the popular Irish 
nobleman, the late Lord Charlemont, durinc^ a long life one 
of the most distinguished members of the Whig connexion 
in Ireland. His lordship introduced Burke in 1759 to Mr. 
William Gerard Hamilton, better remembered by the name 
of 8ingle- Speech Hamilton. When Lord Halifax, who 
was Hamilton's patron, went over to Ireland as lord-lieu- 
tenant, in 1761, Hamilton accompanied him as chief secre- 
<ary, and the latter offered the place of his private secretary 
to Burke. The offer was accepted, and Burke now returned 
to his native country, there to make his first entrance upon 
public life. 

r This connexion however did not last long. Burke's 
Activity and the usefulness of his services to the govern- 
menC soon acquired for him much consideration ; and in 
ApriL 1763, a pension of 300/. per annum on the Irish 
establishment was settled on him : but having been instru- 
mental in procuring him this reward, Hamilton, whose 
nature was intensely selfish, appears to have conceived that 
ho had thereby entitled himself to Burke's services and 
servilitv for life, as much as if he had paid him the money 
out of nis own pocket. On discovering this, Burke imme- 
diately threw up the pension, after having enjoyed it only 
a year, and broke with his patron for ever. 

When the Marouis of Rockingham was called to the 
head of affairs, on tne breaking up of the administration of 
Mr. (jeorge Grenville, in July, 1765, Mr. Burke was, on 
tlie recommendation of several common friends, and espe- 
cially, it is said, of Mr. Fitzhcrbcrt, member for Derby, 
appointed to the situation of nrivate secretary to the new 
premier. He has himself, in nis * Appeal from the New 
to the Old Whigs' (written in July, 1791), given us the 
date of his appointment— the 17th of July, which was just 
fl week after the nomination of the Marquis as First Lord 
4>f the Treasury. 'This July/ he says, B^teaking of liim- 
aelf in the third person, ' it will be twenty-six years since 
lie became connected with a man whose memory will ever 
be precious to Englishmen of all parties, as long as the 
ideas of honour and virtue, public and private, are undcr- 
atood and cherished in this nation. Tluit memory will be 
kept alive will) particular veneration by all rational and 
honourable Whigs. Mr. Burke entered into a connexion 
with that party, through that man, at an age far from 
raw and immature ; at those years when men are all they 
are ever likely to become ; when he was in the prime an^ 
vigour of his life; when the powers of his understanding, 
according to their standard, were at the best ; his menicry 
exercise^ his judgment formed, and his reading much 
fresher in the recollection, and much readier in the applica- 
tion, than now it is.* He was also, as soon as the houses 
re- assembled, brought into parliament as member fur 
Wendover in Buckmghamsbire. a borough belonging to 
Lord Verney. In the preface to the ' Obser\*ations on the 
Conduct of the Minority,* already refened to, it is said, 
'He declined taking any salary for bis employment under 
Lord Uuc'.kingham, as secretary to the First Lord of the 
Treasury, and at his own cost he obtained a seat in par- 
liament/ 

Subordinate as was his nominal post, Burke may be said 
to have become immediately the animating spirit and chief 
moving po\ter of this administration. The xcry day he 
took hi» »cat in the House of Commons, the 1 4th of January, 
ir()G, ho is Mated to have taken part in the debate on the 
aildress of thanks, and to have been complimented on his 
aiipcarauce in very Hat taring terms by Mr. Put No account 
of liiii speech however* and ind^ no notice of its delivery, 



18 gMD ffl the oammon report of the dabata; and tkia u 
the more iwnarkahle, as that report (which waa puhlUhei 
at the rime by itaelf in a pamphlet, pretended to have been 
printed at Paris) is understood to have been in part pre- 
pmd by Loid Chariemont. But there is no doubt that 
Burke immediately became one of the most active ani 
efficient oombatants in the ministerial phalanx. Probabi> 
no man ever entered parliament so well trained and accom- 
plished by previous acquirements and intellectual disr.- 
pline. But the natural ascendency of the man shoiic<i 
itself perhaps still more remarkably in the part he austatncO 
in the out-of-doors consultations and movements of hs 
party. The great anestkxi which the Rockingham adm - 
nistration was brought in to settle was that of the American 
Stamp Aot ; and the prudent and conciliatory measures I > 
which the rising storm in the colonies was at this time ai- 
layed, are understood not only to have been originally st e- 
gested and planned by Burke, but to have been mait.i) 
indebted to his indefatigable activity, and zealoua, perse- 
vering, and persuasive advocacy, for their final ad<^tion l>y 
the various sections of the ministerial body. 

When Lord Rockingham and his colleagues were dis- 
missed on the 30th of July, 1766, Burke's pen waa caliH 
into requisition to prepare such a manifesto for the public a.^ 
was thought to be called for in the ciroumstances. Tl « 
task he executed with much effect in a brief but pithy state- 
ment, under the title of ' A Short Account of a late Shurt 
Administration/ 

* Tliere are who remember,* he informs us in his * Appe%] ' 
already quoted, * that on the removal of the Whigs, in tt^; 
year 1766, he was asfbee to choose another connexion a> 
any man in the kingdom. To put himself out of the «r\ 
of the negotiations which were then carrying on very eager-^ . 
and through many channels, with the eari of Chatham. h« 
went to Ireland very soon after the change of ministry, zi\C 
did not return until the meeting of parliament. He was s: 
that time free ftrom anything which looked like an engar - 
ment He was further free at the desire of his frien<I- ; 
for, the very day of his return, the marquis of Rockinghini 
wished him to accept an employment under the new systi-Li. 
He believes he might have had such a situation ; butatraii' 
he cheerfully took his fate with his party.* It is undervtu --: 
that in the 'crossly-indented and whimsically dovetnt^ci 
piece of joinery* which Lord Chatham was now endeavour.! j 
to put together, it was intimated to Burke that he nut*! r 
have the place of one of the Lords of Trade. It is alsf) : . 
that before the prorogation in July, 1767, an offer of a f«. :* 
at the Treasury Board was made to him by the duKc i 
Grafton, who, in the illness and disgust of Lord Chalh <r.\ 
had now become the head, or at least the Qoddin^r part. • : 
the crazy administration. But the temptation, which h. I 
allured several of the most distinguished of his former a:^^ - 
ciates, was again resisted. Up to this time it is to Kc n- 
membcred that the Rockingham part^-, although tho} I: j ! 
refused as a body to ally themselves with the ministxy, h- 1 
not gone into opposition. They took the latter course h^.n- 
ever in the following session, which opened in No^cmUr. 
1767. The parliament was dissolved in March, 1 768, ti biii 
Burke was again returned for Wendover. 

The following year appeared his first political pampM* ' 
under the title of* Observations on a late State of the Na- 
tion,* being a reply to a publication entitled *The Proir.t 
State of tue Nation,* which was understood to have Ui j 
written either by Mr. George Grenville, or, under hi& c}-, 
by Mr. Knox, who had formcrlv been his secretary. Fr m 
the temporary interest of mucii of the matter in Buikc > 
pamphlet, it is now probably little read; although it s<t.; « 
to have continued in demand for a good many years, if v « 
may judge from a fifth edition of it published by Dodblc) it. 
1782, which is now before us. But it is a remarkably ac'o 
and vigorous performance, although presenting com|urA- 
tively little of that splendour of imagination which di>tn- 
guishes many of the author*s subsequent writings. Ht rc» 
again we find strongly expressed the same aversion to a.>- 
stract politics which we have already described as the pr. - 
vailing spirit both of his earliest and latest speculation^ en 
such subjects. Speaking for instance of the state of tb; 
Americans before the attempt made to impose iulcrr.a^ 
taxes upon them by the British parliament, he sajN ' Ir. 
the midst of that happy enjoyment, they never thought .* 
actually settling the exact limits of a power [that of t: r 
mother country J which was necessary to their union, their 
safety, their equality, and even their liberty. Xliua tho twv 



S UR 



3« 



»y» 



|)0eeimber« he deUv«fed aaoUier powerful speech* which he 
soon efter MOt (o the preee, po the motion fin: the House 
resolving iteelf into t committee on Mr* Fox s India Pill. 
Wbea this fiunoiis moMure detonnined the fate of tho ad* 
ministation about a iiartnigbt afterwajrds, Ifr. Burke was 
dismissed firom oflSce with the rest of his party. }i^ never 
was again a member of the government. 

For ionie years af^ this the afbirs of India engaged 
his whole ' heart, and soul, «nd mind, and strength/ One 
of the noblest of his published speeches is that which he 
delivered on the 28th of February, 1785, in support of Mr. 
Fox's motion ibr papers relating to the debts of the nabob 
of Aicot. This was followed by what have been justly 
called his ' Heroulean labours' in the prosecution of Mr. 
Hastings, On Uie 4th of Apiil, 17b6, he pres^ted to the 
House the articles of charge against the ex-governor- 
general ; they fill two volumes of the octavo edition of his 
works. On the 1st of June he qpened the first charge. It 
was not till February, 1788. that the thai began in West- 
minster-hall, when the impeachment was opened bv Mr. 
Burke, in a speech whioh lasted four days, and was 
throughout a wonderful disolay of impassioned eloouence, 
and of all the resources of nis rich and gifted mind. On 
the 21st and 26th of April, and the 5th and 7th of l(ay, 
1789, be opened the aixth charge in another speech, or 
rather series of orations. On the 30th of April, 1704, he 
preiented to the House of Commons an elaborate report, 
filling 200 printed octavo paget, on the whole parliamentair 
law of impeachments, in the name of a committee whicb 
had been appointed to inspect the lords* journals in relation 
to their pr^Kseedings on tnis trial. Finally, on the 28th of 
May, in the same year, he commenced his concluding ad- 
dress on the impeachment, whicb continued for nine days. 
All these speeches have been published since his death, 
from notes whioh he spent the leisure of the last years of 
his life in preparing, and which he enjoined his executors 
to give to the world. His labours in what he was accus- 
tomed tD call ' the Indian Field,' were to the cbae of his 
^xiatenM regarded 1^ Burke as those by which he had de* 
served best of his country. Even in 1796, after all hif 
warfare against the French Revolution, he writes (in hip 
* Lsttar to a Noble I^rd on the Attacks made on hia 
Pension*), *I did not come into parliament to con my 
lesson. I had earned my pension before I set my foot m 
St Stephen's chapeL I was prepared and disciplined tp 
this pohtical war&re. The first session I sat in p^liament 
I ibund it necessary to analyie the whole commercial, 
financial, ooaatitutional, and foreign interests of Great 
Britain and its empire. • • . Then, in the vigpiir of 
my manhood, my constitution sunk under my labour. • • 
. • But in truth these services I am callea to account for 
are not thoee on which I value myself the mp»t If I were 
to call for a reward (which I have never done), it ahould he 
for those in which, for fourteen veara without intermission, 
I showed the most industry and bad the least succeas, I 
mean in the aflairaof India: they are thoee on which I 
value myself the most ; moit for Uxe importance, most i^r 
the labour, most for the judgment, most for constancy ajajd 
peraeverance in the pursuit. Otheis may value them moAt 
for the inlm/tofi. In that surely they are not mistaken.* 

But while he wae yet in the midst of his exertions in thu 
department, another great aubjeot suddenly called him off, 
which was destined to make the dosing years of his life the 
most memorable and interesting portion of hie political 
oouiae. We have already had occasion to notice how early 
he had begun to keep an expecting eye upon the affairs of 
France, in a visit which he had paid to Paris not long 
before the accession of Louis XVI., 'he was courted and 
caressed,' says the Prelace to the .'/Obwrvaljons on the 
Conduct of the Minority,* as a man of eminence by the 
literary cabal which was then prepaang the way for the 
overthrow of altan and thrones. Thsgr daily beset him. and 
e4>aimttnieated to him enough to. let a mma so ob^rvant as 
his into all their secrets. From that time he always dajted 
those impressions, which made him foresee, in their first 
rudiments, the hideous consequences of tlte doctrines propa- 
gated, and the meaaures oursued, by the pretended National 
Aaeembly of France. Not long after his return firom Paris, 
he took occasion, in the House of Commons, to testify those 
impressions. In a speech, of whioh no satisfactory report 
wan ever given, but which was taken in shortrhand, and of i 
which acopy maains correoted by himself, he pointed out | 



tliA MmsBicBfli'c£aAMins to tliA Mniali&il MalcBflv flf I 
ments. • • • >¥i|h » nM (toa long befim piMared, 
he could n^t be slow in forming hia i^Hionf eJT t)^ freoch 
{tevolution. Never^li^ be apugbt inis^frntiinu teo 
everY quartCTf as if the su^act had Uan vhq))r w^W W bim. 
He aesired all persons of his acguaintanee vho wefe going 
to Paris (and curiosity attracted m^y) IP bpng bim what- 
ever tbeir cpuld collect of thegr^atoat circjilatiao, both on 
the one side ap4 t)ie other, j^fe had also many loorrespuo- 
dents, not only 4Btong the Engliah and Americana residing 
there, but alao among the natives, tq F^om, aa well as te 
other foreigners, be haa ali^ays done the hqi|o|ira of this 
country, 9» far as hi# p^ejuis would |>ennit hiip, ifith liberal 
hoapitality. Among pthersr he received l^tt^jca, endeavour- 
ing to trick out the events of the Revo)utuNi io the moe4 
randy colouring, firom Mr. Paine, Kr. Christie, and Baroo 
Cloots, atterwards better known ^ t^e name of Anachaxsi». 
It vaa in f newer po a letter of this kii>d from a Fnncb gen- 
tleman that he wrote his celebratea Jt^ctionsJ' 

The ' Befiections on the Bevolution in France* were puV 
lisbed in the beginning of November, 1790. No poUural 
work prpbably waa ever pead with such avidity on itA ap- 
nearance, pr produced so great an effect on ^he public mind. 
We have before us the sixth edition, printed before the end 
of the year. It ia said that abpve 30,000 copies were aoid 
before ^e firat demand was satisfied. 

It is stated in the preface tp ^he ' 0)>servations on the 
Conduct of the Minonty,* that, on the publication of the 
work, ' Mr. ^urke had the satisfaction of receiving expli< it 
testimonies of concurrence and i^pplause from the principal 
members of the p^y with whom he had begun his political 
career.* Tl^e opinions he had exprcMed, however, ^veotually 
led, as is well known, to a complete separation between him- 
self and Mr. Fox, the then acknowledgped leader of the \Va^> 
in the House of Commons. The fuUeat and meet minute ac- 
count of the whole affair ^at has been published is that gi v en 
in the Annual ^LegiRter for 179). To this narrative, none of 
the statements contained in which have ever, ^ far a^ we 
are aware, been contradicted* may be added the Preface to 
ih^ ' Observations on the Conduct pf the Minority,* to whuli 
wp bave so often had occasion to refer. The final conten- 
tion in th^ ^^^ of Commona Ux)k place on the 6th ci 
Mi^, 1791. ' TV ^ne altogether/ as the writer* of the 
* PrefiMpe' obserx'Ot ' was of the most afOicting kind.* 

In the following Julj^ Bqrke pijiblif^hed 9a elaborate d«* 
(snce of the whple cou^e oi hif political lifp, under the 
title of * An Appeal from ^hp New ^ the Old Whig».' Io 
thia spirited vindicaUonr h^ ^dresyps himself especially to 
the attacks to whicn he h^ heeii pul^pcted on the ground 
of thp alleged incon^islency pf hi^ recent doctrines viiii 
those h<e had formerly mainfaine^- ' This,* he observes. * *§ 
the great gist of the charge against him. ^t is 9ot so much 
that he is wropg ip his bookt Ctbat however iB alleged a!s. %> 
as thf t he has therei^i bplied his whole life. I believe, if 
be could ven|;juz:e to value himself uppp aiiy thim, it is oa 
the virtue of consistency that he would valtie oimsdf tin: 
most. Strip him of this, and you )eave him naked indeed. 

We may safely yenturp to affirm tha^ no person famU;ir 
with the Y^holp spries pf Mr. Burke*s writings can demur tt' 
the jiuhstapUal soundness of the claijEO wh£fi)l^ he here pu:* 
forth* Tjbie soundness of his politic^ doctrines themselro 
is i^nother question : hi4> ' igbt or Y^rong, t'here are certainh 
none inculcated in hia writing^ subsequent to the Frpucb 
Rev(dut;on which can fairly W said to be contradictor) ta 
those which he had ^aintainea up to that event. His pna> 
ciplfis were altogether averse to ^ pu))aly democratic cuti»u- 
tution of govprnmpnt &offi the first. He always ind^^ 
denied that he wae a man of ^ri^ocra^ic incUnatioiis. mean- 
ing by th^t one who favoured the aristocratic more than lixe 
pc^ular element in th? constitution ; h^t he no more for all 
that ^ver professed ai^ yhfiln .wholly to ex/Lingukh \he 
former element th^n the latter. Thus ip hjs speech on the 
repe^J of the Manjiage Act, ifi Jupe, 178li he said. ' I "Un 
accused, I am told, ahr(^ pf being a man of' ari^^nUr 
principles. If by aijistocracy .they jmean the peers, X h^^e 
no vulgar admiration, nor vulgar antipathy .towards tbeis ; 
I hold their order in cold .and decent respect. / hold them 
tobe ^ ofi absoluie necessity in the constitution ; but 1 
think they are only good when kept within their p.opsr 
bounds.* And the work in which he mav be said to Iji^e 
first made the profession of ^^^ ^tical faith, his * Thou^bo 
on the Cause of the present Discontents,* is certainly «np 
thing jrather .than a profession of democratic opinions^ ** The 



BUR 



BUR 



elMr ol^eet of tli» wMm^^ u ia oiMn-vM in thtf pMtoo to 
the ' ObtferTktMmt oa tbo Oonduet of the Minori^/ 'is to 
reeoimBoiKi, m the beit pradiOftl govornttent flir this 
country, on operi ariatoeroey of rank, property^ Tirtoe, and 
talents^ actin|r in eonoert togother* on a known and atowei 
system of ofanions agraeab& to the etistiBg ronatittttion of 
the kHigdom* adqnirinf by their piinclplea and conduct the 
pablio eonfidened of Ibo |leoplo» and, m all thoao titles, 
claimiftff the publto conddenee of the sovereii^ None of' 
his writings on the Frarieh RoTolalKm were ^^or punnied 
with a more riolent cry than wHs tfait pantpUol, by the 
repablicans of the day.* 

The only reopeet iti whibh his latest writings reaUy dilfer 
from those of earlier date is, that thoy erihoo a more ex^eited 
sense of the dangers of popolar delnsidn and passioi^ and 
urge with much greater odntestnosi the impoftanee of those 
restraining institutions, Whieb Urn author eoneeives, sad 
always did conceiTo, to be neeeasary fbr the stability of ge^- 
vemtnents and the eonserration of soeiiitv* Bat thit iitf 
nothing moco than the ehange of topie that is natural to a 
new oorasion. It is sofBciently aeooanted fbr and justified 
by what he says himself in the last smtonce of the * Redee- 
kions/ where he describes his book as eontaining the opiniotis 
sf * one who wishes to prosenrS consistonov by Torying His 
means to seoore the onity of his end ; atid, when the eqtti>* 
poise of the tessel in whieh he saibi may be endangered bf 
3verloading it upon one sidoi is desirous of carrying the sttafi 
weight of hiB reasons to that tirhich may preserve itse€(u)poise/ 

The position in which Mr. Bnrke was now plaeed had 
leparatecl hira in Ikct, thoagh not yet altogether in form, 
from the political party with which he had hitherto acted, 
[t is known however that long after this time he still eofi-> 
tinned to ur^e a union between the ministers and the oppo^ 
iition, including Mr. Fox. In February, 1793, the Wtir 
sith France, which he had for some years predicted ai 
neritable, actually broke out. About the same time th# 
Irst aTowed breach took place in the Whig Clob, by the 
ormal secession of Mr. Burke, Mr. Windham, ilnd oth^f 
members, to the number of fort^*fi?e in all| on the oceasioB 
)f a resolution passed by the tfn^ority of the clob, which was 
construed as a declaration on the sidO of Mr« Fos, id tho 
juirrel between Mr. Burke and hitU. 

Mr. Burke meanwhile continued his etertionS both wiffel 
lis pen and in parliament with as ihueb tigour as ever. 
The * Appeal* had been folkiwed in Docetnber of the sitme 
rear by a paper of considerable length, entitled * Thoughts 
>n French Affairs,* which however Was not published till 
ifler his death. A letter which he wrote about the same 
ime to the Empress of Rduia, in Soknowledgmont of a 
wmmunioation through the Comtii de Woronsow of her 
Majesty's thanks for his book oh the French Revolution, is 
>rintod among his works. But, aeeordine to the ^refkoe 
the * Observations on the Conduct of the Mitiority,* it wss 
lever sent, hating been suppressed by the advice of roinis- 
ers, to whom it was shown, ' ifi consequence of some doubts 
rbich they entertsitied'— ' Just doubts,' it is added, * as 
inbsoquent events have shown.* He also wrote, among 
liber shorter pieces, in January, 1799, the first Letter to 
)ir Hercules Langrishe on the Catholic Disabilities; in 
November of the Same year a paper entitled ' Hitlts (br 
^Consideration on the present State of Affairs ;* in the be- 
S:tnnlng of 1793 a Letter on the subject of the Popery Laws, 
iddressed to his son, Mr. Richard Burke, who had lately 
ieen appointed agent for the Irish Catholics ; in October, 
[ 793, his ' Remarks on the Policy of the Allies with respect 
fy France ;' and soon after, a Prefktory Discourse to his 
•elation Mr. William Burke*s Translation of M. Brissot's 
Address to his Constituents. 

He was now however anxious to retire fkom publie lifb ; 
tnd an arrangement hsving been made for his son to sue* 
seed hint ill the representation of Malton, he only remained 
n parliament to eOtichide the prosecntion of Mr. Hastings. 
AiccOrdingly, the last dav on which he appoaied ill Uie 
House of Commons was the 20th of JuM, 1794, when the 
thanks of the house were voted to the managers of the 
impeachment for their faithful discharge of the trtist reposed 
in them. Mr. R. Burke, within a fbw days after his elec- 
tion for Malton, was taken ill, and died on the 2nd of Au^ 
gust, at the age of thirtyniix. From this severe blow liis 
&ther never recovered. 

The division in the Whig party had been in the mesn 
time extending itself; and Mr. Burke's friends, the Duke 
«f Pbrtland and Bart Fitswilliam, who had not thought 



proper trt take part id dio fint seeesftion, now not only left 
their old associates, but formally joined the ministry. Im- 
mediately after the close of the session of parliament in 
July, these two noblemen, with Lord Speneer and Mr; 
Windham, took office in the gchrernnent These artange" 
ments are understood to have been brought about prio* 
oipatty through the interposition of Mr. Burke. In October^ 
1 795, he received a pension of 1200/. per annum on tho 
civil list, and sooh after knother of 25001. on thS fonr-aiid-»- 
hM per cent. f^nd« These grants are said to have ongio- 
ated in the express wish of the king. 

An attack made upon him ia the House of Lords on tho 
ground of his pension, by tho Duke of Bedford and tho Barl 
of Lauderdale, drew from him, early id 1 796, his eeldbrated 

* Letter to a Noble Lord* (Earl Fitzwilliam), which was 
psrbaps more generally read at the time, and has continwod 
to be to a greater extent popularly hnown since, tha^ any*- 
thing elso he eter wrote^ with tho ozoeptiOB of the ^ Reflec- 
tions on the Fron^ Revolution.* 

His publisher on this ooeasion was I. Owen, of Na 19g« 
Piecadilly, who appears to havf beeh recommended to him 
by Mr. Windham. Altat Mtmb months, applicatioil berog 
made to OwOn fo^ an acfixrant of the profits, ho asSOTled 
thot he had reeeifved the MS< as a pi*esont from tho author} 
and rather than go to law with him, Mr. Burke chose to 
allow him to keep what ho had got Before this, however, 
Owen had obtained tho MS. of another Work from Burko^ 
entitled * Two Letters addressed to a Member of tho present 
Pkrfiament on the Proposals for Peaeo with tho Regwido 
Directory of France.* This MS. he now refused to deliver 
up ; and had tho impudence to publish it in defiance of tho 
author, with an Advertisement in vindication of his con- 
duct. Meanwhile the work had been transferred by tho 
author to Messrs. Rivhigton, of St Paid's Churdb-yard, 
and was brought out by thorn in a correct fbnn. In tho 
oonclnding paragraph of the gennino edition* Burke speaks 
of the two Xetters, as well as part of another which was to fol- 
low, as having been written long before. The seeond of tlMMo 
two Letters, in particular, is foiy remarkable fior tho ol^erva* 
tions it contains on the manner in which the w«r had till then 
bocd, and long afterwards continued to bo, conducted ; and 
fbr the confident tone in which it is announeed that no sno^ 
cess eouki be hoped ibr until that plan shoold be changed. 
The allies, it is observed, had adopted ' a plan of war, 
agahist the success of which there was some^ng little short 
of mathematieal demonstration. They refused to take any 
step Whieh might strike at tho heart of affkirs. They 
seetned unwilling to wound the enemy in any vital hart. 

* * * They [ahrays kept on the eircumforence ; and the 
wider and remoter the circle was, the more eageily they 
chose it as their sphere of action in this centrifhgal war.* 
A third of the ' Letters on a Regicide POaeo* was en iU 
wsy through the press when Mr. Burke died. A fbnrth, 
addressed to Lord Fltswilliam^ which had been writteii 
before the three Others, hot never finished, wss published 
after his death. 

Early in 1797, Owen, the publisher, ahnonneed * A Leffter 
fh)m tlie Right Honourable Bdmund Burke to his Grace tho 
Duke of Portland, on the Condoct of the Minority In Pir-> 
liament; cmitainitig Fifty^fonr Articles of Impeachment 
against the Right Honourable C. J. Fox t fbm the Original 
Copy in the possession of the Noble Duke.* Hie publica- 
tion immediately appeared, professing to be * printed fbr tho 
Editor,* and sold by Owen. There is no introductory no- 
tice, and tho whole makes a pamphlet of 94 pages. This 
paper had in fact been sent to the press by Switl, a person 
whom Burke had taken into his service from motives of 
charity, and had confidentially employed to transcribe tbo 
only fair copy he ever had taken of it It had been pre- 
pared in the early part of the year 1793, aQd communlfated 
only to the Duke of Portland and to Earl FittWilliam, 
befbre they had seceded fh)m the Whig Club. In a Letter^ 
dated September 29th, 1793, which was sent along with it 
to the fbrmer, the writer says, ' 1 now make it my humble 
request to yonr Grace that you will not give any sort of 
answer to the paper I send, or to this letter, except barelf 
to let me know that you have received them. I eveti wish 
that at present you may not read the paper whieh I trans- 
mit ; lock it up in the drawer of your library table ; and 
when a day of compulsory refiectioa comes, then be pleased 
to turn to it.' Swift however had surreptitiously taken a 
copy for his own nso. As soon as the pubtieatlon appeared 
a& iimmctiotiiras obtaified to stop its sale ; bat It was no^' 

F2 



BUR 



36 



BUR 



witliBtaiidinfr reprinted immedifttely both in Scotland a&d 
Ireknd, and about 3000 copies of it are auppoied to have 
thus got into circulation. Burke waa at the time at Bath, 
and was considered to be on his death-bed. The appear- 
ance of the paper* especially under such a title, annqjred 
him greatly. ' I never/ he says, in a letter which he wrote 
to Dr. Lawrence at the moment, ' communicated that paper 
to any out of the very small circle of those private friends 
fium whom I concealed nothing. But I beg you and my 
friends to be cautious how you let it be understood that I 
disclaim anything but the mere act and intention of publi- 
eation. I no not retract any one of the sentiments contained 
in that memorial, which was, and is, my justification, ad- 
dressed to the friends for whose use alone I intended it 
Had I designed it for the public, I should have been more 
exact and full. It was written in a tone of indignation, in 
conseouence of the resolutions of the Whig Club, which 
were airectly pointed against myself and othera, and occa- 
sioned our secession from that club, which»iB the last act of 
my life that I shall under any circumstances renent Many 
temperaments and explanations there would nave been, if 
ever I had a notion that it should meet the public eye.* 

In the end of May Mr. Burke cjuitted Bath for his house 
at Beaoonsfield, in Buckinghamshire, where he died on the 
9th of July. A correct edition of the paper which Owen 
had printed was now published by his executors, under the 
title of * Two Letters on the Conduct of Our Domestic 
Parties with regard to French Politics, including Observa- 
tions on the Conduct of the Minority in the Session of 1 793.* 
The Letters were introduced by the important Preface to 
which we have so frequently referred. The * Observations* 
are what had previously been published under the title of 
the ' Fifty-four Articles of Impeachment,' &c. The other 
paper is a * Letter to William Elliott, Esq., occasioned by an 
account given in a Newspaper of the Speech made in the 
House of Lords by the Duke of Norfolk, in the Debate 
concerning Lord Fitzwilliam, in 179S.\ His Grace, who 
had on tho occasion referred to attacked Mr. Burke on the 
whole course of his recent politics, and more especially for 
the part he had taken in drawing oiT Lord Fitzwilliam from 
the old Whig connexion, is assaulted in turn with little 
mercy. The concluding portion of the Letter, which rises 
above personalities, is in a very high strain of eloquence. 

We have mentioned in the oourse of this rapid sketch all 
the most important of Mr. Burke's writings. A collected 
edition of his works in 4to. was begun in 1 792, and three 
volumes had been published before his dea^i. Since then 
five more have been added, under the superintendence of 
his principal executor, the late Dr. Walter Kin^t bishop of 
Rochester. The last appeared in 1827. A ninth volume 
was to contain the Life of the Author, by Dr. King ; but 
whether or not the Life in question was ever written we are 
not aware. An 8vo. volume of Letters between Burke and 
bis friend and executor Dr. Lawrence, was published in 
1827. Burke's Speeches in the House of Commons, and in 
Westminster Hall, were published in 4 vols. 8vo. in 1816. 
An 8vo. volume of ' Memoirs' of Burke, ' containing many 
curious Anecdotes, both of a public and private nature, 
together with copies of several very interesting Letters from 
that Rifcht Honourable Gentleman,* was announced by 
Owen at the end of his edition of the Letter to the Duke of 
Portland ; but we do not know whether the book has ever 
appeared. There is a life of Burke by Mr. Macormick, 
which we have not seen, but which we suppose to be the 
work described by Mr. Prior as ' a quarto volume of slander^ 
dictated by the most envenomed party spirit, and probably 
sieant at Uie moment to answer some party purpose.* An- 
other, in two volumes 8vo., was published a short time after 
Borke*s death, by Dr. Robert Bisset, the author of a His- 
toiv of the Rei^n of George HI. By far the most accurate 
and complete Liie of Burke however is that by James Prior, 
Esq.* the second edition of which, in 2 vols. 8vo., appeared 
in 1826. There is also a very well drawn-up Sketch of 
Burke's Life prefixed to a handsome edition of his M'orks, 
in 2 vols, ciown 8vo., printed in 1834, by the Messrs. Childs, 
of Bungay. 

BURLAMAC'CHI, FRANCESCO, a citizen of the 
Mpulilic of Lucca, about the year 1546 attempted a re- 
Yoiution in Tuscany against the Grand Duke Cosmo I., 
lor the purpose of re-establishing the republican eovem- 
aenU Like ^veral of his countrymen, and other Italians 
of Siena, Ferrara, and other towns, Burlamacchi was secretly 
indioed towards the Protestant doctnnes, which appeared 



fovourable to polftieal liberty, as their antagonist, tiie Pa* 

Cd power, supported the abadntiam of Charlea V. Biir- 
maceht held eonespondenoe with the Protestants of Ger- 
many, who were then in arms against the emperor ; and 
his plan seems to have been that of a general insaRvction 
against the Papal and the imperial powers throughout Italv. 
With this view he had secret intelligence with the diaaflerted 
at Bologna, Perugia, and other towns of the Papal atate, as 
well as with the Stroszi and other Florentine refugees. 
Being elected gonfaloniere, or chief magistTate, of the repub- 
lic of Lucca, he had at his disposal nearly 2090 militta cf 
the mountaineen of the Apennines, the captains of wbich 
were devoted to him. With this force he intended to 
surprise Pisa, and thus give the signal fbr insarrection. 
The plot was nearly ripe, when the indiscretion of one of 
the conspirators revealed the whole to Cosmo. The nafftt- 
trates of Lucca, being informed of it, arrested Burlamancbt 
and put him to the torture, when he confessed the plot ; but 
they refused to deliver him up to Cosmo. Ferrante Gon- 
zaga, the imperial lieutenant at Milan, soon after demand- 
ing the prisoner, the magistrates were obhged to send hia 
to Milan, where he was again examined under the torture, 
and afterwards executed for high treason. In consequence 
of this, some relatives of Bunamacchi and several other 
families of Lucca left their country, and settled at Genera, 
where their descendants remain to this day. (Botta, Storia 
(TltcUia, continuata da quella del Ouicciardini.) 

BURLAMAQUI, JACQUES JEAN, waa bom at 
Geneva in 1694, of a fimily, originally fh>m Luoca, named 
Burlamacchi, the termination of the' name having berti 
altered according to the French orthography. Buriaxnaqui 
became professor of law in the academy or university of 
Geneva ; and be was for a time tutor to the Prince Frederirk 
of Hesse Cassel, with whom he resided some years in Ger- 
many. On his return to Geneva he was made Councillor 
of State. He is chiefly known by his work entitled * Prin- 
cipes du Droit Naturel et Politique,* whidi was published 
after his death ; it obtained considerable reputation, and wns 
adapted for the use of schools. The work is written in a dear 
stvle, and is well arranged, the author having condensed 
what was most essential and valuable in the worka of his 
predecessors, Grotius, Puffendorf, and Barbeyrae. Burls- 
maqui died at Creneva in 1 748. 

BURLEIGH, LORD. [Cscil.] 

BURLESQUE, a word derived from the lulian adjec- 
tive ' burlesco,* which is applied to qualify words, gestures, 
or expressions of the countenance intended to excite laugh- 
ter. The Italian verb * burlare' means to mock or mimic, 
and also to laugh at a person and make him a dupe. In 
the latinity of the middle ages we find * burlare* used as 
synonymous with Mudore.' (Ducange.) The buriesque style 
is iq>plicable both to conversation and pantomime, and to 
written composition and the art of drawing. Facetious anec- 
dotes and repartees exposing some blunder or turning some- 
thing into ridicule are styled burlesque. The burlesque stv le 
however is most common in poetry, and may be defined to be a 
sort of ^ood-humoured satire. There is a class of burlesque 
poems in everv language, such as Hudibras and Beppx 
m English; bqt of aU modem languages the Italian 
abounds most in this species of composition, which is 
called ' poesia burlesca,' or ^jaoe^ia giocosa,* and abo 
poesia bernesca.* [Berni.] This species of poetry is 
divided into several branches, pach cultivated by numerous 
writers both in the Italian and in the dialects of Itily. 
(Aldeano, Delia Poena Giocosa,) The burlesque in the 
art of drawing is shown in the English caricatures, and 
in the sketches of low life and merry-making exhibited 
by many of the Dutch and Flemish painters, and also m 
the representations of deformed and uncouth figures, such 
as are found among antient and modem sculptures. Mon- 
strosities however, which excite a sena^ of horror or disgust, 
cannot be properly called burlesque productions, the essen- 
tial quality of the latter being to e&cite laughter. For the 
same reason, satires of the invective kind reprobating gross 
vice, such as Juvenars, are quite distinct from buHesqus 
compositions. 

B U RLETO'A (from Burlare, Ital., to joke, to banter, to 
play)f a comic operetta, or short opera : a musical fait«. 

BURLINGTON, a county in the state of New Jener, 
in the United States of America, extends from the Atlanur 
coast on the S.E. to the river Delaware and Hunt in gd r. 
county on the N.W. The country is generally level anJ i* 
well watered ; the soil is not fertile, but nearly the whok is 



B U H 



37 



BUR 



under oultivalioa. The population in 1830 was 31,066 
souU. 

The town of Biylington, in this county, which is not 
iiowever the county town, is situated on an island in the 
[>elaware, ahout 1 1 miles helow Trenton. It was founded in 
1688, and is a regularly built town with wide streets. Many 
>f the inhabitants are engaged in the fishery, the produce 
>f which forms a considerable branch of traffic with Phila- 
lelphia. The Camden and Amboy railway, 61 miles in 
ength, commences at Camden on the Delaware, opposite to 
Philadelphia, and runs nearly parallel with the river to 
Turlington: it thence proceeds to Bordentown, where it 
eaves the river, and passing through HigHtstown and 
$pottswood, ends at South Amboy, at the mouUi of the 
iver Hariton. 

(Thompson's Akedo; American Almanac and Com- 
1 anion.) 

BURLINGTON, the county town of Chittenden county, 
>tate of Vermont, in the United States of America, is situ- 
ited on a beautiful harbour on lake Champlaia, near the 
nouth of Onion river. It stands on elevated ground, and 
commands a fine view of the lake and the surrounding 
^untry. It is a place of considerable trade, and nearly all 
he vessels which navigate the lake belong to this port. 

The university of Vermont, at Burlington, was incor- 
M>rated in 1791, but was not opened to students until 1800. 
The building, which is of brick, stands on the east side of 
be town, about a mile from lake Champlain, and as it is 
145 feet above the surface of the water, it commands a de- 
ightful prospect The building first raised was destroyed 
»y fire in 1824, and has been replaced by three distinct 
rectipns, one of which contains the chapel and other public 
ooms, and the other two are appropriated to the lodging 
ind accommodation of the students. Tlie university pos- 
esses considerable endowments, consisting principally in 
ands. In every township in Vermont, with some few ex- 
eptions, an assignment of land hsA been secured to the 
iniversity ; only a part of this land, yielding a revenue of 
1,500 dollars, has hitherto (1834) been rendered productive. 
There is a good medical school attached to the university. 
The number of students in 1833 was 50, and of alumni 
.bout 200. The annual charge to the general students fur 
uition and rent of apartments is 25 dollars : the expense to 
aedical students is about 60 dollars. 

There is a joint stock bank at Burlington, with a capital 
if 150.000 dollars; besides which the bank of the United 
States has an office there for discount and deposits. 

The population in 1830 was 3,526. The town is 38 miles 
V.N.W from Montpellieri the capital of the state, and 515 
ailes N.N.E. from Washington. 

(Thompson's Alcedo; American Almanac and Com- 
wnion.) 

BURLINGTON, KARL OF. RICHARD BOYLK, 
bird earl of Burlington and fourth earl of Cork, was born on 
he 25th of April, 1695. He travelled much in Italy, where 
le acquired a strong lore for architecture. In 1720-21, he 
oarried the Lady Dorothy Savile, eldest of the two daughters 
ind co-heiresses of Wuliam Savile, mai-quis of Halifax. 
!^harlotte, the youngest of three daughters by this lady, 
oarried the duke of Devonshire. The life of the earl of Bur- 
infiton presents very few incidents. In 1730 he was in- 
ilalled Knight of the Garter, and in the following year he 
ras appointed captain of the band of Gentlemen Pensioners, 
I post which he resigned in 1 733. The title of Burlington 
lecame extinct at his death in 1753, hut has since been 
evived. 

Among his architectural works, he repaired Inigo Jones's 
:hurch of St Paul, Covent-garden, and erected at Chiswick 
k gateway by the same architect, which once stood at 
Beaufort-garden, in Chelsea. His knowledge of his fa- 
vourite art was always at the command of others. He 
kssisted Kent (whom he also maintained in his house) in 
}ublishing Iniso Jones's designs for Whitehall, and at his 
)wn expense he printed an edition of ' Fabriche antiche 
lesignate da Andrea Palladio, 1730,* a work on antient 
Daths, from the drawings of that great architect. A country 
bouse, built by Palladio, near Vicenza, called the Villa 
Capra or Rotonda, furnished the idea of a house at Chiswick, 
which has since received large additions, and which, not- 
«ritbstanding the well-known sarcasm, * that it was too little 
to live in, and too big to hang to a watch-chain,* must still 
be considered as a model of very pure taste. Among his 
Dther works are some pn his own estate at Lanesborough, 



in YorkRhire ; the ftont of a house in Piccadilly (Borlington 
House), built by his father, and the colonnade within its 
court; the Dormitory at Westminster school; a house at 
Petersham for Lord Harrington, which afterwards belonged 
to Lord Carysfort; the duke of Richmond's house in 
Whitehall, and another for General Wade, in Cork-street. 
Our remembrance of the duke of Richmond's is by no means 
favourable, and that for (general Wade, however beautiful 
in its elevation, was so ill distributed, that Xx)rd Chesterfield 
remarked, * Since the Creneral could not live in it at his ease, 
he had better take a house over against it, and look at it.' 
But the Assemblv-room at York is esteemed to be his 
chef-dauvre. The eulogy of Pope in his fourth Moral 
Essay, the epistle on the use of riches, which he addressed 
to the Earl of Burlington, is by no means exaggerated : — 

* Yoa too proceed I make iklUng arts your care ; 
Erect new wonden. and the old repair; 
Jooei and Palladio to Uiemselvei rettore, 
And be whate'er Vitruvtat was beCnre I' 

BURLOS. [Egypt.] 

BURMAN EMPIRE. [Birman Empire.] 

BURMAN, the name of a family much distinguished 
for learning. Francis Burman, son of a Protestant 
minister, was born in 1632, at Leyden, where he received 
his education. Having officiated to a Dutchr congregation 
at Hanau in Hessen, he returned to his native city, and was 
nominated regent of the college in which he had be lore 
studied. Not long afterwards he was elevated to the pro- 
fessorship of divinity at Utrecht, where he died November 
10th, 1679, having established considerable reputation as a 
linguist, a preacher, and a philosopher. His works, for the 
most part, are Commentaries on some of the books of the Old 
Testament, or Exercises on academical subjects. 

One of his sons, Francis, was also divinity professor ok 
Utrecht, where he died in 1719. 

Another son, Pbter, obtained greater reputation than 
either his father or his brother. He was born at Utrecht, 
June 26, 1 668, and after his education there under GrsBvius 
and James Gronovius, he studied the law at Levden, and 
travelled into Switzerland and Germany. On nis return 
to Utrecht, he practised as an advocate, and was afterwards 
engaged in a public office requiring considerable attention, 
and married a wife of good family, by whom he had ten 
children. His love of classical literature, however, was so 
predominant, that in spite of brilliant success at the bar, he 
accepted the professorship of eloquence and history at the 
university of Utrecht, and soon afterwards those of the Greek 
language and of politics. On the death of Perizonius, he 
was translated, in 1715, to similar professorships at Leyden, 
and finally he was promoted to the professorship of history of 
the United Provinces, and tibe chief librarianship in the same 
University. He died in the 73rd year of his age, March 31, 
1741. His chief works were editions of Phoedrus, Horace, 
Petronius, Quinctilian, Valerius Flaccus, Poets Latin! 
Minores, Velleius Paterculus, Virgil, Suetonius, Lucan, 
Ovid, and, among the modems, of Buchanan. To these he 
added a collection of the Epistles of learned men, and some 
original Orations and Poems, a treatise (* De Vecttgalibua 
Pop. Rom.*) on the revenues of the Roman people, and a 
Dissertation on the Jupiter Fulgurator. A life of hinw 
written by Dr. Johnson, first appeared in the Grentleman'a 
Magazine in 1742. 

Another Pstsr Burm an, nephew of the last-mentioned^ 
and son of his brother Francis, was bom at Amsterdam, in 
1713. He was professor of history and eloquence at 
Franeker, and died at Amsterdam, June 24th, 1778. He 
edited Aristophanes, Claudian, an Anthologia of the Latin 
poets, and Propertius ; and he also published fotir books of 
original Lavn poetry. 

John Burman, son of the second-named Francis, was 
professor of botany at Amsterdam. He was born in 1707, 
and died in 1780, leaving behind him many works of 
celebrity on that science in their time. He is principally 
remembered, however, as being one of the early patrons of 
LinnsDus. 

BURMANNIA'CEifi, a small order of endogenous plant» 
with equitant leaves, and bright blue flowers followed by 
winged fi-nits filled with very minute seeds. They are 
nearly related to Iridaceoe and Hoemodoracese. (See 
Lindley's Natural System of Botany^ 2nd edit. p. 330.) 

BURN, RICHARD, the author of the 'Justice of the 
Peace,' and several other laborious and usefhl oompilatioKB, 
was born at the village of Winton in WestmorQland. H^ 



BUR 



38 



B V B 



cdoented at Qtfeea*8 CMege, OtMofd, mid in t76'i the 
vnivarsity eooferred upon him this honorary detrree of Doctor 
of Laws. He was inrtituted to the living of Orion in West- 
mcMvlaml in 1736, whieh he continued to hold ontil hid death 
in November, 1785. He was in the oommisMion of the 
peace lor the counties of Westmoreland and Cumber! arid, 
and was made ehancellor of the diocese of Carlisle by 
Bishop Lyttleton. Dr. Bum is best knoi^n as the compiler 
of the * Justice of the Peace* and the ' Bcclesiastieal Law.* 
The ftrst of these is an alphabetical digest of the common 
law and statutes relating to the duties of mogiirtrates and 
parish officers, comprehending a detailed exposition of the 
poor-laws ; and the second is an abridgment of the Eng- 
lish system of ecclesiastical law, also disposed in alphal- 
heticai order. The materials for these itotks were col- 
lected by Dr. Burn with great care and accuracy, and ar- 
ranged in a clear and judicious manner. Their practical 
utility to magistrates, country gentlemen, and clergymen 
obtained for them an extensive sale and a high reputation ; 
and numerous editions of both of them have been published. 
Dr. Burn also compiled, in conjunction with Joseph Nlchol- 
Mm, a nephew of the bishop of Carlisle, a work on the anti- 
quities of Cumberland aim Westmoreland, which was pub- 
lished in 2 vols. 4to. ill 1777. He also published a hi<itory 
of the poor-laws, and an edition of ' Blackstone's Com- 
mentaries,* besides several sermons end works of a religious 
ch ft ro (* I er 

BURNET, GILBERT, was bom at Edinburgh, 18th 
Beptember, 16'I3. His father, Robert Burnfet. Esq., ofCre- 
mont, in Aberdeenshire, was it practitioner of law, and at 
the Restoration was made one of the judges of the Court of 
Sessiun. The family was a younger branch of the antient 
house of Burnet of Leys, on which a baronetcy was conferi^ 
in 162r>. 

At the age often Gilbert was sent to college at Aberdeen, 
where, afteir having taken his degree of M.A., he proceeded 
to prepare himself, by the study of the civil law, for following 
his father's profession. He soon however gave up this 
study for that of divinity, and was licensed to preach, ac- 
cording to the forms of the Scotch church, in 1661. Al- 
though offered a living by his relative. Sir Alexander 
Burnet, he considered himself yet too youn^r to under- 
take such a charge. In 1663 he visited Cambridge, Oxford, 
and London, and afterwards made a tour through Holland, 
the Netherlands, and part of France. On his return to 
England he was made a fellow of the Royal Society, which 
may be taken as an evidence that he already enjoyed con- 
siderable reputation. 

In his own country he soon acquired also much reputation 
as a preacher. He had from the first adopted the oractice 
of pi-eaching extempore, or without writing out his dis- 
courses. In 1665 he was, on the presentation of his friend 
Sir Robert Fletcher, appointed minister of the parish of 
Saltoun, in East Loihian, on which occasion he received 
ordination from the bishop of Edinburgh. Here he spent 
nearly five years, during which, by his charity and his assi- 
duity in the discharge of his duties, he gained the warm 
attachment of his parishioners. While hera also he began 
his interference in afl*air8 of chutrih and state, by drawing 
up, in 1666, a strong representotion against certain abuses 
of their authority, which he imputed to the Scottish bishops, 
and circulating it in manuscript. For this step it is said 
that Archbishop Sharpe proposed his deprivation and ex- 
communication ; but the other bishops did not second the 
leal of the metropolitan, and nothing was done. 

From 1668, when the administration of Scotland was put 
.nto the hands of Sir Robert Murray, and moderate counsels 
for a short time prevailed. Burnet, young as he was, began 
to be much consulted by those at the head of affairs. In 
1669 he was chosen Profossor of Divinity at Glas«ro\v, and 
fVom this time also he became more than ever mixed up 
with affairs of state. Keeping to the lino of moderation 
Upon which he had set out, he applied his efforts to recon- 
cile the dukes of Lauderdale and Hamilton, the heads of 
the two parties which then strove for the ascendancy ; but 
in this attempt he had no Success. About this time he is 
said to have refused one of the Scottish bishoprics, alleging 
as hitf excuse that he was too young. In 1669 he published 
his first work, entitled ' A modest and free Conference be- 
tween a Conformist and a Non-conformist.* In 1870 or 
1671 he strengthened his connexion with the moderate 

Swtty by his marriage with Lady Margaret Kennedy, the 
aughter of Jobn the sixth earl of Cussilis, designated by 



fai^ eonteinponiies ' tfaif gfave «nd tolemn eittV t^)io» eAer 

having refused to acknowledge Cromwell during all th« 
time of the proteetorate, was dismissed /rom ofllee after (b« 
Refotmation for serupling to take the slavish oaths which 
were then administered. This lady wa^ ootisiderably older 
thati Buhiet. 

In 1672 he published a^itork somewhat dtfferhig in spint 
fVotn the generality of his produetioflir, being in fact aome^ 
thing very like a defence of the doctrine of possire obe^ 
dienee, under the title of ' A Vhidicattofi of the Authority, 
Constitution, and Laws of the Chareh and State of Scuc- 
land.' In practical politics however be resisted sll fhe a:> 
temiils that were made to engage him in support of tht 
oppressive measures of the court. In eonsequence he drew 
upon himself so much of the resentment of the duktf of Las- 
derdale, now the rulinf^ authority, that, in 1674, he deenifi 
it best for his safety to resign his professorship, aod to re- 
move to London. Here, the same year, after having de- 
clined the living of St. Giles's, CrtpplegatOi he was m»)e 
preaeher at the Rolls Chapel, by Sir Harbottle Grimsloov*. 
then Miister of the Rolls ; and soon after he waa elect«^ 
lecturer at St. Clement's. He was at the same time d^- 
prived of his honorary office of one of the chaplains io%al. to 
which he had been appointed some vears before. In 167i 
he published his ' Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamilton," whf .i 
he nad drawn up from the archives of the fkmily while ht 
resided at Glasgow. In 1679 appeared the first folio Tolur.i« 
of his great work, * The History of the Reformation in Eng- 
land,' which was received with great favour by the pttbl;r, 
then in a very excited state on the subjeet of popery, tuA 
which had besides the extraordinary hononr of proeuriL; 
for its author the thanks of both houMs of parliamenL to 
1680 appeared the most carefully prepared of all bis writings. 
his tract entitled ' 8ome Passages in the Life and Death • .* 
the Earl of Rochester ;* being tin aeoount ofhiseonvem- 
tions with that nobleman in bis last illness, the result of 
which was the conversion of the repentant prolligrate to i. 
belief in Christianity. In 1681 he gate to the world thf 
second volume of his 'History of the Refbrmatioa.* lu 
1682 he published his ' Life of Sir Matthew Hale.* CHer- 
tures were now again made to him by the court* and he w u 
offered the bishopric of Chichester by the king, * if be wnu;<: 
entirely come into his interests.' He still howevor vemamee 
steady to his principles. About this time alio he wrote t 
celebrated letter to Charles, reproving him in the eeveri:^*. 
style both fbr his public misconduct and his private vir, ^ 
His majesty read it twice over^ and then threw it into Ll.< 
fire. At the execution of Lord Russell in 16S3, Bi.ni«t 
attended him on the scaflbld, immediately after which h.- 
was dismissed both from his preaehersblp at the Holla ar^I 
his lecture at St. Clemen t'i by order of the king. In 16.-: 
he publishe<l his * Life of Dr. William Bedell, Biehop c< 
Kilmore in Ireland.* 

On the accession of James IL, Burnet retired to the C^mi 
tinent, and after visiting Parii!>, continued his travels thiottcb 
out the South of France, Italy, Switierland, and the Nont 
of Germany, to Utrecht. He afterwards published ur. 
account of this journey. Soon after his arrival in Ho)laji<! 
he was introduced at the court of the prince of Orange, wiC 
whom he became a great favouritOi Hii active exertions tt. 
preparing the way for the accession of the prince to ike 
English throne are matter of history. When William came 
over to this country, Burnet acf:ompanied hitn in qoaliiy of 
his chaplain, and immediately after the retolutioa liee^s 
made bishop of Salisbury. 

In 1698 he was appointed preceptor to the duke vi Glou- 
cester, the son of the Princess Anne. While io HoUaua 
he had made a second marriage with Mfa. Mary Scott, a 
lady of Scottish descent, but of large fortune and hiiih CMi>- 
nection in that country. Upon the death of this tadv ht 
small -pox, be soon after made a third marriage with Wru 
Berkeley, a widow lady, of good fortune and great p\r*% . 
the authoress of a work once popular, entitled a ' Method / 
Devotion.' The remainder of his life Bishop Bamet spent 
in his episcopal duties, his discharge of which wan in e%er^ 
respect most meritorious and honourable ; in attendance .:i 
parliament, in the business of which he took a eonsideraKr 
share, and where he continued through all ehani^ • 
zealous partisan of the Whig interest; and in addrrvM.r 
the public with his indefatigable pen. In 1699 a|>pciir. 
another of his most celebrated works, his * Exposition ot t 
Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England.* It c-. 
cited great controversy on its first appearance^ nnd 



» u & 



a» 



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nro condfiiiiMd u )wMKOdi» )9 ^« Xow^r Stoiae of .Con- 1 

vocation. An ^aboraJCe es.MnioaUon of the principlos of 
the work* jji ^ far a» the poi/)t .of ^oibscriptioQ ifi ooncemed, 
may be found in Ihe fourth ^d fifth chapter of ' The Con- 
fessional' (by Axiohdeacion Blackbume). pp. 57 — 17 U In 
1712 Burnet pubUsbed Bepar^iely hi^ ' Introduction' to th^ 
third voh^me of his ' l^i^t^iy qf the Reiorin^Ltion/ in whioh, 
having iAdu)ge4 himself in ^ome y^ry strong observations 
on what he considered theHhen sdanning stable of public 
affairs, he drew upon himself jtl^e ridicule a;id abuse of 
Swift, who retaliated for the government in one of ftxe 
sharpest s^^iros ever writ;ten, ^n^er^the form of A Preface 
to the bishop's * ][ntro4tt^ion-* In 17 ^ the .third volume 
3f ;the ' History* itself appefire^- Ji is supplementary 19 
the two ^rmor, Qaving na^ live4 to aee the accession of 
Lhp House of Hanover, an event he had always looked for- 
ward to with anxious expectation, as the consummation of 
the system of national policy, which he had constantly sup- 
ported, the bishop died ^t hip house if^ Su John's Cou^ 
^lerkea^oU. ]Liondon, on ihfi 17tjb of March, 17^5. 

The most remarkable of all his works appeared soon aijter 
lis death, i^ two volumes foUp, under the title otf * pishop 
Gurnet's History of his Own Time* ^rom the Restoration . of 
^ng Charles II. to the Condusibn of the Treaty ox Peace 
it Utrecht in the |teign of Queen Anne.' It was pub- 
ished by his son Thomas (afterwards one of the judge.s ^f 
he Common Pleas), who pfefix,eci to it an acspouAt ffi h^ 
ather's life. * Those fac^' says the writer, ' for .wiuch no 
vouchers are alleged are taken from tho hisho|)*s man.u- 
;cript notes of his own life, and can be supported further by 
uher testimonies if ^occasion should rcq^uire.' At the e/ctd 
>f subsequent editions there is £lve^ * A Chronological ajul 
?articular Ax^count of the WoS;^ of jlhe Jti^ht JGleveread 
md ]l,earned Dr. GrilWt Burne^ Ijate Lord Bi^op Ojf Sa^is- 
)ury, correcjLed and ^ij^os^i \ii\tler proper head^. in tor- 

rrscd wjjth aop^e gcitical ai^d historical observations, hy 
F.' (that is, the JJ^ey. Ro^er JFlexmanJ. TJijus li^t ^9^ - 
ains the titles of 5$ pubUa)lxcd .scurmons. 13 discourses and 
racts in divinjity, 18 ti'ac^ ag^In^t pO|)ery, .26 .tracts pole- 
nical, political, aptl m^(^lj(pg^ous, en4 25 histor^caj .woi^ 
md tracts. 

Bishop gurnet's 'History of hi?, Ovvn Time' was receiveij 
vitb a cry of derision ty the't'ory wits. Swift wrote * Shoijl 
Remarks oh the boo^; y^b;\Ubn9t p.arodied j^t in ' Kotes 
md Memorandums of ;th^ $ix I)ay^ ' pjcccedi^g .t)ie jb^ath 

•f the late Bight A^y. V and Pope in his 'Memoirs 

»f P. P., Clerk of this ]fjari^h,'*.tymed the gi^rrul^ous an^ 
elf-import^nt ng^anner of pji^e writer stiO more successfully 
nto ridicule. ' In ik.c remar^^aplc one-sidediiess of hi§ party 
;eal, his crecjulousnes^ an^ general y ant of juJgroent, t^e 
ooseness of his siyle. and, a^ it }ia^ teen pjb^erved, .the slijl 
greater looseners pf ^is'fa6.U, ^s vfe]^ as in the too grea^t 
ransparency tj^roughoiit ' the whole of **the importajice of 
L man to himself/ the bishop undoubtedlv gave (^onsiderabjle 
)ro vocation if) tf\e^Q pti-iotures; ^hyit still, after all dedyc- 
ions that cap iV»rly .be ,io.aiw. .tJie *Ilislory* js a1iighlv-in- 
eresting ah^ valuable perlbrmance, au^ )ias preserve^ j^c- 
ounts of many curious transactions which otherwise would 
lave remained concealed Ao™ poste^ itv/ Likje everything 
;lse also that is known pTQie avU.hor, ^ihoi^gli it shows him 
o have been possessea of $1 considerable share of vanity an^ 
}ustling officiousness, and not tb have been a person of the 
nost capacious judgmierit, fts testijnony is very favourable 
JO the excetlence of nis hea^^ and moral nature, to l^is dis- 
nterestedness, his couralge, his public spirit, and even to 
lis ability and talent wifhin Ihe proper range of his powers. 
Even many (^f Jiis prejudices in some degree jdi^ him j 
lonoun He certainly was no^ In general a go9a writer; 
jut besides his want of ta^^te, he rorely allowed himself 
iufficient time either for the collection and examination of 
lis malerials, or for their' eCTective arr^iigement and expb- 
jition. Yet,' with rarely any thing like elegance, there rs a 
tluenoy spfi. sometimes' a rude strength in his stylp which 
make his worits upon the ^hdlc readable 'enodgh. 

Drjden has introduced Burnet in the tliird part of his 
' Hind and Panther,* in the ch'aractir of Sling Buzzard, 
and sketched him pdrsoo.ally, morally, and intellectually ih 
Borae strong lines. The delineation, however, Js that of a 
personal as well as a political enemy ; for the bishop, who 
had little respect for poets, and who for his contemptuous 
mention of* one Prior has not unjustly beep pilloried in a 
well-known epigtam as • one Burnet,* after tho fasTiion o^ 
his own phjraseoTogy — ^ad tbosen in one of ]iis pamphTeti^ 



wMb«Qittr»pklef«ipi» fof ai|9esttof».49#|pkfif J^4^^ 
a monster of profligacy. 

The last and best edition of Bishop p.umet'8 gx;oat work, 
his ' History joft^ie R^foropat^oiny' is that published in 7 vols. 
8vo. (the indpx ConUiing tb^'k^) at Oxford i;i 1.829, w^ a 
valuable preface by £>r. £. I^tawp. 

BUBJ^ET, TaOMAS, va? hprp at Croft i^ Yorkshiro 
about tto year 1635. A^tcf having heejo instructed at the 
free 3cho(4 of Northallerton^ he was entered at Claire Hnll , 
Cambridge, uAder the tuition of pr. ^jTiUoUon. On )the 
promotion of pr. Cudworth in 1^64 fro^ the mastership of 
jClaf e IjLall ,to that of Chrisf s C,9iljtege, Bume^ removed 
toget^r with nim. He was electe^ f^ov of Christ's 
College in 2557, and four years afterwards filled the offico 
of senior nrociori Ojq leaving the University he jsecamo 
tutor to the earl of Wiltshire, eldest son of the marquess 
of Winchester (soon after tne Revolution created duke of 
Bo|tou), with whon^ jhe travelled and gave so mu/ch 
satisfaction, that he was vdi-ervrairi^ invited to accompany 
jtlie earl of Os^ry, grandsoA pf ;the first duke of Ormond, i^ 
a simjla;: capacity. 

His first publicaition, after his return* and the work on 
which his fame almost exclusively rests, W9.S in La,tin, 

* TeJluiis Theoria Sacra,' 1680. Pive years after its apr 
pearauc^ he w^ ellected master of tho Charter fio.iise. 
The precise date pf his ordination is unknown, hujt fit that 
ejbection ciie of the governors objec;^d to him that he gene- 
rally appeareii jln a lay habit. The duke of .OrmondThow- 
e\ier replied, in ./excuse, that he had neither living iaor a^ 
Qjthor ecclesiastical preferment ; and that whatever mj^ht be 
Ijii^ mode of dress, Jus life and conversation w/arp in all 
respects wo^Ky of lus sacred profession. 

f he first opposition to the dispcosihg power which ^aijai.03 
JX, Uiought nt to assume, was made Dv Dr. ]^urnet about 
eighteen xnonths after his .elecOon to jlho masterslnp of the 
jChai:;ter-hoju^. The jking addressed a letter *o the go- 
vernors, ordering them to admit one Andrew I^opham as 
pensioner whenever ^uch a place should become vacant in 
.thoir ho^pit^J, without tendering to him any o^tht or fe- 
.quiring of him any subscrijp.tion'or recogriition. in conformity 
with the doctrine (injj dij>ciphne of jthe Churc^i of jEaigland. 
^^d .this was to ^e done notwithstanding any statute, order, 
01 constitution qf the sa\4 h^ospital to the contrary, y ith 
whic^i th? king >vas graciously pleased to dispense. In 
spite ,of ^e presence of liord Chancellor Jeffries, wlio n^oved 
that they aliquld proceed to vote without any debase, gurnet, 
.who as junior governor was called upon to vote first, de- 
livered his opinion th^^ by express Act of P^rUameiit, 3 Car. 
I., no officer could be adpiit^d into that liospital without 
taking jthe oaths ot allegiance and supremacy. An attempt 
was madot ^ut without effect, to overrule this opinion. Tho 
duke of Ormoiv^ supported Burnet, and on tlie voto 
being put ^opham ws^ rmected ^ apd n9tyithAtanding f he 
tl^reat? of Uxe ^ing .a,nd of the Popish party, no member of 
that communion was ever aamitted into tlve Charter- 
^louse. 

Thu^ barred from the hajfi of pourt p;referment during 
the remainder of the reigii' iff James tl:, Burnet employ^ 
himself in writing in Latin the second part of his theory 

• pe Confiagratione Mundi,' jvhich appeared in quarto in 
1 6^9. He had already in 1684 translated the ^rst p^rt jpto 
Sngjjsh, and he added the seconjd part in the course of the 
year in which it appeared in Latin : if indeed those may be 
ccjlpd translations yhich he Ibimself terms * new composi- 
tions upon the same ground, 'there being several additional 
chapters, and several new monlded.* 

On the'pro^^^ion of ^rchbishop Tillotson, and by special 
recommendation of that prelate, gurnet succeeded him as 
clerk of the closet to King William HI., ai^fl was considered 
to be on the sure road to preferment. These prospects 
however' were unfortunately maned by n work which he 
pu]t forth in 1692, under the title of^ Arc^flBologtsD Philoso- 
phic®, sive t)'octrina An^qiua djp Rerum Originibus.' The 
work was replete with* lemming, but the Mosaic account o^ 
the Fatt was treated as an allegory, with an appearance of 
levity which gave offence to serious men, and of which Bur- 
net afterwards repented. Jt contains an imaginu*y dialogue 
hetween Bve and the serpent. The cry raised against him 
was much increased bv the unseasoname praise betowed hy 
Charles Blount, a proVessed infidel, and it was thought ex- 
pedi^nt that Burnet shquld retire from the clerkship of the 
king's closet. The remainder of his days was passed in 
retirement at the Charter-house, where he died September 



BUR 



40 



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7th, 1T15, and wu buried in the chapel of that infttitati<m, 
over which he had presided during; thirty years. 

Few works have called forth higher contemporary eulogy 
than ' The Sacred Theory of the Earth.* It will not indeed 
stand the test of being confronted with the known facts of 
the history of the earth ; and Flamsteed obser\^ed of it that 
he ' could overthrow its doctrine on one sheet of paper, and 
that there went more to the making of the world than a 
flne-turned period.* Its mistakes arise from too close ad- 
herence to the philosophy of Des Cartes, and an ignorance 
of those facts without a knowledge of which such an at- 
tempt, however ingenious, can only be considered as a 
visionary system of cosmogony ; but whatever may be 
Hs failure as a work of science, it has rarely been 
exceeded in splendour of imagination, or in high poeti- 
cal conception. Burnet printed during his lifetime a 
few copies of a tract in Latin, ' De Statu Mortuorum et Re- 
surgentium,* one of which having fallen into the hands of 
Dr. Mead was handsomely reprinted by that great patron 
of letters, who did not know the name of its author, as a 
present to some few select friends. Only 25 copies were 
printed in quarto; Maittairo revised the text, and made 
many blunders by inserting manuscript notes and additions 
at improper places from the author*s own interleaved copy. 
Upon this the executor of Burnet lent Mead a corrected 
«opy, from which 50 were printed, with a caution to those to 
whom they were given not to suffer the treatise to be trans- 
lated, reprinted, or published. The tract however was sur- 
reptitiously published, as well as another in Latin, *De 
Fide et Omciis Cbristianorum.* The faulty manner in 
which both of these treatises were nublished induced Mr. 
Wilkinson, a fWend of the deceasea author to whom his 
papers had come, to republish them in 1727 from Bur- 
net's own corrected copies. To a second edition of the 
first tract, in 1733, is added an appendix 'De Futur^ Ju- 
dsBorum Restoratione,* which it appeared that Burnet had 
designed so to place. 

BURNETT, JAMES. [Mowboddo.] 

BURNETT, JOHN, son of Mr. W. Burnett, procurator 
at law in Aberdeen, was admitted advocate at the Scots bar 
on the 10th December, 1785, in the 2 1st year of his age. In 
1 792 he was made one of the deputies to the lord advocate 
of ScoUand, and so continued till October, 1803, when, on 
the resignation of Law of Elvingstone, then at the advanced 
age of 90, he was appointed sheriff of the shire of Hadding- 
ton. In this place he remained till April, 1810, when he 
was promoted to be judge admiral of Scotland, in the room of 
the learned R. H. Cay, deceased. He was also some time 
standing counsel to the city of Aberdeen. He was author 
of a valuable treatise on various branches of the criminal 
law of Scotland, which was passing through the press at the 
time of hit death, the 8th DecemW, 1810. 

BURNEY, CHARLES, Mus. D^ one of the two na- 
tives of this country to whom the world is indebted for the 
only complete histories of music that have yet appeared, 
was bom at Shrewsbury, in 1 726. FVom a few manuscript 
pages of an autobiography which he commenced, but never 

Sroceeded in, we learn that his grandfather, who prefixed a 
fae to the family name, was ' a gentleman of a considerable 
patrimony at Great Hanwood, in Shropshire, who, in 1727, 
walked as an esquire to one of the knignts at the coronation 
of George II. ;* and that his father was educated at West- 
minster School under Dr. Busby ; but having entered into 
an imprudent marriage, he incurred the resentment of his 
parent and thus lost to himself and descendants the 
property to which he otherwise would have succeeded. His 
wife dying, he married agsin ; and the object of his second 
choice was Mrs. Ann Cooper, a great beauty, who had 
rejected Wycherley the dramatic poet, the wit, the favourite 
of the court, the man admired and specially noticed by 
ladies of the highest rank — ^for James Bumey, then seek- 
ing to establish himself as a provincial portrait painter. 
From this union proceeded the subject of the present article, 
who was unaccountably neglected by his parents* and left, 
not only during his infancy but his boyhood, to the care of 
an ^orant thoush worthy old nurse, in the village of 
Condover, near Shrewsbury. At length however he was 
entered at the free-school of the latter place, but soon re- 
moved to the public school at Chester, in which city he also 
commenced his musical studies, under Mr. Baker, organist 
of ibe cathedral, and a disciple of the famous Dr. Blow. 
When he had attained his fifteenth year he returned to his 
native place, and reoeived further instouetions in the srt 



of music, from an elder half-brother, the omnist of St. 
Mary's, Shrewsbury. He then went to London, and « m 
placefl for a term of three years under Dr. Ame, fnu 
whom he doubtless gained some knowledge, but in a xtr* 
desultory way, for the habits of that dittinguiahed ri.m 
poser were by no means of a regular kind; and «« 
have reason to believe that his pupil learnt much le<>9 
from him than from the many opportunities ailbrUed ir. 
the metropolis of hearing the best music, especially that ' 
Handel performed under the direction of the great maet^^ 
himself. 

In 1749 Mr. Bumey was elected organist of a church n 
the city ; and about the same period he engaged to take tbt 
harpsichord at a subscription concert, held at the Kipe« 
Arms, Comhill. He was now introduced to the gm: 
actress, the idol of the theatre, Mrs. Cibber, sister of Dr. 
Ame, at whose house in Scotland-yard he became ac- 
Guainted with most of the wits, poets, and men of letters -vf 
tne day ; and by his courteous manners, lively con%~cf^a- 
tion, and powers of pleasing, laid the foundation of thi: 
intimacy with persons eminent for talent or elevated br 
birth and fortune, which proved of the utmost iizipK>rtan'Y 
to him in after-life. This also led to his composing xlt 
music of three pieces for Drury-lane theatre — Mallrtt 
tragedy of Alfred, Mendoz's burletta, Robin Hood, an i 
W(x>dward's pantomime. Queen Mob, The success of tbt 
latter was remarkable ; ' it was taught to all young' ladie», 
set to all barrel-organs, and played at all famQimr mo^r- 
parties.* Nevertheless the young composer preserved a stnrt 
incognito, which his daughter, Madame D'Arblay, acconrt* 
for by supposing that as he was still under articles to Dr 
Ame, he * was disfranchised from the liberty of publish) c; 
in his own name.* But from this thraldom he was emsr- 
eipated by one into whose favour he had ingratiated himsH'. 
the accomplished Fulke Greville, Esq., then considered * t*-' 
finest gentleman about town,* who proposed terms to Dr. 
Ame for the release of his pupil, which were accepted, aivi 
Mr. Bumey became an inmate in the house of his libcmtr- 
whose friendship for his protegi death alone dissolv<»i 
His residence at Mr. GrevtUe's seat, Wilbunr House, nemr 
Andover, was the means of much extending bis intercourw 
with the literati and persons of rank. When Mr. Grertl's 
married Miss Fanny Macartney — ^the Flora of Horace Wi:- 
pole*8 ' Beauties' — Mr. Bumey gave the lady away : he «ai 
also the proxy of the duke of Beaufort, as god-lather to tb? 
first-fruits of that union, a daughter, afterwards the ben>- 
tiful Mrs. (who became Lady) Crewe. 

Mr. Bumey was soon afterwards united to Miss Esthr* 
Sleepe, a young lady to whom he was srdently attached, \rA 
who is describe by Madame D*Arb1ay, in language ths: 
may be excused in a daughter, as one in whom the mnc 
valuable and fascinating qualities, both mental and personal 
were combined. IndcM, a poem to her memory, written t^ 
elegant verse, with great and unaffected feeling, by b#r 
tenderly attached husband, and found after his dceea>» 
among his papers, gives authenticity to the subslanee >i 
what Madame D'Arblay has stated, and confirms all that 
we have privately heard of Mrs. Burney's many TirtoetL 
He now settled in London, and may be said to hate 
seriously entered for the firet time on his pnfessionsLl career. 
Scarcely however had a year elapsed, when he was attack<4 
by a dangerous fever, ftom which he recovered thnmgh the 
sssistanoe of Dr. Armstrong, now only known as a poet 
But the disease was followed by symptoms which «c«e 
thought to indicate consumption, and he waa earaest'r 
advised bv his physician to quit London: be therein 
accepted the situation of organist at Lynn, with a salair «Y 
100/., and resided in that town nine years. Thcfe he de- 
signed his great work, the 'General History of Husv. 
and there too he commenced that correspondenee with Dr. 
Johnson, which subsequently ripened into intimacy aoi 
friendship. 

In i 760, his health being completely restored, Mr. Bvnr« 
returned to the metropolis, and soon had his time r«*!V 
occupied by his professional pursuits. Six years after ftt 
produced at Drary-lane theatre the Cininin^ Man* lbttndr« 
on, and adapted to, the music of Rousseau's htvin dk »'/.*- 
lage. In 1769 the university of Oxford conferred on Lisa 
the degree of doctor in music, on which occasion be pT*»> 
duced, as an exereise, an anthem, which was afterwarae 

Etribrmed in Germany under the direction of the rau>«*.« 
manuel Bach. His primary object however waa his /f i- 
tory; and as he found that much of the materials fi>r Uus 



BUR 



42 



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glass, whieh remttni tho tome throughout, is then thrown 
upon the smallest quantity of surface, and presents the 
greatest condensation of light and heat which the glass will 
afford. The same phenomenon would he perceived in a 
concave mirror, with this defect, that the surface which is 
held before it must intercept a part of the light 

Two glasses were made hy Tschirnhausen, before 1099, 
which are among the earliest of the attempts to produce 
eoD>iflerable effects ; the first of 33 inches diameter and 7 
feet focal length, the second of the same diameter and 1 2 
feet focal length (old Parisian measure). A second lens 
received the rays and diminished the focal distance. The 
effisct was to burn small portions of wood, or boil water, 
also in small quantities, in one moment; to melt small 
pieces of metal, to vitrefy Slate, &c. ; to melt pitch and 
rosins under water. But the most complete effect was pro- 
duced from a lens made by M. de Trudaine, about 1774, 
which did not consist of glass alone, but was a hollow lens 
of glass, filled first with spirits of wine, which was after- 
wards changed to terebinthine oil. It held 140 pints (Pa- 
risian), and filled with the latter substance had about 11 
feet of focal length. According to M. Brisson (allerwards 
eited), who hiade the experiments, a bar of steel, four 
inches long and a third of an inch square (Parisian), was 
completely melted in five minutes. A silver coin of three 
livres was melted in a few seconds, and one of six livres in 
nearly the same time ; grains of platinum were sufficiently 
melted to cohere, though not to form a spherical drop. 

M. Buffbn, remembering the story about Archimedes, 
•ndeavout^d to fbrm mirrors which should burn at a great 
distance. The disadvantage of trying to gain power by in- 
creasing the aperture lies in the great relative increase 
which is thereby given to the small image of the sun. No 
tpherical glass or mirror refracts or reflects rays accurately 
to a point. The plan of M. Buffbn was to make his mirror 
eonsist of a large number of small plane mirrors, 400 in 
number, so placed that they should all refiert their several 
images of the sun on the same point. He thus burnt 
wood at 200 (French) feet distance, melted tin at 150 fiset, 
and lead at 140 feet. [Bukfon.] 

The only practical application of the bUming-glass (if it 
deserve so dignified a name) of which we ever heard is at 
Paris (or was). A burning-glass is placed in such a way 
that the sun shall throw its image into the touch-hole of a 
small cannon, at its (rnatcst height, which thus explodes 
witliin a n^inute or two of noon, it there should happen to 
be no cloud in tlie way. 

Those who desire more particular information mav 
consult Young*s Lectures on Natural Phiiosnphy^ vol. if. 
p. 406, for a list of works ; and also Brisson, Diet, d^ Phy- 
tiifue, articles * Miroir' and ' Vcrre ardent ;' and Dt. Hut- 
ton's Math. Diet., article * Burning-glass.' 

BURNLEY, a market toWn and chapelry, in that part 
of the extensive parish of Whalley which is in the higher 
division of the hundred of Blarklnirn, in the county palatine 
•f Lancaster. It is 21 1 miles N.N.W. from London, 25 N. 
from Manchester, 53 E.N.E. from Liverpool, 12 N.E. from 
Blackburn, and 1 1 S.B. frottt Clitheroe. 

The town is plea«;antly Situated, chietly in a narrow vale, 
fbrming a tongue of land on the banks of the Brun or Burn, 
from which it derives its name, about a mile and a half above 
the confluence of that river with the Calder. Its pop., which 
now amounts to 7531 inhabitants, has rapidly increased 
•ince the commencement of this retitury. as the decennial 
census exhibits during that petiod:— 1801, 3303; 1811, 
4.168; 1821, 6378; 1831, 7531. Acconling to the two last 
assessments for the county rate, the annual value of the 
land, messuages, and other buildings in the township shows 
a corresponding ausmentation. In 1813 the annual value 
wu returned at 8,043/., and in 1829 at 15.87Df. 

The boundaries of the chapelrv include Burnley to^hship, 
7551 inhaliitants ; Hahcrglmm Raves township, ")817 inha- 
bitants; Brier«clil!b with Ext wisilc township, 1735 inhabi- 
tants ; and Worstliom township, 798 inhabitants; making 
a total population of 15,921. 

The name of this town is not found in the ancient 
itineraries. There have been however so many remains of 
Roman antiquities — coins, pottery, and urns containing 
ashes and calcined hones— discovered about the place, that 
Dr. Whitaker's conjecture of its having been a settlement 
Upon a public Way. between Rihchester and Camboduimm, 
lying, as it does, in a straight line between those two places, 
•cema to be well founded. Some Saxon remains have also 



been found * iind at a small distance 1ft. HT the town, U a 
place called SasiflM, which tradition has marked a^ th« 
scene of a battle in the times of the heptattshy. Adjoin in;^ 
the town and near the church is a cruss which is suppr^^^i-*! 
to commemorate the preaching of Paulinus, the ffrst Chn<- 
tian missionary in these parts, about the year 597, ami to 
indicate the spot on which the inhabitants assembled fur 
religious worship prior to the erection of the church. 

Though an old town, the greater part of Burnley i« of 
recent erection, and the houses are chieflv built of frfe>tone 
which is found in the neighbourhood. During the lo^t inw 
years considerable ihiprovements have been made, under an 
act obtained in 1819 for that purpose: the town has been 
lighted with gas, the streets have been well paved and the 
foot-paths flagged, and excellent waterworks nave been ei^ta- 
blished, supplied from two elevated reservoirs, one to the N. 
and the other to the S. of the town. The halrracks in tl;e ail- 
joining township of Habergham EaveS werd erected in Hi*', 
at a cost of 5500/., of whicli sum 250UA was rai-ictl by volun- 
tary subscription. The workhouse stands in Rayle Rnad. 

The trade of Burnley was formerly confined to wnwllen* 
but the cotton manufacture is nbw the staple of the plure. 
On the two rivers around the town there are extensi\e e*ti 
blishments for spinning and weaving cotton and print in? 
cloth, besides several mills for grinding com, and one f • 
fulling cloth. In other parts of the town are bm.ss ai.'i 
iron foundries, machine shops, bleach-works, roperies, tan- 
neries, and breweries. The Leeds and Liverpool rana), whii \ 
nearly surrounds the town, opens a communication for tbf 
con\'eyance of poods through the whole line of couritn, 
from the German Ocean to the Irish Sea. Coal, freestotir. 
and slate are found in abundance close at hand and in the 
vicinity: some veins of lead have also been discovered. 

The government of the town is vested in a constable, 
annually chosen. Four magistrates, who act for the hundred, 
hold a petty sessions every Monday, and meet in rotatt-^n. 
generally two at a time. The charter for the market ^.i* 
granted in the 22nd of Edward I. to Henry de Lacy, Earl 
of Lincoln, to be held on Tuesday ; but that day bos been 
changed to Monday atld Saturday. Fairs are held on 
March 6th, Ea^ter-eve, May 9th and 13th, July 10th, ana 
October Uth. There has also heen since 1819 a fair fn' 
fat and lean cattle, on every alternate Monday. The 
annual wool-fair is held on the second Thuradar i:i 
July, and the fait for horses on the third Thursday va 
October. 

The parochial chapelry of Burnlfey, dedicated to St. Peter, 
was one of the three churches existing in the parish i 
Whalley in the reigh of Henry I. ; but nothing remain^ of 
the antient structure, which was built soon after the Cortqup-r 
The present edifice has undergone much alteration : it h:. 
originally four chantries, namely, the rood altar, pla^t? 
upon the rood-loft at the entrance of the choir, now re- 
moved ; the altar of St. Peter; the altar of St. Mary: ar. : 
the altar of St. Anthony. It is a spacious structure: t : 
having been rebuilt and enlarged at different times, it ch:t-- 
bines various styles of architecture. At the E. extrvrr *' 
of the S. aisle is the Stansfield choir, in which there is 3- 
antient grave-stone with a cross fleury and sword : aitd z\ 
the E. end of the N. aisle is the chapel of the Virgin Mi-t . 
the property and burial place of theTownley family: it r - 
tain» some shields of arms, and a monumetu to the nicmi-< 
of Charles Townley, Esq., whose collection of marbles is r. - 
in the British Museum. The living is a perpetual carart - 
the archdeaconry and diocese of Chester, endot^'cd with l>^'^ • 
factions which make it the best curacy in the kingdom. I - 
the reign of Edward VI. the incumbent of Burnley ' I • • 
for his wages yearly the sum of 4^. 8^. 1 \d. ' as appears fr - 
•an inquisition* taken at Manchester in 16S1; but n.' » 
from various donations aided by Queen An he's b?»ut>tt. ♦ 
amounts toup\^ards of 500/. per dnnum. Fort\'-eight sc • 
of glebe land are attached to the chapelry. The H\jrj ■> 
in the gift of Robert Tonwley Parker, Esq. of Cut r' . 
Hall, near Preston. There are places of worsnip belong • .- 
to the Baptists, the Roman CAtholics, tlie Wesleyan McI- 
dists, and the Independents. These places of worship \z • c 
Sunday -schools attached to them; in all of which the (h» 
dren of diftereht religious denominations ore rorcftiMl r: \ 
instructed. 

The free grammar-school is in North Parade. A pirt •' 
the chantry of St. Mary on the W. side of the chur*«h)- ' 
was formerly used as a school-house, until 1695, when tl e 
present building was erected. It is supposed to lure Ucs 



BUB 



49 



BUB 



founded in Oie feign of Mw^TL TSui efidOWYn^oto of 
the foundation amount to about 140/. per annum, which 
forms the salary of the bead ma^C^r, wl)o te«iche$ the clasaica 
and exercises a general superintendence over the lower 
Echool. In this school Eoglishf wr'ting. aceounts, and prac- 
tical mathematics are taught hy an aiwi&tant, whQ is remu- 
nerated by a charge of three guineas a year, which is 
allowed to be inade to the scholars. Two guineas a year is 
the sum charged for the sons of persons in huml^le life. 
The average number of fichpolars is about sixty.'of whom ten 
or twelve are instructed in the classics. The school has an 
intereit in thirteen scholarships founded in Brasenose Col- 
lege, Oxford, by Dr. Nowell, Dean of St. Paul's, London, 
in 1572. The master la appointed by the trustees of the 
laud belonging to the school. In k room over the school is 
a valuable library, left by the Rev. Henry Halsted. rector of 
Stanbfield, for the use of the scholars. The Rev. Dr. 
W hi taker, the learned master of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and the historian of the * original parish of Whalley/ 
received bis early educafbn in this school. 

There are aUo five national schools in the chapelry, in 
which nearly 2000 children receive tbe rudiments of educa- 
tion, and are instructed in the principles of the established 
church : these are supported by subscription. In the same 
manner also is supported a charity for poor married women 
in childbed ; and a Strangers' Friend Society. Other cha- 
rities, to a considerable amount, are dis'tributed annually 
among those for whose benefit they were intended : Madam 
Isabel Shirburne's, 9/. for the use of the poor ; Robert Hal- 
sted\, a moiety of A/. 7«.. for the same purpose ; Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth Peel's, 22/. lOs. for clothing the poor ; Mrs. Mary 
H indie's, 20/. 5«. for relieving old and infirm poor persons ; 
Mrs. Hargreave*s, 9L for clothing poor and infirm widows. 

Burnley is one of the places appointed under the Boun- 
[lary Act for taking votes at the election of knights of the 
shire for the N. division of the county. (Communteatton 
from Lanc€ishire») 

BURNS AND SCALDS. Burns are produced by 
beated solids ; scalds by heated fluids. The severity of the 
njury is dependent mainly on the intensity of the heat of 
ho burning body. Fluids are not capable of acquiring so 
:ii{;h a degree of temperature as some solids ; henoe the im- 
iiediate effect of scalds is generally less violent than that of 
>urns. But, on the other hand, fluids flow about with great 
cU'ility, and the accident often causes a very large surfkce 
>f the fluid to be thrown upon the body, so that a scald 
vhirh produces onlj a moderate degree of inflammation 
iiTiietimes becomes exceedingly severe on account of its 
rxtont. As heated fluids part with their caloric in being 
ii (Fused, a scald is almost always attended with a different 
lejrree of injury in different parts of its course. The extent 
tf the surface involved, the depth of the injury, and the sep- 
ibility of the part affected, must all be taken into account 
n estimating the danger of the accident in any given case. 
1 burn which produces the instantaneous death of the 
lart it touches may be free from all danger if the injured 
)art be circumscribed within a small compass. The worst 
turns which occur arise from the explosion of gunpowder, 
>r of inflammable gases, or from the female dress catching 
Ire ; and the worst scalds from the boiling over of heated 
luids in breweries, manufactories, laboratories, &c. 

The immediate aeat of the injury produced by bums and 
calds is the skin, which is a highly organized membrane, 
)erforming a very importapt organic function, and endowed 
?ith a high degree of sensibility. The organic function per- 
ormed by it is the secretion of a quantity of aqueous fluid 
rom the blood, which is carried out of the system under the 
l)rm of perspiration. [Perspiration, Cutankchjs.] The 
ccretory arteries of the skin are excited to such an unusual 
leu^ree of action by the stimulus of the heated body, that 
hey pour out an aqueous fluid in such quantity as to lift 
he cuticle from the cutis or true skin [Skin], and form a 
reside or bladder ftill of fluid. Such is the violence done to 
he true skin, that the function of all the injured portion of 
t is suspended; additional labour must therefore be im- 
3osed on some other organ, which must be its substitute 
ind perform its work, othenvise a fatal disturbance will 
take place in the system. The lung exhales the same 
iqueous fluid as the skin. [Transpiration, Pui^monary.] 
In proportion as the cutaneous perspiration is diminished, 
{he pulmonary transpiration is increased ; but when a large 
extent of the skin is destroyed, the ]ung i^ inadequate to 
the task imposed upon it ; it cannot perform its own work 



and that of the skin also, and in this ease great diffipuit/ of 
breathing invariably comes on, and the danger is exceeds 
in^'ly increased by this oppression of the lung. 

But there is spread over the external surfaoe of the true 
skin an immense number of sentient nerves, rendering it 
an organ of sense. A burning body applied in such direet 
contact with the sensitive extremities of these nen^es ocea* 
sions violent pain ; and this, in consequence of the sympathy 
which ia estahlished between all parts of the body, produces 
a great disturbance of the system. The abolition of the 
organic function, and the disturbance occasioneil to the 
sentient part of the nervous systemt both combimed, often 
prove fatal. 

Since the severity of the injury must always be mainly 
in proportion to the length of time the burning body con« 
tinues in eontact with the skin, it is important that every 
one should impress upon bis mind the course which it (s 
best to take in case of accidents from burns. 

The upright posture is obxiously not only favourable to 
the spreading of the flames, but to their reaching the more 
important parts of the body, the neck and head. Any mo* 
tion of the body to and fro gives great advantage to the 
flames, by bringing fresh currents of air into contact with 
the burning materials, and it is therefore utterly absurd to 
run screaming about. Fall upon the floor; keep rolling 
over and over upon the rarpet; if possible seize the hearth* 
rug, or the table-cover, and, enveloping the body in it, keep 
rolling about upon the cvrpet until assistance comes. The 
duty of the assistant is to seize the hearth-rug, or the table- 
cover, or a shawl, or to strip himself of his coat, or to sei;.e 
any woollen or flannel clothing at hand and to envelope 
in it as closely and completely as poasible the person on 
fire. 

The thing to be done with the burnt or scalded parts is 
mstantly to immerse them in cold water, ice-cold if it eatf 
be got. Should the position of tlie parts not allow of their 
immersion in water, cloths should be applied to them dippe4 
m water, and kept constantly wet. As a means of applying 
and retaining cold, scraped potatoes or turnips are usefiill 
Some persons recommend, instead of those cooling applica- 
tions, stimulating substances, such as the strongest brandy, 
spirits of wine, oil of turpentine, or vinegar, kept on the 
afi*ected parts by means of old linen or lint soaked in the 
fluid. The use of these applications, whether the cooling or 
the stimulating, should be persisted in until the pain ceaiies : 
the parts should then he dressed, as some recommend, with 
the yellow basilicon ointment, softened with the oil of turpen> 
tine ; or, as others prefer, with emollient poultices often re- 
newed. It is singular that, common as this piece of surgery 
is, practitioners are not agreed which of these two plans, the 
cooling or the stimulating, is the most efficient ; and com- 
parative trials have not yet been made on a scale of sufficient 
extent to determme the question. It is probable that the 
one may be more advantageous than the other under dif- 
ferent circumstances, which the ur professional person can- 
not be expected to discriminate. All that is neces^ary to 
be stated here is the most judicious thing to be done, in the 
very first instance, until professional assistance can be pro- 
cured; fcnd with this view, perhaps, the only thing that 
should determine the choice between either of the cooling or 
stimulating articles just mentioned is the fkeility with wSicli 
they can be got. It is probable that the chief effect of 
all these applications is to prevent the air from coming into 
contact with the true skin ; that is, to perform the office of 
the cuticle which is destroyed. Accordingly, some of the 
most distinguished surgeons state that they have produced 
the very best effects by merely covering the affected parts 
with old linen saturated with oil, by which the air {s effec- 
tually excluded. On this ground it is probable that a 
remedy, occasionally recommendetl, will prove in practice as 
useful as any, namely, enveloping the part in cotton ; and 
if sp, it will be better than any, both on account of its light- 
ness, and from the ease with which every mistress of a family 
can always have abundance of it at hand. 

BURNS, ROBERT, was born on the 25th of January. 
] 759, in a small cottage about two rciles to the S.W. of the 
town of Ayr. His father, William Burncss, was the son of 
a farmer in Kincardineshire, but in consequence of the 
reduced circumstances of his family be had left that part of 
Scotland in his youth to seek employment in tbe South as 
a gardener. After serving diff'erent masters for a number 
of years, he had on his marriage in December, 1757, taket^ 
a perpetutd lease, or feu, as it is there called, of seven acres 

G2 



BUR 



44 



BUR 



of land* with tiie view of wMn^ up for himflelf as & nufior?* 
man. Here he built with his own hands the humble 
dwelling in which Robert, his eldest son, wan bom. 

The history of the poet*8 early life has been very fully re- 
lated both by himself and by his brother Gilbert The nar- 
latiTe of the Utter, in particular, is one of the most beautiAil 
and touching ever written. The life of William Bumess was 
one continued struggle, which he carried on with the ho* 
Bourable pride common among his countrymen to better 
his circumstances, and to give his children a good educa- 
tion. Robert was first sent to a school about a mile distant, 
in his sixth year. Afterwarda a young man was engaged 
by William Bumess and four of bis neishbours to teach 
their children in common, his employers boarding him in 
turns. When they had removed to another situation, 
which precluded them from this advantage, the good man, 
after the hard work of the day, endeavoured to instmct 
his children himself. * In this way,* says Gilbert, ' my 
two eldest sisters got all the education they received.* 
Robert obtained a little more school instruction by snatches, 
but the amount altogether was very inconsiderable. His 
chief acquisition was some acquaintance with French, and 
for this be waa almost entirely indebted to himself. What 
other knowledge he obtained he gathered from the few 
books, mostly mid volumes, which his father could contrive 
to borrow. At last, in the beginning of the year 1784, 
William Bumess died, worn out with toil and sorrow, after 
living just long enough to learn that a law»suit in which he 
was engaged with his landlord had been terminated by a 
decision which involved his family in ruin. He led five 
ehildren younger than Robert and Gilbert 

In these circumstances, the youth and early manhood of 
the fiiture poet were dark enough. ' The cheerless gloom 
of a hermit,* he says himself, * with the unceasing moil of 
a galley-slave, brought me to my sixteenth year.* His 
brother Gilbert writes, * To the bufietings of misfortune we 
could only oppose hard labour, and the most rigid economy. 
We lived very sparing. For several years butchers' meat 
waa a stranger in the house, while all the members of the 
family exerted themselves to the utmost of their strength, 
and rather beyond it in the labours of the farm. My 
brotlier, at the age of thirteen, assisted in threshing the 
crop of com, and at flfleen was the principal labourer on 
the farm, for we had no hired servant, male or female. The 
anguish of mind we felt at our tender years, under these 
straits and difficulties, was very great .... I doubt not 
but the hard labour and sorrow of this period of his Hfe was 
in a great measure the cause of that depression of spirits with 
which Robert was so often afflicted through his whole life 
afterwards.' Some time before their father's death, and 
when his affairs were drawing to a crisis, the two brothers 
had taken another farm, which thev stocked in the best 
way they could with the savings of the whole family. ' It 
was,* says Gilbert 'a joint concern among us. Every 
member of the family was allowed ordinary wages for the 
labour he performed on the farm. My brother's allowance 
and mine waa 71, per annum each. And during the whole 
time this family concern lasted, which was four years, as 
well as during the preceding period at Lochlea, his expenses 
never in any year exceeded his slender income . . . His tem- 
perance and frugality were everything that could be wished.* 

A little before his sixteenth year, as he tells us himself, 
ha had ' first committed the sin of rhyme.' His verses soon 
acquired him considerable village fame, to which, as he made 
acquaintances in Ayr and other neighbouring towns with 
young men of his own age, he greatly added by the remark- 
able fluency of his expression, and the vigour of his conver- 
sational powers. The charm of those social meetings, at 
which he shone with so much distinction, gradually intro- 
duced him to new habits. Yet his brother affirms that he 
does ' not recollect till towards the end of his commencing 
author (when his growing celebrity occasioned his being 
oAen in company) to have ever seen him intoxicated.* His 
attachment to female society, also, which had from his 
youth been very strong, was now no longer confined within 
those * bounds of rigid virtue,' says his brother, ' which had 
hitherto restrained him. Towaras the end of the period 
under review (in his twenty-fourth year), and soon after his 
fhlher'a death, he was furnished with the subiect of his 
** Epistle to John Rankin. * * 

Another aflair of this description soon after determined 
the whole subsequent course of his life. This was his 
connexion with Jean Armour, afterwards Mra. Buns, the 



fhiit of whkli' was the birth of twins. In the dHBcaUics 
and distress to which both parties were reduced by the con- 
sequences of their imprudence, it was agreed between them 
that they should make a legal acknowledgment of an 
irregular and private marriage, and that he should then set 
out for Jamaica to push his fortune. ' Bnt befiire leaviog 
my native country for ever,* he says, ' I resolved to puhlnh 
my poems. I weighed mv productions as impartially as 
waa in my power : I thought they had merit ; and it was a 
delicious idea that I should be called a clever fellow, even 
though it should never reach my ears.* An impression of 
600 copies of the book accordingly waa printed at Kilnsai^ 
noclu This was in the autumn of 1786. The poems wcfe 
well received by the public ; and after paying all expenses 
the author cleared nearly 20/. ' This sum,* be aaya, ' came 
very seasonably, as I was thinking of indenting myself, for 
want of money to procure my passage. As sooti aa I was 
master of nine guineas, the price of wafting me to the tomd 
zone, I took a steerage passage in the first ship that was to 
sail from the Clyde, for *' hungry ruin had me in the wind." 
I had been for some days skulking from covert to eovert, 
under all the terrors of a gaol, as some ill-adviaed poople 
had uncoupled Uie merciless pack of the law at my neeis.* 
This was to oblige him to find security for the naainteo- 
ance of his children ; for the parents of the mother were so 
indignant, that, notwithstanding what had happened, they 
would not allow the marriage to take place, and the cfaildree 
to be legitimatized. He proceeds : * I had taken farewvil 
of my few fl'iends ; my chest was on the road to Greenock : 
I had compoeed the last song I should ever meaeuie lo 
Caledonia, *' The gloomy Night is gathering fast,'* when a 
letter from Dr. Blacklock to a friend of mine overthrew all 
my schemes, by opening new prospects to vaj poetie ambi- 
tion. The Doctor belonged to a set of critics, for whose 
applause I had not dared to hope. His opinion that I 
would meet with encouragement in Edinburgh for a second 
edition fired me so much, that away I posted for that citx. 
without a single acquaintance, or a single letter of intro- 
duction.* 

The result was ihe introduction of the poet to all who 
were eminent in literature, in rank, or in fashion, in the 
Scottish metropolis. The brilliant conversational powers 
of the unlettered ploughman seem to have struck adl with 
whom he came in contact with as much wonder as bs 
poetry. Under the patronage of the Earl of Glencaim. Dr. 
Robertson, Professor Dugald Stewart, Mr. Henry Mac- 
kenzie, and other persons oi note, a new edition of hia poems 
was published, from the profits of which he received nearly 
500/. In the summer of 1788 he returned to Ayrshins 
where his brother Gilbert, who had taken upon Him the 
support of their aged mother, was struggling with manr 
difficulties in the farm they had conjointly taken. Robert 
advanced 200/., and with the remainder of his money be 
prepared to stock another farm— that of Ellisland, in Dom- 
frieshire^— for himself. Here he took up his abode in June. 
1788, having previously legalized his union with Mis* 
Armour by joining with her in a public declaration of their 
marriage. 

Soon after this, by the interest of Mr. Graham of Fintry, 
he was appointed, on his own application, an officer of ei- 
cise for the district in which he lived. The salary whidi he 
received in this capacity was originally 50/. a year, but wms 
eventually increased to 70/. His duties, however, interfered 
so much with the attention due to his farm that he found him- 
self obliged to resign it to his landlord, after having occapied 
it for about three years and a halfl About the end of the ye«r 
1791, he retired with his family to a small house in the town 
of Dumfries, placing his dependence for the future exclu- 
sively on his chances of promotion in the excise. 

In Dumfries Bums spent the short remainder of his Iilr. 
The habits which he had acquired during the sudden and 
short-lived intoxication of his first introduction topublir mw 
tioe, now gained entire ascendency over him, as misforcuiir 
and disappointment broke, or, at least, embittered, hb spmt 
and enfeebled his powers of resistance. The strong exr:t»- 
ments of admiration and applause, by which he had been 
surrounded at Edinburgh, were sought for at any cost, and 
among companions of any order who would join htm in 
drowning reflection. Even the prospects upon which be 
had placed his reliance of advancement in the excise «vrt» 
suddenly overcast, in consequence of some imprudent e\- 
pressions which he had dropped on the subject of thr 
French Revolution« to whidi some despicable inHormer had 



B ITR 



4» 



Aun 



calkd the notice of tbe Boani. It was only throngh the ex- 
ertions of his friend Mr. Gnham, on this oocasion, that he 
was saved from being dismissed. Ill health and great de- 
jection of spirits at last cane open him, along with the 
pressure of accumulating pecuniary difficulties. He had 
produced many of his happiest pieces, and especially the 
best and the greatest number of his songs, since the sp* 
pearance of the first Bdinburgh edition of his poems. The 
songs were principally contributed to an Edinburgh publi- 
cation callea Johnson*s * Museum,* and afterwards to a 
work of much greater pretension, the well-known * Collec- 
tion of Original Scottish Aurs/ edited and published by Mr. 
George Thomson. Bums*s correspondence with Thomson 
oil tbe subject of his contributions to this work has been 
printed, and fbrms a highly interesting series of letters, as 
well as a most ateoting chapter in the poet's history. 
Bums's first letter, in answer to an application from Thom- 
son, is dated firom Dumfries, )6th Sept., 1792. In this he 
says, after entering with great seal into the proposal, ' As 
to any remuneration, you may think my songs either above 
or below price, for they shall absolutely be the one or the 
other. In the honest enthusiasm with which I embark in 
your undertaking, to talk of money, wages, fee, hire, &c., 
would be downright prostitution of soul.' In July following 
we find Thomson sending him 5/. with the apology, * As I 
shall be benefited by the publication, you must suffer me to 
inclose a small mark of my gratitude, and to repeat it after- 
wards when I find it convenient. Do not return it, for, by 
Heaven, if you do, our correspondence is at an end.' Bums, 
in his replv to this communication says, * I assure you that 
you truly hurt me with your pecuniary parcel. It degrades 
me in my own eyes.' However, to return it, he adds, would 
savour of affectation ; hut he protests in the strongest terms 
against ' any more traffic of that debtor and creditor kind.' 
The last letter from Bums in the collection is dated 12th 
July, 1796. For a year previous, illness had neariy incapa- 
citated him from continuing his contributions. He now 
writes : ' After all my boasted independence, cursed necessity 
compels me to implore you for 5/. A cruel * * * * of a 
haberdasher, to whom I owe an account, taking it into his 
head thatl am dying, has commenced a process, and will 
infallibly put me into jail. Do, for God's sake^ send me 
that sum, and that by return of post. Forgive me this ear- 
nestness, but the horrors of a jail have made me half dis- 
tracted. I do not ask all this gratuitously, for upon return- 
ing health I hereby promise and engage to furnish you with 
5^. worth of the neatest song genius you have seen.' 

He died on the 21st of July. His remains were con- 
signed to the earth with the solemnities of a public funeral, 
which was rendered remarkably imposing by the voluntary 
attendance of a vast multitude of persons of all ranks fmrn 
every part of the surrounding country. Bums left four sons 
(besides a boy who died in his infkncy), all of whom, we be- 
lieve, still survive. 

The first collected edition of the poems and letters of 
Bums was published by Dr. Currie at Liverpool, in 4 vols. 
8vo., in 1800, for the benefit of the poet's wife and family. 
Of the accounts of his life that have appeared since that by 
Dr. Currie, the most important are tnat by Mr. Lookhart, 
pttbUshed in 1828, and that by Mr. Allan Cunningham, pre- 
fixed to his edition of the works of Bums, in eight vols. 
12mo. London, 1834. This is now the most complete and 
in every respect the best edition of the poet's works. It con- 
tains 150 poetical pieces more than in Dr. Currie's edition ; 
and both the poems and the letters are throughout illus- 
trated by e&planatory notes. The life occupies the first 
volume, the poems the next five, and the letters and glossary 
the two last. 

The history of literature scarcely affords another in- 
stance of a popularity either so sudden or so oomplete as 
that obtainea by the poetry of Bums. Even in his ovm life- 
time, and indeed almost immediately after his genius first 
bunt into public notice, his name and his poems were fami- 
liar to all ranks of his countrymen. Nor did the enthusiasm 
for his poetry die away with the generation among whom 
it was first kindled. His works are still everywhere a cot- 
tage-book in his own land, and they are read wherever the 
Boslish language is understood. 

No poetry was ever better fitted to obtain extensive popu- 
larity tfaan that of Bums. It has little of either grandeur or 
richness of imagination, qualities that demand much culti- 
vation of mind as well as a somewhat rare endowment of the 
poetic temperament for their appreciation and enjoyment. 



It ts an heart and ptssion, and ever? human bosom capable 
of feeling strongly must be stirred by its fire and tender- 
ness. The themes which Bums has chosen are all of the 
kind which come home to the natural feelings of men, and 
his mode of treating them is the most simple and direct. In 
what he has written, in his native dialect at least, there is 
no where anything of mere rhetorical ornament or display. 
The expression is throughout, as truly as that of any poetry 
ever was, the spontaneous utterance of the thought or senti- 
ment, which falls into measured words as if it and they 
were struck out together by the same creative act. In his 
lyrical pieces especially, the passion, and the language, and 
the melody which is 'married* to the 'immortal verse,* 
seem to come all in one gush lh)m the fhU fountain of the 
heart. In this exquisite truth of style no writer in any lan- 
guage has surpassed Bums. But, with all his nature, he is, 
Mke every great writer, also a great artist, nature being the 
inspiration of his art. Nothing can be more masterly — 
more demonstrative both of high skill and of general eleva- 
tion of mind— than the manner in which he triumphs over 
the disadvantages of a dialect so much vulgarised as that of 
Scotland had come to be at tbe time when he wrote. Fami- 
liar as his subjects generally are, and bold and expressive 
as his diction constantly is, we will venture to sav that there 
is not one instance of real vulgarity in all that he has 
written. Of mere license and indecorum there is certainly 
no want in some of his productions ; but even in his broadest 
humour, in his most unpardonable violations of moral pro- 
priety, in the rudest riot of his merriment and satire, there 
is never anything that is mean or grovelling, anything that 
offends our sense of what is noble and elevated. Some of 
the most immoral of his pieces are distinguished by a 
studied propriety of expression springing from the finest 
taste and most delicate sensibility to the beautiful. 

BURNT-EAR. Burnt-ear, in corn, is a disease in 
whicii the fmctification of the plant is destroyed and, as it 
were, burnt up ; hence its English name and the corre- 
sponding term of charbcn in French ond brand in German. 
Burat-ear has often been confounded with tmut^ which is a 
similar but distinct disease. They differ in this, that in the 
bumt-ear the black powder which appears in the car is 
external, and the grain has either never been formed, or its 
coat has been destroyed, so that the whole ear appears 
black or burnt. The powder also has no smell, and being 
easily blown away by the wind, or shaken off in the reap- 
ing, little of it adheres to the com or is mixed with it when 
ground ; and except the loss of so much grain as would 
have been contained in the sound ears, no great detriment 
arises to the quality of the corn. The smut, or pepper- 
brand, on the contrary, is contained in the body of the 
grain, which retains nearly its natural form, and is carried 
along with it into the bam. It is only in the threshing or 
grinding that the diseased grain commonly called smut-' 
ball is broken, when a fetid black powder is dispersed over 
the sound grain, which greatly deteriorates the flour, end 
renders the com unfit for seed, the disease being perpe- 
tuated by this black substance. [Smttt.] Bumt-ears are 
generally observed in particular moist situations, and some 
lands are much more subject to them than others. The 
disease has been often attributed to damp and warm fogs 
succeeding very dry weather; and hence it has been 
imagined that it was caused by the dews lodging in the 
ears and producing a species of rottenness. But micro- 
scopic observations have decidedly proved that the black 
powder consists of the minute germs or seeds of a parasitical 
mushroom, which are developed in the growing ears and 
live on its substance. 

The plants attacked by this disease may be distinguished 
long before the ear makes its appearance out of the sheath 
in which it is enveloped in its early state. There is a pecu- 
liar greenness of the leaf observable ; and when the plant 
is examined, the young ear may already be seen attacked by 
the disease and beginning to put on a spotted and black 
appearance, which increases as it grows, and is perfected 
when the ear arrives at the state in which the flower should 
appear. In some cases the plant flowers partially or com- 
pletely, and the fecundation takes place, so that the germ 
is developed; but it never approaches to maturity. Ita 
outer skin is soon destroyed by the parasitical fungus, and 
the whole substance converted into a black powder. 

Do Candolle, one of the best modem authorities on the 

I physiology of plants, has named this peculiar minute mush- 
room the Uredo earbo, which he distinguishes ih>m that 



lAiP>\ psoduittts Um #mttt, and whioh li« ei^lU Undo oarieM. 
They are easily distinguiibed by tbe siae and smell. Tbe 
Uredo oarbo is compoMd of mqcb smaller globules and 
destitute of smell ; bo(h seem to be propagated like other 
cryptogamous plapUi by meatis of eittremely minute seeds 
or' germs, which are carried along with the sap into the 
circulation and vegetate in the ear, where alone it appears 
that they find the cqnditions necessary to their growth. 

Mr. Benedict Prevost has asserted that having placed 
the black dust Qf burnt-ears of wheat in distilled water at 
the temperature of 10° of the centigrade thermometer 
(about <50° of Fahrenheit' t(), he qbserved that they swelled 
to twipe their Qfiginal siye, and pushed out oblong tubercles, 
which lengthened to fjve or M times their diameter, and 
that they afierwards divided into several branches* After 
a few days minute graips were observed in the vessels, and 
ihe original globqles shpwed an ftpnearance of cells, from 
whiph the grains had been ejected. The natural conclusion 
from this observation, if it be correct, is, that tbe globules 
are real bulbs or germs of microscopic mushrooms, which 
are developed by moisture in favourable situations ; and to 
these the name of Uredo has been given, one species being 
tlie Uredo carbq, which attacks the external parts of the 
graiUi and the o(her Uredo caries, which grows within the 
grain itself. (See Mr. Benedict Provost's memoir to the 
Institute of France in 18U7.) 

It is doubted by some whether the disease is contagious, 
because they have never been able to produce it by shaking 
the black dust of burnt-ears over the sound plants. The 
reason of this is probably that the exhaling vessels of the 
9urfaoe are not so well calculated to absorb extraneous 
matteft which can only enter by the spongioles of the 
roots. Although it is much less dangerous than the 
smut, because it is readily dispersed by the winds, yet it 
must more or les^ infect the soil, and hence the disease is 
more frequent where it has appeared before, and where 
those graini which are tnoit subject to the di^ase, such as 
wheat, barley, and oats, have been sown in too rapid suc- 
cession. As it does not adhere to the grain, steeping and 
washing are not so certain remedies against the infection 
a^^ in the case of smut ; but the best preservative is to drain 
the land well and keep it in good heart, so that the 
plants may be vigorous and able to resist tbe attacks of the 
parasite : for it is a well-known fact, that weak planU, as 
well as animals, are much more exposed to the attacks of 
parasitical plants or animals than those which are vigorous 
and robust. A judicious change of crops, or a well-esta- 
blished rotation, will in general secure the corn, which is 
sown in its proper course, from the infection of the Uredo 
mrbo, provided the preparation of the land be such as to 
ensure a healthy vegetation*. 

As this disease is extremely common, it has obtained 
various names in different parts of the country. In England 
it is bent known by the names of blacks, brand, or burnt- 
ear ; and it is often called imrf, from the supposition that it 
is a variety of the same disease which attacks the external 
part of the fructification before the skin of the grain is formed. 
Whether there may not be some truth in this latter suppo- 
sitiun. notwithstanding the opinion before quoted, we do not 
at present presume to determine. 

BURRAMPOOTER, [Brahmapootra.] 

BURROWING OWL. [Owl.] 

BURSA, or BRUSA, the antient Prusa and capital of 
Bithynia. is beautifully situated at the foot of Mount Olym- 
pus in Asia Minor, in 27° N. lat.,40° E. long. The luxu- 
riant plain which lies in front of the city is covered for many 
miles with plantations of mulberry-trees, which nourish the 
silkworms that supply the staple trade of the place. The 
grand mountain in the rear of the town furnishes the finest 
pasturage, an abundance of timber, and underwood for fuel ; 
and a number of cool perennial springs gush out from the 
roots of Olympus, supplying the town with a superfluity of 
the purest water, and fertilizing all the surrounding country. 
As every bouse in Brusa has its fountain, the total number 
ii immense, and some of the public fountains and conduits 
are beautifully constructed. The old traveller Tournefort 
says he never saw a city with so many fountains, except 
pt^rhap^ Granada in Spain. The streeU are remarkably 
clean and well paved, particularly the bazaar quarter. Ac- 

• St<*plo^ lh<» MOtl in brine oi- sule mine, and drying It wiih fivth-t>unit 
Kn.«. oa U uoittttly duii« wiih wheat. uhu««ver a utvful pcvcautioo. which 
•ImmUI hm «ii«*vi«fU al«o with barltfy and oats, whcrevar bunit «ara li»r« ap- 
t^Mtvl 10 prvcrtlinK crops. Sulphate of wpp^r » faid to W i»ora cAm- 
ffioaa than oommuo tall. 



BUR 

Qordiog 1o M.'FoDtftBier, a reosnt Frtneh travclUi; Bnm 

contains 125 mosques, a great number of kbana. and a 
population of about 100,000 souls. The citadel, whieb oom- 
mands the town, stands on a rocky eminence, the Acropoa» 
of antient Prusat Parts of the walls are of Greek oonstnic- 
tion, and many antient fragments are imbedded and mixed 
up in the Turkish building. Within the fertre«a there i* ax. 
old Greek church converted into a Mussulman mausoleum, 
where repose the bones of Sultan Orcan» his wives, a&ii 
children. Orcan lived in the fourteenth century, and is 
1327 took Brusa (which he made the residence and cap.:i. 
of the Ottoman dynasty) from the unwarUke Greek, em- 
peror. The monuments erected over these graves are covend 
with magnificent Cachmire shawls. 

But the most remarkable edifices in Brusa are the thermal 
baths, which are extensive and magnificent. The finest of 
them (£8ki-kapli4ia) is an antient Greek building. 1 ^ 
mineral waters that supp'iy them gush out from the haw.* uf 
Mount Olympus ; they have a strong sulphureous odour, 
and in temperature range from 60° to IQP of R^umur, tht: 
is from 167° to 190° of Fahrenheit. In the environi of 
Brusa, melons of exquisite quality and fruits of all kinds are 
cultivated: the Greeks and Armenians there eatabli^irl 
make good wine, but the capital produce is silk, uhitb is 
worked up to a very considerable extent on tbe apot, ar.d 
largely exported. The demand in England for Brusa ^:;iv< 
is at this moment (April, 1836) much on the inorease. Tr.e 
pieces manufactured at Brusa are exceedingly stiopg, t^:(» 
ful in design, and very enduring. In many of the arttr .^ 
British cotton yarn is woven with the native ailk, anu t 
strong and beautiful stuff is produced from the mixturv"— 
the dyed silk, on which flowers or other patterns are wrou^*hu 
being singularly tenacious of its colour. Brusa ie a p«>l 
market for the cotton yam, or twist, of Manchester and 
Glasgow. This article of manufacture is landed at Ci»'^ 
stantinople, and thence forwarded by caravan to Brusa. Oi 
the whole, this is the pleasantest city which tbe Turks pM 
sess in Asia Minor, and in industrial and eommerctal mi- 
portance it only yields to Smyrna and its neighbourhood. 

BURSA'RIA (Zoology), tbe name of a genus of minute 
Microzoairia ctpodch with a membranous body, short, and 
a little bent upon itself, so as to be eoncave below and 
convex above. 

De Blainviile observes that this fbrm is very probtb'> 
composed of species of floating Planarit^, sliishtlv \ku 
upon themselves, but that he is not certain of this, a^ tr 
never examined the subjects accurately. He adds that ;t 
is still more difBouU to say what Bursa'ria MrundineBn, . • 
which M. Bory has fbrmed his genus HirurulineUa^ is. 

Lamarck places Bur$aria among his Infusoria, obser%:r.; 
that their body is delicate and membranous, and reniarka* .; 
by its concave fbrm on one side, which sometimesputs on t ».r 
appearance of a boat, sometimes of a purse. Their tr ' ^'- 
ments are not lively, and it is said that they are irreyuliV 
so that when they describe a spiral line from right to I 'i 
and i-aise themselves in the water they ipove with tolcru' 
swiftness; but when they return or descend they onl> r.r - 
oeed slowly, a difference of velocity attributable to'their f »ra. 

Loccdiiy, Fresh and stagnant waters, and sea- water 
Lamarck describes five species, the first of which, Burtrrza 
truncateUa^ is visible to the naked eye, and is found a 
ditch-water. 

According to Ehrenberg, the Bursaritie, as well as ih< 
Loxodes,\\M Tracheiice, &c. have an intestinal tube fur- 
nished with cfeoal appendages which open anteriorly at tb* 
inferior sytrfiuse of the body, and posteriorly at its extrei- 1:> 
The mouth is without cilia or hooks, and there is no cil^-^ 
circle op the front. The Bursariee differ besides fn>m Ih* 
other two genera by the form of the upper lip, whi'h i> 
compressed, subcarinated. or swollen, and not contraciol 
The body of the Bursariee is, for the most part, downv. 

£:i^ample, Bureariq truncatdl^. Miiller. 





CBnnarl InncatellA. Vatoral um and magaUlctL] 

BURS ATE LL A (Zoology), a genus of marine ml- 
luscouB animals without any traces of a i<hell, placed by IV 
Blainviile under his second' family Aplysiacea (Aply»i»i:M 
of his third order, Mfmopleurwranckiato^ of 



%^n 



^ 



h\in 



eephafophora fndnoida. The Ibllotntigfa De fikinVille's 
definition of the ^tius, irhxch, in his arratiffettient, comes 
between Dntabella and Notarchtt^, Rang thtnkfc it ought 
to belong to the genus Aply^ia. 

Body subglohular ; bek)W, an oval space circumscribed by 
thick lips indicating the foot, above, a symmetrical oval 
opening with thick Tips, formed by the complete junction of 
rho natatory appendajres of the mantle, and Comtaunicating 
with a cavity in which are found one ve^ large free gill 
and the vent. Thfe tentacula are four, divided and ranilfled, 
besides two buccal appendages. 

Example, Burgatella Leachii, which De Blalnville sdyi 
is the only species of the genUs. It is larg^ &nd a natiVe 
3f the East Indian seas. 




[Borsatella LeaehH.] 

BURSERA'CEJS, a natural order of exogetiS cortsiiting 
f balnaniic, resinous, or gummy plants with pinnated leaves, 
ml !«m'aU hermaphrodite or unisexual polypetalous fldwers, 

I ith a superior ovarv seated in a' large circular disk. The 
riiit is a 2-9-celled drupe, with its rind sometimes splitting 
nto valves. It was formerly included, among other orders, 
n the Terebintacecb of Jussieu, but it differs from Amyri- 
aceas and Anacardiacece in its compoiiiid fruit. MVrrh, 
rankinoense, olibanum, balsath of Acouchl, gum elemi, 
•aim uf Gilead, and opobalsamum, or balsam Or Mecca, are 

II pnxlucts of different species of the ord^r. [Balsamo- 

IKNDKON.l 

BURSLEM, a parish and market- town in the northern 
ivision of the hundred of Pirehill, Staffordshire, 24 miles 
roin Newcastle-under-Lyne, and about 137 miles direct 
i>tance N.W. from London. .Burslem is a chief to\ui in 
lie important district called * The Potteries,' the principal 
eat of ihe earthenware manufacture of England. The 
larish, which is in the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, has 
n uri-a of 2930 acres, with a population, in 1831, of 12,714, 
f %shich 11,250 belonged to the town. The gross annual 
tirome of the living, which is a rectory, is stated at 530/. 
.'he township of Halton Abbey and the hamlet of Sneyd 
re included in the parish. 

Bur-lem has a market twice a week, dtt Mondays find 
Jaturlays; the market-house is a neat edifice of modern 
rL'Ction, surmounted by a clock. The district of • Tlie 
'ot I cries is steadily advancing m improvetnerit, and con- 
aincd, ih IS31, a population of 53,000; but ft-om the nature 
if the eniploytncnt, the cheapness of building materials, 
•id other circumstanced, the number of IhiUses of tlie 
innual value of !(»/. and upwards was only from 1400 to 
500. • The Potteries' were enfranchised under the Reform 
Vet. and constitute the boroUgh of Stoke-Upon-Trent. 

StoK B - (Tt»0?f-TllENT.] 

There Were, in 1835, thirtv-seven daily Schools tind elevcti 
Sunday schools In the parish of Btirslettt. 

{Hedutiffs of England and JVaks ; Boundary Repdris ; 
Pop , i:ccl., and Edac. Returns.) 

BURTON, ROBERT, author of the* Andtoltiy of Melan- 
*h )ly,' was born at Lindley, in the CoUnty of Leicester, Feb, 
nh/ 1576, and was descended of ik reputdbte and antient 
famdy. He received part of his education at the grammar- 
achooi of Suttott-Coldfleld, in the county of \Vatwick; and 
was admitted a commoner of Brazertose-collcge, Oxford, in 
1593, where be made considerable progress in logic and 
philosophy. In 1599 he t^as elected student of Cbrist- 
ehnrch. In 1616 he iras presented to the vicartige of St. 



Thomas, in the gift of that college ; and at a later period; 
after the year 1628, he was presented, by Lord Berkeley, to 
the rectory of Segmve in Leicestershire. It is said that he 
composed the Anatomy of Melancholy, published in 1621, 
with the intent of diverting his own thoughts fk-om that 
feeling. These are all the facts and dates recorded by 
Anthony Wood concerning Burton's life. He diwl at Christ- 
church, Jan. 25th. 1639-40, at or very near the time t^^hich 
he had before foretold from the calculation of his own 
nativity. This coincidence gave rise to a rumdur, which 
probably was jocose rather than serious, at least there is not 
a particle of evidence to support it, that be hastened his d^vn 
death that his astrological skill might not be put to shame. 
He bequeathed two sums of 100/. each to the Bodleian and 
the Christchurch library, the annual pk'oceeds to be em- 
ployed in purchasing books ; and he also ordered that those 
two establishments should select from his own ctillettion 
any books which they did not possess. Those acquired by 
the Bodleian are said by Bhss, in his edition of Wood's 
Athence Oxoh., to form one of the most cUrious additions 
ever made to that collection. • They consist of all the his- 
torical, political, and poetical tracts of his owii time ; with 
a large collection of miscellaneous accounts of murders, 
monsters, and accidents. In short, he seems to have pur- 
chased indiscriminately c\'erything that was published.' 

Wood gives the fbllowing character of Burton : — • He wHs 
an exact mathematiciah, a curious calculator of nativities, 
a general-read scholar, a thorough- paced philologist, and 
one that understood thd slirveynig of lanas well. As he 
was by many accounted a seVere student, a deVourer of 
authors, d meldncholy and humorous pCrsbn ; sO by others 
who knew him well, a person of great honesty, plain deal- 
ing, and charity. I have heard sbme of the antiehts of 
Christchurch often say that his company was verV merry, 
facete, and juvenile : and no man in his time did surpass 
him for his ready and dexterous interlarding his common did- 
cbUrses among them With verses fVotn the poets, or sentences 
from classical tttlthors ; which being then all the fashion 
in the university, made his company more acceptable.* 

Some notion of Burtohs habits, and of the peculiarity of 
his digressi\*^ and pleonastic style may be formed from the 
following sentences, selected at intervals from the Pl-efdcd 
to the • Anatomy Of Melancholy :' — * I had a great desire 
(not able to attain to a superficial skill in any) td have some 
smatterinl! in all ; to be ilf^nis in omnibus, nultus in sin- 
gulis, which Plato commends. . . . This roving humour, 
though not with like succe$(s, I have ever had ; and like a 
ran;;in<>: spaniel that barks at every bird he sees, leaving bis 
pamo, I have followed all, saving that which I should ; and 
may justly complain ahd truly. Qui ubique est, nusquam 
est (which Gesncr did in modesty), that I have read many 
good books, but td little purpose, for want of a good methocl. 
... I am not poOr. I am not rich ; nihil e^i, nihil deest ; 
I have little, I want nothing ; all my treasure is in Minerva's 
tower. I still live a collegiate student, as Democriius in' 
his garden, and lead a rtionastirt life, ipse mihi theatrufh, 
sequestered from the tumults and trouoles of the world.* 
Then after a lon'^ catalogue of the troubles and accidents 
which befall those who • rub, ride, turmoil, and milc(jrate 
themselves in town ahd coiintry,' ho tontinties, * This I 
daily hear, and such like both public and private news, 
amidst the gallantry ahd misery of the wOrld— Jollity, pride, 
perpleji^itie^ and cares, simplicity and villainy, subtlety, 
knavery, candour, and integrity, nlutnally mixed and offer- 
ing themselves: I rub on priVus pritaftis; as I ha\e still 
lived so I now continue, statu gUo prius, left to a solitary 
lifb and mine own domestic discontents ; saving that some- 
times, ne quid mentiar, as DIogeheS Went into the city, and 
Democritus to the haven, to see fashion§, I did, for iny re- 
creation, now and then walk abroad, look Into the world, 
and could not chuse bUt make soiiie little obsetvtltion ; non 
lam sa^at observator ac simplex r^citator, not as they 
did, to laugh at all. but with a mixed passion/ Bishop 
Keniict says, in his * Register and Chronicle,' p. 320, ' In 
an interval of iapours he would be extremely pleasant, and 
raise laughter in any company ; yet I have heard that no- 
thing else Would make him laugh but going down to the 
bridge foot in Oxford, and hearing the bargemen scold, 
storm, and swear at one another, at which he would set his 
hands to his sides and laufih most profusely ; yet in hit 
college and chamber so mute and mopish that he was sus- 
pected td hefelo de se* 

We give the title, which contains an analysis, of his worK 



BUR 



48 



BUR 



mt Iragth. 'The Anatomy of MeUnoholy: what it it; 

vith ul the kinds, causes, symptomes, prognosticks, and 
Mverall cures of it. In three maine partitions, with their 
severall sections, members, and suh<iections. Philosophi- 
cally, medicinally, historically opened and cut up. By 
Democritus Junior. With a satyricall Preface, conducing 
to the followin§^ Discourse. Macrob. Omne meum; nihil 
meum,^ In defence of this title he says, * It is a kind of 
policy in these days to prefix a fantastical title to a book 
which is to be sold ; for as larks come down to a day-net, 
many vain rraders will tarry and stand gazing.' The name 
of Democritus Junior is introduced in the inscription on 
his monument in Christchurcb cathedral : on which the 
calculation of his nativity was also engraved. A plate of 
it is given in Nichols's ' History of Leicester,* vol. iii. p. 418, 
firora which, together with the Athenas Oxonienses, this 
article is compued. The ' Anatomy,* &c. at first was very 
popular, and went through five editions before the author's 
death. Towards the close of the 17th century it fell into 
oblivion, and was seldom seen except on the book-stalls, 
until brought into notice by Johnson (who said that it was 
the only book tliat ever took him out of bed two hours sooner 
than he wished to rise), AVarton, and others. Mr. Steevens 
in his own copy noted a rise in price, within a few years, 
from eighteen pence to a guinea and a half. Since that 
time one edition at least has been published. Sterne was 
largely indebted to Burton's peculiar humour, though he 
never acknowledged it : many even of his stories are copied 
word for word from the * Anatomy of Melancholy :' this Dr. 
Ferriar has fully shown in his ' Illustrations of Sterne,* 1798. 
The ' Anatomy of Melancholy* displays that extent and va- 
riety of reading to which Sterne was a pretender; it is termed 
a cetUo by its author, and consists chielly of an immense 
mass of quotations, bearing on a great variety of subjects* 
some very little connected with the main topic of the work. 
Warton speaks of it in the following terms. ' The writer's 
variety of learning, his quotations from scarce and curious 
hooka,' his pedantry sparkling with rude wit and shapeless ele- 
gance, miscellaneous matter, intermixture of agreeable tales 
and illustrations, and perhaps, above all, the singularities of 
Ills feelings clothed in an uncommon quaintness of style, 
have contributed to render it, even to modem readers, a 
valuable repository of amusement and information.' (Milton's 
Minor Poems, p. 93.) 

Not to be confounded with the above is the author of a 
number of cheap books published about the beginning of 
the 18th century, with the name of Robert Burton in the 
title>page. (See Chalmers's Biog, Diet) 

BURTONIN-KENDAL. [Wbstmoulano.] 

BURTON-UPON-TRENT. a market-town in the hun- 
dred of North Offlow, on the Trent, in Staffordshire, 22 
miles E. from StafEbrd. and 109 N.W. from London. The 
parish of Burton-upon-Trent is partly in Staffordshire and 
partly in Derbyshire ; it is in the diocese of Lichfield and 
Coventry ; tlie average gross annual income of the living is 
stated at 192/. The area of the parish is 9030 acres, with, 
in 1831, C968 inhabitants. The town, though usually called 
a liorough, is not incorporated. On the dissolution of the 
monasteries, Henry VIII. granted to an ancestor of the 
marquis of Anglesey, the present lord of the manor, the 
manor of Burton-upon-Trent» including the town and several 
hamlets, which formed part of the possessions of the Abbey 
of Burton, together with various privileges which had been 
enjoyed by the abbots. By virtue of this grant, the lord of 
the manor appoints a steward and baiUff, who hold their 
offices during his pleasure. The bailiff has the manage- 
ment of the poUee and the general regulation of the town, 
except as to paving and lighting, which is vested in eom- 
miiisioneffs under a local act 

The abbey of Burton was founded in the begiiming of 
the eleventh century by an earl of Mercia, and it received 
charters and irom unities from several kings. Some of the 
abbots sat in parliament There are scarcely any remains 
of the once extensive buildings of this abbey. The most re- 
markable object connected with the town is the bridge, which 
ii of considerable anticjuity, and is the longest bridge in Eng- 
laud. It has thirty-six arches, and is 1545 feet in length. 
The bridge connects at this place the counties of Stafford and 
Derby, and towards the middle of it is the legal lioundary. 

Leland slates that in his time Burton was noted for its 
alabaster works. How long these works continued to 
flourish is unknown. Alabaster is found in the neighbour- 
hood of Needwood Forest Burton has long been, and atill 



is, celebrated lor its ale, whksh oooatitQtet the chief 
facture of the place. The town consists of two |iriiiei|>al 
streets, one running parallel to the river, and another cutuiig 
it at right angles. The market-day is Thursday ; there 
are four annual fairs, one of which lasts five day a. The 
Education Returns of 1835 state that there are nineteen 
daily schools, and six Sunday schools in the parish. Toe 
free grammar-school was founded and endowed in 1 520 by 
the then abbot of Burton. Considerable estates for cUa* 
ritable and other purposes for the benefit of the town arp 
vested in trustees. The grand Trunk Canal, which is calle-J 
also the Trent and Mersey Canal, passes Burton, and com* 
raunicates with the Trent about a mile below the town. 
The Trent, which falls into the H umber, is navigable icc 
barges up to Burton-upon-Trent. (Gough's Camden ; Shaw ^ 
Sii^ordshire ; Beauties qf England and Waiee; Munici- 
pai Corporations Report ; Pop., Hoc,, and Edue. Betums.i 
BURTSCHEID, BORSCHEID, or BORCETTE. 

[A IX-L A-Ch APKLLS.] 

BURY, a m. t in the co. palatine of Lancaster, made a 
bor. in 1832 under the Reform Act, with the privilef»<> «if 
sending one member to parliament It is 195 m. N^.W. 
of London, 9 N.N.W. of Manchester, 6 E.N.E. of Bolton. 
7 W.S.W. of Rochdale, 16 S.E. of Blaekbum, 9 S. of 
Haslingden, and 48 S.E. by S. of Lancaster. 

The par. comprises the town of Bury, the t of Klton and 
Walmersley, including Shuttleworth, and the chapelries oi 
Higher Tottington and Lower Tottington. and Heap, in- 
cluding Heywood, all in the hund. of Salford ; and the t of 
Coupe-Lench-cum-Newhall Ley-cum-Hall Carr, lienheadi» 
and Musbury in the hund. of Blackburn. The pop. of the 
par. has more than doubled since 1801, as the fijlowug 
table will sliow : — 

1801. 181L 1831. 1«^»l. 

Baryt 7,078 8.762 10.583 15.w» 

Coupe-T«neli. New Hall Hey-) ^-u ^^ , ^. , -^ 

conHaUUMrt . .} ^'^ ^86 1.284 U5*» 

Elton t. . . S.080 9.540 9.8S7 4.«^i4 

H»Mp-eiun-n«7«rood chap. « . 4,983 5.148 6.559 I0.4f9 

Mutboryt ... 463 689 798 l.iJi 

To«Unglun r HiffheO cU«p. .1.946 1.5M 1.798 ».&Tl 

TotUnyton (L(mpr)rhmp. . 4,314 6.917 7.333 9.W 

Wntennilty ami Hhuttlitrortli t 9.166 9.619 8.990 3.4M 



Total 



. 99,300 97.917 34.335 47.6a; 



The annual value of the par. presents a still fi;reater pro- 
portionate augmentation during the period of which we 
nave returns, viz. : — 

1815. laae. 

Bury . . . 16,546 34.954 

Coupe-Lench, &c. • . 8.627 2,494 

Elton . , , 6,370 11.178 

Heap, &c. • • . 8.861 27,820 

Musbury • • • 1,299 2.379 

Tottington (Higher) • « 4,366 6,683 

Tottington (Lower) , 9,011 16^1 i 

Walmersley . ♦ . 5,822 7,770 



Total 



£60,902 £109,993 



The town of Bury has been very much enlarge aiki 
improved within the Isst few years. The streets are turn 
lighted with gas ; and more attention is paid than former iv 
to the paving and cleansing of the streets. There are i^ 
waterworks, but the inhabitants are well supplied with wairr 
by means of pumps. Though the town stands on nsio^: 
ground, it seems relatively low, from the hills whidi aur* 
round it on the N. and £. The river Irwell, which does r»< 
take this name till it reaches Bury, flows through the 
W. end of the town, and is joined by the Roche about tw^ 
miles to the 8. In antient times one of the twelve baronui 
castles of the county stood close to this town, not far fiom 
the parish church, on the banks of what was then the coorne 
of the Irwell ; but the river now takes a more N.W. eounr, 
and leaves a fertile tract of land in the valley be t wee n its 
present and its antient bed. The time and the cause (ft 
this change are not known. It has been conjectured to be 
owing to the works of the besiegers in 1644, when ti»e tnwn 
was attacked by the parliamentarv troops, and the ruins c/ 
the castle were entirely demolished. Nothing now renains 
to marib the former ezistenre of this fortress but fragmenu 
of stone, which are occasionally dug out of its antient foon* 
dations. In Leland's time part of the ruins lemained. s« 
he alludes to them in his description of the place. * B} r: 
on Irwel water, four or five miles fiom Manchester, but s 
poore market There is a ruine of a castel by the paroch 
church yn the towne. «It longgid with the towne samcmse 



« U E 



90 



BUR 



A dtspenutry and lying-in charity are supported by ih* 
nual subscriptions. There are several small charities for 
the distribution of linen cloth among the poor of the town 
of Bury, ui. Gruest's charity, 10«. a-year; Banks*s charity* 
3/. a-year; Rothwell's charity, 10«. a-year; and Wanng's 
charity, 1/. Is, a-year. Besides these, Shepherd's charity 
furniAnes 9/. for annual distribution among the poor ; and 
Y«tes*s charity 1 6/. 3#. for the relief of aged persons. 

There are also other charities belonging to the parish, 
which altos^ether form only a small amount. 

A savings' bank was established in Bury in 1828. There 
is a public subscription library, a news room, a mechanics* 
library, a medical library, and a billiard room. 

BURY ST. EDMUND S, a borough and market-town, 
having separate jurisdiction, loeally situated in Che hundred 
of Tbingoe, in the western division of the county of Suffolk, 
25 miles N.W. by W. from Ipswicb» and 72 miles N.B. by 
N. from London. The borough contains 304U English sta* 
tute acres, and is co-extensive with the two parishes of St. 
James and St. Mary. 

Origin and early Hu^ory.— The origin of Bury St Ed- 
mund's, or St. Edmund's Bury, as it is called by old writera, 
baa been a sul^ect of much discussion. Some say it was 
Uie Villa Faustma of the Romans, mentioned in the 
Itinerary of Antoninus, and that it ewed its name to 
Faustinus, or to Faustina, the wife of the Emperor Anto- 
ninus Pius ; others say it derived its name from JkuBtui 
(prosperous, happy), and so signified the 'happy town.* 
It is at least certain, from the number of Roman antiquities 
dug up in the neighbourhood, that it was at one time in 
the possession of that people. At the time of the dissolu- 
tion of the Heptarchy, it belonged to Beodric. and was henoe 
called Beodrio's-worthe or Beoderici-eortis, the villa or man- 
sion of Beodric. Dr. Yates, in bis ' History of the Town 
and Abbey of Bury St. Edmund's/ endeavours to derive its 
latter name from two Saxon words meaning a plaoe dedi- 
eated to religious worship : but the former derivation is more 
natural (m it actually belonired to Beodric), and therefore 
nore satisfactory. BeiKirie bequeathed it to Edmund the 
king and martyr, af\er whom it was called St. Edmund*B 
Bury—Buryi like Beri, burg, burgh, &o., being a Saxon 
word meaning castle or string town. 

Edmund, having sueceeded to the throtie of East Anglia, 
was crowned at Bury on Christmas-day, 856, and in the 
Idth year of his aise. In 8/0 he was taken prisoner and 
cruelly put to death by the Danes. The following is the 
fabulous history given of the oiirumstances attending his 
death, to which tradition the corporation owes the devices 
on its arms and seal. St. Edmund, being a Christian as 
well as an enemy, was first scourged and then bound to k 
tree and his body pierced with arrows. His bead was then 
eut off and thrown into a neighbouring wood. On the de- 
parture of the D^nes, the East Anglians assembled to pey 
the last solemn tribute of affection to their martyred king. 
The body was found bound to the tree, and was interred in 
a wooden ebapel at Hoxne ; but no where could they find 
the head. At iaat, after a search of forty days, the bead 
was disoovered between the fore paws of a wolf, which im- 
Bediately resigned its charge unmutilated, and quietly 
retired into the wood. * An unkouth thyng.* says Lydgate. 
' and strange ageyn nature.* The head, on bemg placed 
in contact with the trunk (which was not the least decom- 
posed), is said to have united with it so closely that the 
separation was soarceljr visible. 

AfmoMtery^ Antiqmtiet, ^. — Soon after the martyrdom 
of King Edmund, six priests devoted themselves to a mo- 
nastic life under the patronage of the royal saint, and 
founded a monastery, which, in after ages, by the magnifl- 
eence of its buildings, the splendour of its decorations, its 
valuable immunities and privileges, outshone any other 
ecclesiastical eFtabli»hment in Great Britain, Glastonbury 
(in Somersetshire) alone excepted. Leland, who saw the 
abbey probably when in its highest state of perfection, thus 
describes it t * The lun hath not shone on a town more de- 
lightfully situated, with a small river flowing on the eaatem 
part, or a monastery more illuHtrioua, whether we consider 
Its wealth, its extent, or its incomparable magnificence. 
You mii^ht indeed say that the monastery itself is a town ; 
so many gate« there are, so many towers, and a church 
than which none can be more magniflrent; and subservient 
to which are three others, also splendidly ailomed with 
admirable workmanship, and standing in one and the same 
churchyard.' 



Amongst the ifst benefkoCOfa of ike MOBUflsry v«« 
King Athelstan and Edm%nd, son of King Edward tfas 
Elder. The latter conferred on it many valuable privilefprs 
which he confirmed by royal charter* Previoua to ifae 
destruction of Bury by Swein in the beginning of the 1 Ub 
century, Ailwin, who had been appointwi to the high vlllet 
of * guardian of the body of St. Edmund/ fearftil lest ths 
Dane should get poeeession of the holy relie, oonv«yed the 
remains to London. The bishop of that see clandeatinelf 
took possession of the precious relic, and refused to i«tun 
it; but after some altercation, it was carried baek by 
Ailwiut then bishop of Hulme> and phwed in tbe ftbber 
ohureh of Bury. 

In 1 020 Ailwin qieoted all the secular clergy from Bury, 
and establislied twelve Benedictine monks from the montv 
tery of Hulme in the abbey, exempted them ttom all epi>> 
oopal authority, and laid the fsundation of a beautitu. 
church, which was oonseorated in 1038* The three fint 
ehurches were built of woed, but in the year I06& another 
was erected of hewn stone< under the auspioea of Abbu 
Baldwyn. It took twelve years building, and was embel- 
lished by numerous ornameuls brought from Gaeo« in Nnr^ 
mandy. It was 60ft feet in length ( the transept vae t\i 
feet, and the western front tt40 in breadth ; altofcether tt 
contained twelve chapels. Part of the ruins of the westerr 
front still remain. One of the towers, which aeema to bat 
defiance to time or weather, has been eonverCed inte t 
stable ; and the three arches, which once formed the en- 
trance to the three aislea of thi ehuroh» have been filled uf 
with modern briek-worki and now form eonvenieot dweiLnf- 
houses. 

There appear to have been four grand gate* to the abber 
and its lofty embattled walls inclosed within its vast eiir.uia- 
ferenee the body of the monastery, the abbot*a paleoe, itit 
garden, &o., chapter-house, towers, eloisten^ infimanct^ 
the magnificent monastorial churoh, an extensive churtk* 
yard, three smaller churohes, and several ehapek. Tbt 
abbey eentained 80 monka, Ifi chaplainat and 1 1 1 aervants : 
besides the abbot, who was a spiritual parUamentar^' bann. 
held a synod in his own ebapter^heuse, and appoiDted the 
parochial clergy of the place. He inflieted oapilal puniAS* 
ment, and had the power to try by his steward all ceusct 
within the liberty (^ Bury. Beyond the cirottit of the ebbe? 
walls were several hospitals andcha|pela under the petroiusf 
and protection of the monks. As a proef of the devpotis 
power possessed by the abbot and his monka, it is autfiner.: 
to mention that in the ISth eentury some Franeiscen fnan 
came to settle at Bury, and built a handsome monasters . 
but the monks of Bury pulled it down* and diove the fnan 
out of the town with impunity. Edward the Conitrv« v 
firsnted to the abbot the liberty of coining, and Edward I 
and Edward II. both had mints hers. Some pennies coin<^ 
at Bury still exist in the cabinets of antiquaries. Henry 1. 
on his return to England after his interview with pr.« 
Innocent III., eame tsBury to pay his devotions te ci 
shrine of St Eduiundk During the eontssts which t-^i 
place between Henry II. and his son, a large army vas 
assembled at Bury in support of the king. The rival ansvt 
met at Fornham St. Genevieve (a place in the neigh^..ur- 
hood), on the S7th of October, 1173; and the viotory, vurr 
was obtained by the royalists, was chiefly attributed to uie r 
carrying before them the sacred atandard of St fidraubi 
Richard I. paid a devotional visit to Ihe shrine of the sa-t-i 
on his return from the Holy Land, and presented to it < 
monastery the rich standard of Isaae, king of Ct|iru^ It 
was here also that Jehn was first met by the refrscearv 
barons, when he was compelled to sign Magna Charta. In 
IS 72 Henry III. held a parliament at Bury. A partjamff:.! 
was also held here by Edward I. in 1296, when ail the 
goods and chattels and all the revetiues of the monasterf 
were forfeited to the king, upon the menks reftming to pa% a. 
subsidy that was demanded from them ; but on their atW- 
wards complying, their goods were lestored. In U4i a 
pariiament was convened for the purpose, as is Sttppecni. 
of elfeoting the death of Humphrey, duke of Glo«M:««tar 
Henry VII. and Elisabeth both visited Bury, and were ct; 
tortained here with sonsiderable pomp and magniftrwnre. 

This celebrated monastery was 510 years in the p>M»>^ 
sion of the Benedictine monks, and during that iin<e la 
33 abbots. At the dissolution of monasteries it «a» «aU- • 
by the commissioners st 23661. 16s., but that ttu«t hat - 
been considerably under its real value, for the 00Dmis«vr> 
ers, hi their report, say, * we have taken in the eevd 



BUR 

Iny ID gM» iMd lylvar iOM niriu, hMjrdM u wall and 
riob crou with ameraldi and also dyren •tt»iM of graal 
TaluB, and yet WBhaveUftlbe obaroh, abbott, *ud convent, 
very well fumiihed with plate of aylvar necaisary far tbt 
uroe.' A writw tn 1721 tayi that at that time the im- 
manie poueHiona of tbe abbey and ita valiubla privilegea 
would bave been worth 3<tOMal. per annua. 

Almost the only relio wbieh remaioa at tba msgniQoaoM 
>! ihii monaalio sMabliahBiaiU it tba weitem, now called 
the abbey gate. It waa erected in laS?. aflar Iba aid gate 
wn» pulled down itj the mob. It U a Mffect ipeoimon of 
Qotbic arr.hiiecture, eomhining itranBlh and utility with 
ilejiaiice and (crandeuE. The materuu and warkmanibip 
w bulb M aaoelleDl Ibaf, althouj|b widtout a roof, it ia tlill 
n the bigbeit atale of prMarvaueo. Ita haigbt ii 62 feet, 
II lenRth &0 feat, and braadth 41 feet- In the N.W. and 
S.W. anglea were eiroular itairai ihoae on ttie S.W. tide 
.nil exiii. but are rather difficuU |o atMnd. The < tarTe- 
>laine' oftha wall braaalatraee all round, and over wuih 
iniile thera fcnnerijr waa a tower. 

Hio eaatera aide af thii Rate, althoagh iwt to Rorgeoual; 
plundid aitbeweat aide. i« the imyM elegant, Xbainiernai 
valla are beaulirully deaoraiadt and anangal Mlier earved 
rork ara iha armi of King Edward tba CoiiJeiHr. Anangat 
>tlier antiquiliea fuund in digiting up an old fbund«tion are 
our anuque htada, aul out of btecka of frMitone of gitKB- 
in diiaeoaiana, aad probably rB^maenling wnta hwthan 
leiiiaa, 

Varioui ruiiM tS rriigioui and aharit^e inttilutiani ami 
iccted with the abbey are atill vi*ib]e. Tbe followiag ere 
neiitianed in DuKdale'a 'HooaaUoon' :— The Hoapilak af 
it. Julio or Grod'a-houae wiihaut the iMilb sate, pnitiably 
he rhapel, or as it ia aomatimaa called tlko Hotpital of Sl 
;*etrDDilla, waa eanmoted with tiiit hetiM | Ki. Niobolaa' 
hospital without the eatt gate, now a larm-bouu j 8L Pa- 
em Hoapital and Cbep^, founded by Abbot Anoeloii in 
bj lime of Henry I., now belonging tg the truHteas of the 
rea erauimar aohooli ita ravenua at the diMcdutton waa 
>ortli ml. I8«. lliJ. St. Saviour's Hospital, fwindad by 
Vbbut Sanpaon in iIm reign of KiBg John i it ww here 
bat ibe dulw of Glweeater ia auppaaed to luva bean laur- 
lefe<l. St. Stepfaen'i HoapiUl, Jeau*' College and Ouibl, 
ireotcd by King Edward VI. in M81, now oecupied a* 
I workhouse; aud, laHtly, the convent of Grey Fruura at 
tubivellor North Gale, aat>bli«)ie4 in 13SS, 

Tm Sarin Towtr. or Chunh Gut9.—T)u» noble atrue- 
lira wan the ipmud portal into tbe oburehyatd ^pMiU to 



t BUR 

the weatem entrance at the nunaatenal ehurefa. At tbe 

diaaolutian it was converted into a belfry for Bt. Jatneg'i 
Church, ' and tothii circumstance,' (ays Mr. Yale*, 'most 
probably Uie antiquarian i* indebted for the graliBcalmn 
of now surveying this venerable relic of atitient piety and 
taste.' It i« oonaidered one of the Bnest uperimens in exist- 
ence of what it colled Saxon architecture. It is a quadran- 
gular building eo feethigb, and is remarkable for its strentilh 
and aimplioity. The date of il« erection is unknown. The 
stone of which it is built abounds with small sheila. Near 
the boae on the western side are two'Qurioua baa-reliefs, one 
representing mankind In its fallen stale, by tbe figures of 
Adam and Eve entwined with a serpent, and the other, em- 
blematic of tbe delivery of roan from bondage, representing 
God the father sitting liiumphantly in a circle or chetuhira 
The interior of the arch piesents some grotesque li):uvei, 
and forms a carriage -en trance to the churchyard and the 
shire-bouse. We regret ta say that several Hide fissures 
appear on one side, and the other it ia said is 1 2 inches out 
nl tbe perpendicular. [The drauiug presenU a view of Ibw 
wuKt side.] 

Town Govfnmml.^v. — Bury ii a borougb by pretcrip- 
tion, and its prescriptive rights were first contlrmad by 
James I. in tbe fourth year of bis reign. 

Tbe e:{olusive criminal jurisdiciion ever the wbole town 
and one mile round it, which wa* granted to tbe ahbol ol liury 
bv Edmund, son of Edward tbe Elder, and is uow vesta4 iu 
the corpoiation, ceases under tbe Municipal Corporation Act 
from the lit of Majr, li3t. The borough courts are a 
court of teuiont, a civil court called the court of reconi, a 
court-leet, and a euurt of Pie-poudra. The seisions are held 
three times a year, in February, June, and November, and 
as the county aasiies are held witbin the town there are an- 
nually live gaol deliveries. Petty sessions ara held every 
Thursday, and are very well attended by the magisliatea. 
Tlie court of reocrd i« held once u month, and emhrare> idl 
pleat where the caute of acliun bat arisen within the pre- 
cincts of the buHiugh and the dam«ge« do not enceed ivui. 

A courl-leet is held once a year. There is also the court of 
the Elewaril of thu liberty, called the 'Uucb Court.' uhich is 
held once iu every three weeks before the town-clerk, but 
which is limited to debts under iOt. The town is watclud 
by ni|{ht, and has an efficient police. The borough gaol haa 
not been used since 19U5. Tlie prisoQers are all confined in 
the county gaol which ia within the preciocta of the town. 
The property of tbe corporation is worth about 1016/. per 
annum, out of which they have to pay crown renu to tba 
amount of about i&l. Gi, 60. per annum, and 9^. to two cha- 
rilies. Bury first received a precept to return repretema- 
tivestoparliamentin lbe3Uth year of tbe reignof Edwanl I., 
but made no subsequent return till ibe 4th of James I., 
since whirb lime it bos always returned two members, 1 he 
number of voiera registered after the passing uf the Hefarm 
Act was as follows : — 

Householders . .060 
Burgeisea ... 30 

990 



Prtstttt ttate qf the Town, CAiwcAe#,*c.—Tlie town of 
BuiT is pleasantly situated on the liver Larke, and Irum 
its delightful walks, rlean streels. and well built hiiu>e*. uii'i 



from the urbanity of its inhabitants, forms as plea^ai.. 
country residence as any small town ve know of. A gfuut 
part of the town was burnt down in lflU6, but was shortly 
afler rebuilt in ita present regular manner, Then: is a sub- 
scription library,wbirh contaius a valuable collectiun of books, 
and four circulating libraries. The new subscription rooms 
on Angel Hill are very bandsome and contain a well pro- 
portioned ballroom, card-rooms, billiard -room, &c, ^'beiv 
IS also a subscription coflee-room and billiard room. A new 
theatre was built in lBI9.and tbeoldouahasbeflicomcrted 
into a concert-room. The entrance to the botanic garden 
is through the abbey gate, and the walls that farroond it 
arepart of tlioold walls of the monastery. The river Luite 
flows at the bottom of the garden. The collection of o»oiic 
plants, which is already pretty good, is rapidly int-reasiiig. 
St. Martfi ChuTch was bennn in the year 14^4. snd was 
completed in about nine years ; it is 130 feet long, exclusiio 
of the chancel, which is 74 feet by EM ond e7i in breudtU. 
It has three aisles, which are divided by two raws of the 
B 2 



BUB 



sz 



BUS 



aott elegant eolumnt. Tho height of the middle eitle U 60 
feet* to which ciroumstance its betiUtifuUy carved roof owe« 
itn present exifttence« it heing too lofty for the Puritans to 
exercise their fury on. The roof of the chancel is exceed- 
ingly beautiful, the ground being blue and tlie carved work 
guilt ; it is supposed to have been brought from Caen in 
Normandy. On the north side of the communion table is a 
marble slab erected to the memory of Mary Tudor, third 
daughter of King Henry VII. of England, who first married 
Louis XII. of France and subsequently Charles Brandon 
duke of Sufiulk. The monument which inclosed the body 
traa for some time supposed to be only a cenotaph, but in 
opening it, in 1731, a covering of lead coutaining a body 
was found with the following inscription upon it : — 

Mary Qubknr 
1533. 
or Ffranc. 
Edmund H. 

In the middle ot the chanoel Ues baried John Reeves, the 
last abbot of Buryt and on each side is a Handsome altar- 
monument: one to Sir William Carew, who died in 1501, 
and hii wife who died in 1685; and the other to Sir Rob«t 
Drury. 

The ehureh is surmounted by a fine Norman tower, con- 
taining a very good set of bells. The northern porch is 
handsome, and the exterior of the southern aisle is partieu- 
larly beautiful. 

8i. Jamet's Ckureh, like St Mary's, is boilt of freestone, 
and is a very handsome building. It waa not eompleted till 
the Reformation, when Edwani VI. gave 200L towards its 
eompletbn. Its length is 137 feet, and its breadth 69 fbet. 
Near the western door are two handsome monuments, one 
to the Right Honourable James Reynokb (Chief Baron of 
the Exchequer), who died in the year 1738, and another to 
Mary, his wife, who died in 1736. Both the livings are in 
the patronage of the oorporation of Bury. The net inoome 
of St. Mary*s ii 1 10/. per annum ; that of St James's 106/. 
per annum. 

The Churchyard is of considerable dimensions, and has 
a beautiful avenue of lofty Hme-trees. It oontatne both 
ohurches, the Saxon tower, abbey rains, Clopton's hospital, 
the shire-house, and the mausoleiim ; the latter was for* 
meriy ' the Chapel of the Chamel,' where it is said Lydgate 
the poet resided. Not many years since it formed the 
residence and workshop of a blacksmith. It is surrounded 
by shrubs, and forms an interesting object from the number 
of tombs grouped together. 

The Shire Hali, a neat modem bnilding. is situated on 
the antient site of St Margaret s church, and contains two 
good-sized courts, which have but one inconvenience, that 
is, having no internal communication. The Guild-hall, 
where the borough-courts are held, is a handsome structure, 
built of flint and freestone. 

The County Gaol, about hSilf a mile from the south end 
of the town, is built on the radiating principle, and is sur- 
ronnded by a wall twenty feet high, inclosin<^ an octagonal 
area« the diameter of which is 292 feet. The keeper s house, 
which is an octason and stands in the centre, is so elevated 
above the rest that from his windows he can command the 
whole building. In the centre of his house is a chapel, 
divided off into numerous partitions, so that the different 
classes into which the prisoners are divided and subdivided 
are kept separate and eannot even see each other. Upon the 
whole, for lis accommodations and internal regulations, this 
gaol is one of the best in the kingdom. Two tread-mills have 
lately been added to it The house of correction is near the 
gaol, and is equally well managed, being under the super- 
intendence of the same keeper. It at present only contains 
female prisoners, all the men being confined in the gaol. 

Part of the town is well paved, but the prtnoipal streets 
are Macadamixed. It is well lighted, and has a sufficient 
supply of water. About a mile from the town the river 
Larke beeomes navigable to Lynn, whence coals and other 
rommodities are brought in small barges. The market- 
daya are Wednesday and Saturday; the latter for meat 
and poultry, the former for com, &c. Fairs are held on 
the Tuesday in Easter week, and on the 1st of October and 
let of December, for horses, cattle, cheese, &c. But the 
great fair, which is justly celebrated, generally com- 
raeneet about the 1 0th of October, and lasts about three 
weeks. 

Bury St Edmund's eontaina 2292 honaes, of whkh 2231 



are mhahited. The populalioa in 1651 Waa 11,436, oolef 

which 6190 were femalea. There are 2492 f a m t li iia, neeriy 
all engaged in agriculture and retail trade. The aaaeased 
taxes are 4994L 

The Orammar^chool, which is a neat modem huUdin«, 
with a commodioua house adjoining it for the maater. was 
Ibunded by King Edward Vl., whoae bust ia placed o«cr 
the door with an appropriate iraseiiption. It haa four ex- 
hibitioni of 20/. eaoh, and two of 25/. each per annmn. lo 
either of Uie universities, a acholarahip et Corpua Clin^a. 
and another at Jesua-coUege, Cambridge. A new acbou- 
house has lately been eraetod. There are now nboot iw 
hoys on the foundation. 

Bury aUo poasesset three eharity-aehooU, in one of whict 
forty boya, and in another fifty giria are inalmeted aad 
olotaed. They are supported partly by auhae rimi oa and 
partly by an endowment of 70L per annum ; aa Wali aa two 
Lancaaterian aehoola, one for bovs, the other for giris, 
establiahed in 1811 ; and 98 almshonaea, founded by dif- 
ferent persons. aaaongBi whom the principal beodattan 
were Mr. Edmund King and Mra. Margaret Dmy. Ther 
are under the auperintendenee of tmateea, and their fondi 
altogether amount to about 2060/. per annum. Boiey LUsf- 
ton, M.D., founded an hoapital (called Cloptoo, after the 
founder) for the support of six aged widowera and tridoac, 
and endowed it with property worth 200/. per annum. 1 1 u a 
neat brick building, with the arms of the founder «ver the 
pnneipal entrance. A large erection, built by tiM govern- 
ment for an ordnance depdt, has been pure haa ed andoir.- 
verted into a general- hoapital, which ia aupporlad by volea- 
tary contributkms, and now contains about forty patients. 

There ia a Roman Catholic ohapel. a place of worahtp for 
Baptists, the society of Friends, Itfotbodista, and Unitanarv 
ana two for Independenta. A meehaniea' inadtute hfc» 
reoaatly been established. 

Amongst other men of note who were bom at Bury St. 
Bdround*8 was Bishop Gardner. John Lydgate, eommaniv 
called * the Monk of Bury,* spent the greateat part of ha 
life in this place. 

About three miles from Bury is Ickworth, the ma^iluvr.t 
seat of the marquess of Bristol. It is a circular house. I !«■ 
feet in height and 90 feet in diameter, in the centre of a pare 
which has a circuit of 11 miles. iCommumeati<m /njn 
Bury.) 

BUSA'CO, SERRA D£, a mountain ridge in the prw 
vince of Beira in Portugal, stretchnig from the right or \. 
bank of tho Mondego in a N. direction for about 6 mi\t < 
It joins at its N. end the Serra de Caramula, an oflket of rh« 

freat Serra de Alcoba, which runs in a N.E. direction, arl 
ivides the waters of the Vouga from those of the Mondcr^ 
The road from Visen to Coiinbra passes over the Serra 1*. 
Busaco. The sides of the mountain are Tery steep, ar. 
partly covered with woods ; the summit is a naked pUtes :. 
from which there is an extensive view over the coun* ^ 
around, and to the W. as far as the sea. On the hiEhe>: 
point of the Serra is a convent of monks. A battle n « 
fought on the 27th September, 1810, at Busaeo betvc--: 
the English and Portuguese on one side and the FVench • n 
the other. The French array, 65,000 strong, under Ma^^h^ 
Massena, advanced by Visen and the right bank of t^ • 
Mondego towards Coimbra. Lord 'Wellington, with al> u: 
20,000 British and as many Portuguese troops, took up x 
position on the Serra de Busaco. The FVench advanav] : i 
three columns, one of which succeeded in reaching \Yx' 
summit of the hill, but whfle in the act of deploring u ^ 
charged by some English regiments and driven down t .■ 
hill with great loss. The other two columns werv \\)iev ^ 
unsuccessful. Tho French had about 4000 men killo^ 
wounded, and taken prisoners, and they lost the eagle . f 
one of their regiments ; one of their generals was ki!I^ 
and another taken prisoner. Tlie loss of the allies v-j^ 
about 1300. Marshal Massena, unable to force the pcf^it • 
of Busaco, turned it by a mountain-pass over the Sem t> 
Caramula, which led his troops to Sardao in the plains c f 
the Vouga near the sea, and on the high road from Oporto 
to Coimbra. Lord Wellington then withdrew his arm) to 
the S. of the Mondego, and began his retreat to tl^ iIim^ 
of Torres Vedraa. On the 1st of October the Frrn'-h 
entered Coimbra, which had been deserted by its inbat't- 
ants. It was at the battle of Busaco that the Portugxj^^^ 
troops, recently drilled and disciplined by Britiah offict -x 
wera first placed in line by the side of the'Engliah, and xUt 
result of the experiment proved most favourable. (Colonel 



B V S 



H 



B ua 



§B/r the latter. This favour he gratefully acknowUdged 
in his will by leaving 50/. to the poor housekeepers in 
that parisbt having already bequeathed to the parish for 
charitable purposes an estate of 52.')/. per annum, and 
very nearly 5000/. in personal property. In 1639 he was 
admitted to the prebend and rectory of Cudworth in the 
church of Wells, and on the 13th of December in the 
following year he was appointed head master of West- 
minster school, in which occupation he laboured du- 
ring more than half a century, and by bis diligence 
learning, and assiduity has become the proverbial repre- 
sentative of his class. In July, 1660, he was installfid as 
prebendary of Westminster, and in the following August 
he became canon residentiary and treasurer of Wells. At 
the coronation of Charles II. in 1661 he had the honour of 
carrying the ampulla. His benefactions were numerous 
and most liberal. He died April 6ih, 1695, full of years 
and reputation, and was buried under a suitable monument 
in Wehtminster Abbey. His works were principally for the 
use of his school, and consist for the roost part either of 
expurgated editions of certain classics which he wished his 
bo^'s to read in a harmless form, or grammatical treatises, 
chieliy in a metrical form. The severity of his discipline 
is traditional, but we do not And that it rests upon any 
sound authority ; and strange as it may appear, no records 
arc preserved of him in the school over which he so long 
presided. The accusation of* devilish covetousness' brought 
against him bv the gossiping Pepys {Memoirs, iii. 211) 
is sudiciently disproved by the munificence of his will, in 
which he did not capriciously endow public institutions 
which accident suggested to him on a deathbed, but ful- 
filled a design long entertaiued of bequeathing sums to 
be employed m useful purposes by the heads of those places 
of education to his connexion with which he was inaebted 
far all his wealth. 

BUSCUING. ANTON FRIEDRICH, was bom at 
Stadthasfen, in Westphalia, studied at Halle, and after- 
wards went to Peteraburg as tutor to the children of Count 
Lynar. the Danish ambassador la the eourt of Russia. He 
was early struck with the want of good geographical works 
in his time, and he applied himself to supply the defiaieney. 
Having gene to Copanhagan. he published, in 1752, a 
dcscj-iption of the duobiea of HoUtein and Sleswtok, which 
was much approved of. In 1764 he was appointed professor 
of philosophy at Qotttngen, and would have obtamed the 
ehair of tneology in tkwt university but for a treatise in 
which he expressed opinions which were considered as 
swerving from Lutheran orthodoxy. About If 60 he was 
elected pastor of the Qennan Protiitant church at Petera* 
burg, where he nmained fiwr years, and foanded a LyoMm, 
which soon heoame one of the beat institutions for education 
in the Russian capital. Having disagreed with Count 
M''nich, who was protector of the German church, he left 
Petersburg in 1 765, noCwlthatanding the solicitations of the 
Empress Catherine, who wished to retain him in Russia, 
lu 1 766 he was appointed Director of the gymnasium of 
Orauen Kbster, at Berlin. He composed Ibr that institu- 
tion a number of elementary works, which heoame very 
popular in North Germany. Biisching however is more 
generally known for his * Neue Erdbescreibung* or Universd 
Geography, the fimt part of which appeared in 1 754. In 
1759 be bad oanpleisd the description of Europe in eight 
volumes, which became a standard work. He was one of the 
irst nndern writers who introduced in a work of descriptive 
geography statistical information on the wealth, industry, 
commerBc, and institutu^ns of the various countries. His 
statements were made after ocreful inquiry, and were gene* 
rally aoeurate. BuM:hing*s description of Europe was trans- 
lated into English—* A new System of Geography,' 6 vols. 
4ta, London, 176i. His account of the northern countries, 
Denmark. Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Germany, 
is the most full and elaborate part of the work. Germany, 
in particular, is treated very roimitely, and occupies about 
one*half of the whole. It was translated into French under 
the title * Atlas Historique et Geoeraphique de TEmpire 
d'Allemagne,' 4 yfo\%, 4to. It is still valuable as a book of 
reference about the late German empire. Biisching's whole 
work went through eight editions in his lifetime, and was 
translated into the principal European languages. In 1768 
he published the 1st vd. ef Asia, which treated of Asiatic 
Turkey and Arabia, but went no further with it. He pub- 
lished al»o * M agasia ffir die neue Historic undOeograpbie,* 
tt th. 4to,, Hambiisg mod Halle, 1 Mf -ttS.— ' Nac^richten 



von dens Zostande d«r WiasentehaiUD «ii4 Kittite fa 

Diinischen Reichen und Landers,* 3 vols. Svo., Copeo* 
hagen, 1754-65; besides numerous other vcrka of «c«>- 
graphy, biography, education, and likewise on religious 
subjects. His * History of the Lutheran Chuirh«« m 
Russia, Poland, and Lithuania,* has been mcntiofiied mtti 

C'se. Of his biographies, that of the gnat Frederic hxt 
I translated into French by D* AmcK— * Caractdra ce 
Frederic IL* 6vo., Bern, 176i. Biisehing waa a most in- 
defatigable writer, honest and independent ; and he lahourvJ 
earnestly for the advancement ol education and geaerai 
information. The Prussian government aflbrded him en- 
conrageqicnt and support) and in bis latter years bis rar- 
respondence, which was very eatenaive, was made free oi 
postage charges. He died at Berlini in May, 1793. 

BUSHEL. This word seems to be a diminutioii of an 
old English word buH, signifying a box or vessel, nod stal 
used for small fishing*bMts. In Matthew Paris Ccited ly 
Ducange) there is Busfiela as a Latin pluraL In midt.rff 
Latin there is buu$Uu8t butcheUm* buiiMa (whence bou- 
feiUe, boitk% and pottk), ami bultictUa firom buiia (butt). 
The latier word, the origin of all, so far as the LatiD is con- 
cerned, was a general measure,<*-of land* for inatatic^. 
[Ducange.] 

Fleta describes the buihel as oontaining eight pounds 
(libivB) of com, and eight bushels as making a quan«r 
(nuarterium) i Spelman, as containing four galkma (galooi-o 
of wine. Dr. Bernard asserts the bushel to be 72 pouu«.* 
troy of common com (tritieum), or 59*1667 avoirdupc:« 
By the act of 1697 the Winehesier round bushel vaa to U 
1 ii inches in internal diameter and eight inches deep. i£ 
2160*49 cubic inches. The standard of length implied va» 
the old exchequar standard. By the act of 1824 t..c 
standard gallon contains 10 poundaavnirdupoisof pure water. 
eight such gallons make a bushel, and eight busheU .: 
quarter. This, by tlie other provisions of the act, madv »: 
sontain 9fll9'8 cubic inches very nearly. The conteut . 
the bushel seems to have been gradually iacrsaainfl:. Ji: 
butbnot (1797) makes it 8179 cubic inches; Bisenccun ;* 
(1737) &199'4 cubic inches. The bushel is now 36 o^* 
French kire$. The heaped bushel, far goods whtrh wi.. 
heaped above the measuring vessel, such as eoala, fruit, ^v 
and which was estinuted at 9915*5 cubic inchea, t: . 
abolished by 4 and 5 WilL IV. cap. 49, an act which t. . 
effect fiom the first of Jannary* 1995. [WaiaoTs ^n 

MSASURSS.] 

BUSHIRE. [AnousHBRR.] 

BU8HM£N. [BosjaaifAKs.] 

BUSKIN, a covering ibr the leg, commonlv a stnn .- 
outer garment, fit for a defence against dirt, tliorns. ti.f 
Thii word is also used in BngUsh as the tnuulatioo of t 
Greek and Latin word coMtimia, which signifies a hi^u- 
heeled shoe or boot used by the Greek and Roman tr^^ - 
actors to give sn appearance of elevation to their statu rv. ..: 
coigunetmn with the mask and other stage propertu-K 
Coihumua in Latin is employed in eontrttdistineiiun t* 
ioecuSf the fiat-aoled shoe worn by comedians. Hence . . 
English authors the words buskin and eoek are often u^ 
for the tragic and comic drama. So Dryden, 

* OrMt Fleteber nertt ti««d« la Iniildm hat*. 
Nor (pmXn J«qmb (Urw Id Mtdi* ^p«%t* 

BUSSAH£R or BUSSAHIR. a pHncipality in Northt ta 
Hindustan, occupying a mountainous tract on both t^u\e^ : 
the Himalaya range. Bussaher is bounded on the NAV. r 
the Sutleje, on the S. end S.E. by the Jumna, on the S.\V 
by Sirmore, and on the N. snd B. it extends to the eOf* - 
of China. Over a considerable part of this territory, c* 
boundaries of which are but {m]M»r(bc(ly known, the'rsj .. 
of Busssher exercises only a kind of feudal superioritv. t. f 
rulers of the petty states into which it is divided pay tng «n 
annual tribute to him as their head. The entire principa.. - 
lies between SO'' and 32^ N. let, and between 77^ and : * 
B. long. 

Bussaher is divided into the dislncts of Knnawnr: tS« 
tract containing Rampore, the capital, and Satan; ::h 
valley of the river Pal)er; and Daxau, which cent ain* t.- 
Tartar pergunnah of Hangaraag. Kunawur is a rusrur-.: 
district between 3\^ 33' and Si" 51' N. Iftt, and he\4v^\ 
77^ 47' and 78^ 42' E. long., extending on the B. to ShipV. , 
the frontier town of Chinese Tartary, and on the A\ u 
Hangsranff. The Keubrang pass in the Himalaya iloun 
tains, which is 18,180 feet above the level of the sea, fonat 
I the boundary between Kunawar and Chinese Tkrtanr wh&si 



BUS 



M 



B U« 



the ktier aovntry b uiidffr ikie dominkm of tiie toMd Itfma 
of Lassa. The N. extremity of Kumwur is at Skialkur, a 
hill fort near the rvnt Spiti, in 38^ N. lat and 76® 34' B. 
bni^^ the level of which is 10,1 IS feet above the sea. The 
climate of this district is cold, and a great part of the soil 
is ancttlttvable, being oomposed of eminences covered with 
snow, with chasms between them inaccessible to the bus* 
bandman. But tittle grain is raised, and the chief employ- 
ment of the popolation is breeding and rearing sheep, goats, 
ponies, asses, and mules. The wool which is produced is 
exported in considerable quantities, and the greater part of 
the animals here named, including sheep and goatSi are 
used as beasts of burthen in carrying on the traffic with 
Hindustan, Tibet, Cashmere, and Nepaul. The ittha** 
bitants engage largely in trade and enjoy a good reputation 
ibr honesty and punotuality in their dealings. The villagea 
are neither numerous ner populous, the largest not con-* 
taining more than 100 inhabitants; several of them ex* 
hibit the appearance of wealth and civilisation. The ma- 
jority of the inhabitants are Hindus, but in some of the 
villages the people are adherents of the grand or Dalai 
Lama of Lassa. 

Rarapore, the capital of the principality, is situated in 
31^ 2r N. lat and 77® 30^ B. long. ; on the left bank of the 
Sutleje, where that river is little more than 200 feet wide, 
and confined by lofty precipices, between which the water 
foams and dashes fiiriously. The passage across the 
stream is effected by a bridge of ropes, traversed by a block 
of wood, upon which the traveller sits and is drawn across. 
Ram pore is considered a place of much sanctity, and is 
therefore at all times greatly fivquented by religious men- 
dicants : it contains several temples. The town has much 
fallen off (torn its former prosperity, and contains only 
about ISO stone and slated dwellings: it is the usual place 
3f residence of the rajah, who ha* also a summer palace at 
Seran, about 2€ miles higher up the river. This residence 
7f the rajah is on a hill three miles fh>m tiie banks of the 
Sutleje, and 4500 ibet above its level. 

The third district, that which contains the valley of the 
iver Pabef» is the most ptt>ductive part of the priiusipality« 
>ut some portion eveh of this is wild and barren. Iiwn 
vre is fbund in this district, and is worked, when the iron 
brms an article of export to the Seik countries. Dasau 
iroduces wheat and barley, but not rice. Near the villages 
md in tiheltered spots* apricots, gooseberries, and currants 
ire found, but the trees and bushes are stunted. The 
rreatest part of the wealth of the inhabitants consists of 
ionics and mules. Manufkctures of coarse blanketing are 
tarried on in the district. In other parts of Bussaher 
roollen cloths of a superior texture are made, the wool 
leing of excellent quality ; a small quatitity of shawh are 
ikewise made of goats and sheep's wool mixed. 

Bussaher receives from Hindustan sugar, cotton, hard- 
rares, and indigo, and makes returns in iron, opium, to- 
lacco, turmeric, and blankets. FroiA Tibet and the Chinese 
erntories kre brought shawl-wool, salt, tea, silk goods, 
Dusk, and borax : the returns are ^in, iron, and opiums 
otton cloths, indigo, and othef articles teoeived ftom the 
9wer parts of Hindustan. 
The principality was eenquered in 1810 by the Gorkas, 
nd remained subject to them until 1814, when it was, 
hrough the armed intervention of the British, mstored to 
he rajah, who. by a sunntid of tfeaty, dated in November, 
815, was made to contribute an annual sum of 15,000 
upees towards the expense of the fbfee maintained by us | 
bur forts on the banks of the Paber were retained by the 
)ntish as stations for the protecting troops, and in the 
•vent of war, the rajah ef Bussaher bound himself to 
>laee his troops undef the orden of the British. The 
rhole principality is thinly Inhabited, but no attempt has 
leen made to ascerUin the actual population. (ReporH ({/' 
Jommittee 9f Hfhtta nf GoftUttoH9, 1839.) 

BUSSY DAMB0I8B, LOUIS^ D£ CLBRMONT 
3E, one of the fkvourites of the Duke d* Anjou, blether of 
lenry III., king of France. Little is known of tkii minion 
>ut the history of his desperate bmvery and his crimes. 
l>uring the mmaere of St. Bartholomew, having joined the 
Ls^assins, he murdered with his own hand his relation* An- 
oine de Clermont, with whom he had a law-suit for the 
narquisate of R6nel ; but the edict which soon aftefwards 
)as»ed in favour of the Huguenots deprived him of any 
mfit from this bloody deed. He Afterwards commanded at 
ilngere, where his exattlions rendered hitt most unpoptllar; 



and having long intermpted the tranquillity of Buris bf 
private brawb and combats, in which he set at nought the 
terrors of the Bastile and the authority of the king, he 
became so odious to Henry III, by fi^equent acts of pre- 
sumption, that he gave information to Charles de Chambes, 
Count of Montsoreau, of an intrigue which Bussy catried on 
with his wife. The secret had \Mtn revealed to the king by 
his brother of Anjou, to whom Bussy had jestingly written in 
one of his letters that he ' had the game of the mighty 
master in his toils.* Montsoreau compelled the wretched 
adulteress to write a letter with her own hand, making an 
assignation in the Chftteau de Constancieres, where the in- 
jurml husband awaited Bussy with a numerous ambuscade 
of armed men, and, in spite of a most courageous resist- 
ance, put him to death on August iOth, 1579. (De Thou, 
Ixviii. 9.) 

Birantdme (DiicourBt ixxxv.) has made what he calls an 
ilqn of Bussy. It contains nothing more than anecdotes 
of' his pugnacity, which the writer mistakes for true courage, 
and a fVightful picture of the misrule and demoralisation of 
the reign of Henry III. A single line in the epitaph of Bussy, 
which is there given, conveys a finished portrait of his cha- 
racter:—^ Son plaisir fut sa mort, ses plaisirs ses combats.' 

BUST, in sculpture, means a statue truncated below the 
breast. The etymology of the word is not very clear. The 
Romans called * bustum* the place where they burnt the 
bodies of the dead, from 'bustum,* burnt. Bustura was 
was afterwards used for the grave in which the body was 
buried ; and lastly, in the latinity of the lower ages, for the 
dead body itself: * Sanctorum busta,' the bodies of martyrs 
(Ducange). Bustum soems to have been used mora especially 
fur the trunk of the body without the head: *Quinque 
hominum busta sine capite ccesa.* {Annal. Mediolan. in 
Muratori.) In the old French, * bu* meant the trunk : * Car 
ila ont bien arm6 le chef et le bu.' {Old Rrench Romaneey 
Ducango.) * Busto,* in Spanish and Italian, has a similar 
meaning. The Italians call also 'buato' the stays which 
embrace and support the breast. In sculpture, however, 
bust includes the head, akouldera, and breast, with the 
aims truncated above the elbow, and as such, it forms a 
large department of the art. Busts were mostly used by 
the antients to represent likenesses of individuals, and wer^ 
plaeod either upon sepulchral monuments, or in the interior 
of houses, or in gardens. The Greek word Herma has been 
sometimes considered as aynonvmous with the modem bust, 
but the Hefm» were merely heads plaosd on a block of 
slone. 

BU8TAR, a district and town in Gundwana, the latter 
situated in 19^ 31' N. lat and 82° 88' B. long. The part of 
the country in which this district occurs has been very little 
explored ; it is difficult of access, and so unhealthy as to di*. 
ODurage the visits of tiaveilera. This district is occupied by 
a branch of the rnnge of mountains that runs through the 
Circars parallel to the bay of Bengal. Nearly the whole of 
the country consists of hills covered with jungle, and of 
unhealthy morasses ; the remainder, constituting not more 
than one-fifteenth part of the entire area, is very imperfectly 
cultivated by the scanty population, who live almost in a 
state of nature, and subsist on the produce of the chase. 
The principal river in Bustar is the Inderowty or Indiavatl, 
which is not navigable owing to the rocks in its bed. The 
forests of this district abound with teak trees large enough 
for ship-building | and it is said, that if made into rafts they 
could be floated down the Inderowty to its junction with the 
Godavery, and thenee to the bay of Bengal. The river 
Mahanuddy has its source in this district) and flows east- 
ward to Sumbulpora, which district it enters a fow milet 
east of Sri Narram. 

The inhabitants are extremely ignorant and superstitious | 
the practice of sacrificing human victims to the goddess 
Devata Iswari Deri, continued to a recent date, but hal 
been stopped through the intaderence of the British. All 
culprits and prisonera of war, and, when this supply ikiled, 
their innocent fellow«coimtrymen were saorifloed at the 
shrine of the tfoddess. 

The cemindar of Bustar Is subject to the Nagpore sUte, 
and pays to it an annual tribute of 1 5,000 rupees. 

BUSTARD, in Latin Ofw, a genus of land birds whose 
proper position in the ornithological system has csused 
some embarrassment to toologisU. Temminek places it 
under his twelfth order, Cunorei (Runners), observing 
that the genem SiruiMo, Rh$a, and CanuariuM ought to 
stand at the bead of thai order. Cuvier arranges the 



B 13 S 



56 



BUS 



*9 



Bustards under the Presnrottreg, his second family of his 
fifth Older {b'tJuunert, — Grailtt, Lin.) of birds, between the 
Cassowaries! on one side and (Bdicnemug (thiek-kneefl 
bustard or stone curlew) on the other. Temminck makes 
Cursorius immediately succeed it, and observes that among 
the species of that genus the passage between Oti» and 
Cunorius may be possibly found. It appears that the 
bustards partake of the organization of the struthious, 
gattinaceous, and wading birds (E'choisiert, — grailatores), 
Bhea, without alluding to the Dodo on the struthious side, 
CEdicnemus on that of the plovers, and the turkey on the 
side of the gallinaceous birds, make near approaches to the 
genus under consideration,whiIe the Cariama of Brisson (Mt- 
crodactylug of Greoflfroy, Dichnhphut of Illiger), a South 
American form, seems to be one of its nearest repre- 
sentatives on the new continent (Qariama). Vigors places 
the genus in his family S/rttMioniVte— (order Rasores) — 
which occupies a position between the Craddee and the 
Tetrarmida, while it approximates to the GruitUe and 
Charadriad€e in the order GraUatoret ; and, taking all the 
circumstances into consideration, this seems to be the best 
arrangement hitherto proposed. 

The bustards live generally in open countries, pre- 
ferring plains or wide-spreading extensive downs dotted 
with low bushes and underwood, localities which give 
them an opportunity of descrying their enemy from 
afar. They are said to fly but rarely,* running from 
danger with exceeding swiftnesii, and using their wings 
like the ostriches to accelerate their course. When tbey 
do take wing their flight is low, and they skim along 
the ground with a sufficiently rapid and sustained flight. 
Their food consists of vegetables, insects, worms, grain, and 
seeds. They are polygamous, one male sufficing for many 
females, which, after fecundation, live solitary. Temminck 
says that it would seem that they moult twice a-year, and 
that the males in the greatest number of species differ from 
the females in having extraordinary ornaments, and in 
possessing a more variegated plumage. He further ob- 
serves, that the young males wear the garb of the female 
during the first and second year, and adds his suspicion 
that we males in winter have the same plumage as the 
females. Cuvier notices their massy port and the slightly 
arched and vaulted upper mandible of their beak, which, 
with the little webs or palmatk>ns between the bases of 
their toes, recal the form of the gallinaceous birds ; but he 
adds that the nudity of the lower part of their legs, all their 
anatomy, and even the flavour of their flesh, place them 
among the E^chofiien, and that, as they have no hind toe, 
their smallest species approach nearly to the plovers. 

The following is the generic character given by Tem- 
minck, slightly modified. 

Bill of the length of the head or shorter, straight, conical, 
compressed, or lightly depressed at the base ; point of the 
upper mandible a little arched (vout^.) 

NogtHU oval, open, approximated, distant from the base. 

Feet long, naked above the knee, three front toes short, 
united at their base, bordered by membranes. 

Winge moderate, the third quill longest in each wing. 

Geographical distribution. The form occurs in Europe, 
Asia, and Africa ; but is not developed in America. 

EuaOPXAN SPBCIB^. 

Of these the great Btutard, Oiie, and Arts tarda, of 
Belon and others, (htarde, Houtarde^ Outarde, Bietarde of 
the French, Starda and Starda commune of the Italians, 
Der grosee Trappe, Trapp, Th^gane, and Ackentrapp of 
the Germans, AlnUarda (avis tarda) of the Spaniards, 
Guitard of the old Scotch, Yr arafehedydd of the Welsh, 
and 0/M tarda of Linnaus, will serve as an example. 

. From passages in the ' History of Animals (ii. 1 7. vi. 6), 
there can be scarcely a doubt that our great bustard is 
Aristotle's inic (OtisX Indeed the doubts originated in a 
misunderstood passage in the thirty-third chapter of his 
ninth book ; and it is clear Arom several authorities that 
the bird and the quality of its flesh were well known to the 
Greeks. Pliny evidently alludes to these birds as those 
*quas Hispania aves taraas appellat, Gnecia otidas* {Nat. 
Hiet X. 9*i), though he blunders about the flesh, telling an 
absurd story of its efbets, which arises from his oonfoonding 
the Urit with Aristotle's 4»roc (Otns), an owl. 

DeeerinHon, Selby's figure of the male was taken ftom 
a particularly floe lull-grown specimen, weighing twenty- 

* 8««, hMr«Tti« Um hsUla of Oeif TcrAii |iott. 



eight pounds, and ' shot, about sit years ago,* — ^ date of the 
volume is 1825, — by the Rev. Robert Hamond of Swaffbaro 
in Norfolk, in whose possession it then was, as well as tvu 
females, and a young bird of a month old. The followin:; 
is Selby*8 description :— 

M<de, Bill strong, greyish white ; the under nianf]il'l<f 
palest. Head, nape of the neck, and ear-coverts, blut»h 
grey. A streak of black passes along the crown of tb<» 
head, reaching to the occiput. Chin-feathere and moat* 
taches composed of long, wiry feathers, with the barbs dis- 
united and short. Fore part of the neck clothed with a 
naked bluish-black skin, extending upwards toward tbf> 
ear-oovert8, and covering the gular pouch. Sides of the 
neck white, tinged with grey ; lower part of the neck fine 
reddish orange. At the setting on of the neck, or between 
Ae shoulders, is a space destitute of feathers, but covered 
with a soft grey down. Scapulara buff orange, barred aod 
spotted with black. Back, rump, and tail-coverts reddbh 
onnge, barred and variegated with black. Greater roverts 
and some of the secondaries bluish grey, passing towarrH 
the tips into greyish white. Quills brownish black, with 
their shafts white. Tail-feathers white at their bases 
passing towards the middle into brownish onnge, with one 
or two black ban; the tips often white, and, when the 
feathera are spread latenlly, forming a segment of a rircle. 
Upper part of the breast reddish orange ; lower part, belly, 
and vent white. Legs black, covered with round scale*. 
Irides reddish brown. 

The gular pouch is capable of containing a consideTablt 
quantity of water. Pennant says seven pints; Montaira 
talks of the same number of quarts but doubts the quantiti, 
as he well may, nor does he give any authority for the 
greater capacity. May not he have misread Pennant 
who obtained his information from Dr. IXmglaa, saM 
te have been the fint discoverer of this reservoir? In a 
specimen mentioned by Graves, weighing twenty- twn 
pounds and a half, the pouch was capable of ocmtaining 
rather more than two quarts. Dr. Douglas supposes that 
the bird fills this natural water-bag as a supply in the midst 
of those dreary plains where it is accustomed to wander , 
and Bewick adds that one of these birds, which was kq4 
in a caravan, among other animals, as a show, lived without 
drinking. It was fed with leaves of cabbages and other 
greens, and also with tlesh and bread. Othen eonjecturv 
that this pouch is a provision for conveying water to the 
female during the time of incubation and to the young. It n 
true that the female is without this appendage ; hot it 
should be remembered that the best authorities agree .e 
stating that the male is never seen in close company wite 
the female excepting before incubation. Some again f^nf- 
pose that the use of this bag is to enable the biid to ejert 
the water by muscular compression in the faces of birds >r 
beasts of prey, by way of a defence. The average ]en^*< 
of a male is three feet three inches. 

Fffmo^.^ Head and forepart of the neck of a deeper irnr%. 
and without the moustaches and gular pouch. * Back of ibe 
lower part of the neck reddish orange. The other parts of 
the plumage similar to that of the other sex. Siie seldMa 
more than one-third of that of the male. 

Young. — At a month old covered with a buff-«oloared 
down, barred upon the back, wings, and sides with black. 

Localily. — Johnston censures Pliny for saying that the 
bustard is peculiar to Spain, observing that among oih«T 
localities it is a native of Bodotia, in the neighbourhood of 
the Cephissus ; and the editor of the last edition of PeonaEt 
says that the bird, still retaining its antient name {Oh»u 
is found in all the great plains of Greece. Aldrovandis 
observes that Italy has none of these birds, unless tbrr 
were brought over accidentally by tempests ; hut WiUu7hh«, 
in his text, says, ' We, when we travelled in Italy, did »-» 
in the market at Modena a bustard to be sold, wheoee «e 
suspect that there are of them in that country.' In he* 
preface however he corrects himself, saying, ' I am i«*« 
persuaded that the Stella avis of Aldrovandus is a different 
kind from the bustard, and that the bird we saw m X.z9 
market at Modena was this Steliot for to my best ivtnea.* 
brance it was much less than a bustard, and tbeielare I 
revoke what was said in contradiction to Aldrovandus ht 
afilrmation, that the bustard is a stranger to Italy ; hut si 
is very likely that this Stella avis is the same with tK* 
Anas campestris of Bellonius.* The bird alluded to l8«c 
by Willughby is the Field-duck; Cane petiere, of t£» 
FWnoh* Otis tetraan of Linn»us, our Little J^tarU, aaj 



BUS 



ffi 



BUS 



Prince Boni^rte mentioiu it as oocumiig near Rome in 
the winter, but very rarely* and praises tfte delicacy of its 
flesh, ' Carne squisita, ricercatissima.* He omits the Ghreat 
Bustard entirely, and no doubt intentionally. Yet Selby 
says, ' It is found in some provinces of France and in parts 
of Germany and Italy. It it conunon in Russia and on 
the extensive plains of Tartary;* and Temminck states 
that it inhabits some departments of France* of Italy, and 
Germanv ; that it is less abundant towards the north than in 
the south; and that it is very rarely and accidentaUy found 
in Holland. Graves relates that the species is dispecsed 
over the southern parts of Europe, and the. more temperate 
parts of Africa, and is very abundant in some parts of Spain 
and Portugal. In our own islands, the increase of popula- 
tion and civilization, followed by greater demands on. the 
land, and consequently by an extension of cultivated sur- 
face, have so reduced the bustards that, unless care be 
taken to preserve the few which remain, they will soon be 
numbered among the other extinct species of our Fauna. 
We will endeavour to trace the old British localities of these 
noble birds. 'They are called,' says Willughby, 'by the 
Scots GustaraUff, as Hector Boethius witnesseth in these 
ivords :— In March, a province of Scotland, are birds bred, 
:alled in the vulgar dialect Omtardet, the colour of whose 
feathers and their flesh is not unlike the partridges, but the 
iiulk of their body exceeds the swans.' The editor of the 
ast edition of Pennant states that, in Sir Robert Sibbald's 
;ime, they were found in the Mers, but that he believes 
liat they are now extinct in Scotland. Willughby also 
lays (1678), ' On Newmsrket and Royston Heaths, in Cam- 
)ridgeshire and Suffolk, and elsewhere, in wests and plains 
hey are found with us.* Ray (1713) thus writes :<—* In 
ampis spatiosis circa Novum Mercatum (Newmarket) et 
Koyston oppida in agro Cantabrigiensi, inque planitie, ut 
mdio, Salisburiensi, et alibi in vastis et apertis locis, in- 
'enitur.* In Brookes's Ornithology (1761) the following 
massage occurs : — * This bird (the bustard) is brad in severid 
(arts of Europe, and particularly in England, especially 
»u Salisbury Flain, Newmarket and Rovston Heaths, in 
/ambridfreshire and Suffolk ; for it delights in large open 
»laces. The flesh is in high esteem, and nerhaps t^ more 
o because it is not very easy to come at Pennant says, 
These birds inhabit most of the open countries of the 
outli and east parts of this island from Dorsetshire as far 
bs the Wolds in Yorkshire.' 

The editor of the last edition (1812) observes that ' the 
ireed is now nearly extirpated, except on the downs of' 
Viltshire, where it is also very scarce.* The figure of the 
aale bird given by Graves is aaid to have been drawn fiom 
ne taken alive on Salisbury Plain in 1797. Montagu, in 
is Dictionary (1802), says, that in this locality it had be- 
ome very rare from the great price given for the eggs and 
oung to hatch and rear in confinement. In his Supple- 
Dent (1813) he states that not one bad been seen there for 
wo or three years previous. We are old enough to re- 
aember seeing one, and sometimes two» bustards as the 
rowning ornaments of the magnificent Christmas larder 
t the Bush Inn, Bristol, in the reign of John Weeks, of 
iospitable memory: and we have heard, too, a romantic 
tory of the last of the Salisbury Plain bustards (a female) 
oming into a farmer's barton, as if giving herself up. 
rraves says that, in the spring of 1814, he saw five biras 
n the extensive plains between Thetford and Brandon, in 
«forfolk, from which neighbourhood, in 1819, he received 
. single egg, which had been found in a large warren, 
n the autumn of 1819, he adds, a large male bird, which 
lad been surprised by a dog on Newmarket Heath, was 
old in Leadenhall Market for five guineas; and in the 
ame year, he continues, a female was captured, under 
imilar circumstances, on one of the moors in Yorkshire. 
Yhen the mania for real British specimens of birds was 
irevalent, the bustards sufibred not a little. eWe know a 
ollector who, about the year 1816, had nine dead bustards 
lefore him together: they came firom Norfolk. Bustards 
lave been heard of within these last few years on North 
Stow Heath, near Culford, in the neighbourhood of Bury 
it. Edmund's ; and we are happy to be able to state that in 
he locality from whence Selby obtained his specimen, the 
mstard is still in existence and most carefully preserved. 
In this, the western part of Norfolk, a nest is generally 
latched off everv year. In the summer of 1834 a nest of 
^^'^^ ^SS* vas hatched in an open corn-field about half a 
nils frMB High House; and, in December in that y«ari 



I three great bustards were see^ about a mile fVem it They 
shift about from place to place, and are seldom seen but in 
the open country. We earnestly hope that every one, 
sportsman or no sportsman, will respect this httle remnant 
or the numerous tlocks which once graced our island, and 
second th^ endeavours of the spirited owner of the property 
on which they have found refn^ to save the breed of this 
noble bird from utter extiiiction m England. In the eastern 
part of the county we fear that it is quite lostV though it 
was. comparatively common some time a^. It is the more 
necesssry to impress on our readers the importance of 
abstaining firom the preserved few above alluded to, be* 
cause there is not much hope of replenishing the breed 
by captive birds. Graves*s male bird above mentioned 
lived about three years in confinement; and, though a 
female was procured from the continent, she never laid 
while confined. These birds ate turnip, cabbage, and let- 
tuce leaves, also the blades of voung com; during the 
winter they were fed with grain, which they always preferred 
when soaked in water ; they would likewise devour worms 
and slugs. 

Food. — ^Willughby says that the bustard feeds upon corn, 
seeds of herbs, cole wort, dandelion leaves, &c. In the 
stomach of one which he dissected he found a great quan- 
tity of hemlock- seed, with three or four grains of barley, 
and that in harvest time, Brookes states that they feed 
upon frogs, mice, smaU birds, and different kinds of insects. 
Pennant makes their food. to consist of com and other 
vegetables, and those large earth-worms that appear on the 
Downs before sui^iising in the summer. Montagu states 
it to be green com, the tops of turnips, and various other 
vegetab&s, . aa well as worms ; but adds, that they have 
been known to eat &ogs, mice^ and young birds of the 
smaller kind, which they can swallow whole* Turnip-tops 
are certainly a favourite axtide of diet with these birds ; and 
we believe that the nine bustyxds above-mentioned owed 
their fate to their fbndnesa for this vegetable — ^beinglaid 
in wait £>r at their feeding-time. Temminck says that 
their nourishment consists very much of insects and worms, 
and also of grain and seeds. 

Propagoiion, — The eggs, two in number generally, 
sometunes three, are laid upon the bare ground, which is 
often a Uftie hollowed out by the femue (ooeasionallyt 
says Selby, among clover, but more frequently in corn- 
fields), early in the ^ring. They rather exceed those 
of a turkey in size, and their colour is a yellowish 
brown, inclining to oil-green, with slight darker variations. 
Time of incubation four weeks. The young as soon as 
hatched follow the parent, but are incapable of flight for a 
long time. 

Habits. — ^The extreme rapidity of their running, and the 
unwillingness to rise on the wing exhibited by these birds, 
have been the theme of most ornithologists. We have also 
many accounts of their being coursed with dogs. The fol- 
lowing is from Brookes: — ^^ There are also bustards in 
France, which frequent large open plains, particularly near 
Chalons, where, in the winter- time, there are great num« 
hers of Uiem seen together. There is always one placed as 
a sentinel, at some distance from the flock, which gives 
notice to the rest of any danger. They raise themselves 
from the ground with great difficulty ; for they run some- 
times a good way, beating their wings before they fly. 
They take them with a hook baited with an apple or fkeh. 
Sometimes fowlers shoot them as they lie concealed behind 
some eminence, or on a load of straw ; others take them 
with greyhounds, which often catch them before they are 
able to rise.* Selby, who has evidently had good opportu- 
nities of observation, thus writes in his Illustrations : — * Al- 
though in a state of confinement the bustard becomes 
tolerably tame to those who are in the habit of attending 
it, yet it displays at all times considerable ferocity towards 
strangers ; and all attempts to continue the breed in that 
state have been without success. With respect to its habits 
in the wild state, it is so shy as seldom to be approached 
within gun-shot; invariably selecting the centre of the 
largest indosure, where it walks slowly about, or stands 
wiu the head reposing backwards upon the barepsrt of its 
neck, and frsquently with one leg drawn up. Upon being 
disturbed, so far from running in preference to flight (as 
has been often described), it rises upon the wing with great 
fiusility, and flies with much strength and swiftness, usually 
to another haunt, which will sometimes be at the distance 
of six or seven miles. It has also been said, that in former 



Na346; 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiBDIA.] 



Vol. VI.— I 



Jap. vbca tba tpttin wu or 
ftittitm (o niD tbe founf; birds (tK-foTB tbej were able to 
tj} «ilb p«jbouiidi. So far from ihU poMibility eiuljog 
vilh tbe pfeaeat raunaot of iba breed, the young birda, 
npoo beiDfc alarmed. MtutaDtlf Mjuat clots to the grouod, 
in Um aama maDDCT aa the foung of the lapwing, goldeo 
^orar. &&. and in that positioD are frequeDtlf taken by 
band; indaod thia Ueveii tlie habit of the female during 
tneubation.' Belby'a mnarks od ita powen of flying i 
eomboraled bythe'BookeofFaloHirieor Hawking' (lel „ 
where under tbe bead of 'Other fligbU to tbe field called 
great Hisbta,' at p. B3. wa find it thus written : — ' There ia 
yet atwther kind of flight to the Belde, called the greU 
flight, aa to tbe eranea, wild geeae, builard, bird of pani- 
diie, bitlon, ahovelara, hearona, and many other aoch like. 



lug, which ia called the Great Flight, the falconi or other 
bawka cannot well acconipliih their flight at the eranea, 
buatard, or inch like, unleaie they have the heipe of lome 
■paniell, or inch dogge, wel Inured and taught for that 
purpoie with j'our hawks. Forasmuch aa great flights re- 

Suire pleaaant ayda and aaaiatance, yea and that with great 
iligence.' A* an article of food the fleah of the bustard 
ii held in great eatimation. It if dajk in colour, abort in 
fibre, but aweet and well flavoured. In the last edition of 
Montagu's Dictionary it ia atated. that in 18D4 one waa shot 
and taken to Plymouth msTket, where a publican purcheaed 
fbr a shilling what would have fetched two or three guineas 
vhera its value was known. It wai however rejected at the 
■eoond table aa improper food, in co:isequence of the pecloial 
inuacIeB differinginoolour from the other parts of tbe breast, 
as in some of the grouae. There were country gentlemen 
■tipping at the inn on the following evening, and hearing of 
the circumstance, they desired that they might be intro- 
duced to the princely bird, and partook of it cold at their 
Kpaat. Tbe bustard aeema, with aocidental exceptiona, to 
have always brought high prices. We do not indeed find 
it at the feast given at the ' intronaiation' of George Nevell, 
Archbishop of York, in the reign of Edward IV. ; but, iit 
tbe Earl of Northumberl end's household book, it appears 
tmong the birds appropriated to his lordship's table; it has 
no price placed opposite to it, as in tbe case of all tbe other 
bird! with oite other exception. 



[OtbTtiOfc Hah.] 



[OUtTudi. Fanulxl 

AaiATtc Spbcih. 

We select Otit nigricepi as an example. Tbe apecin 

from which the figure in Mr^Goutd's inagDia('«nt i 



by DO means confined to that locality. Col. S} Lci 
observed it in the wide and open country of tbe Hahralus, 
where it lives in large flocks, and where it is considered oae 
of the greatest delicacies as an article of food. It ia indeed 
to abundant in tbe Deccan, that CoL By kes teooida, in the 



BUS 

Proceeding! of the Zoological Soeietr* ^^ oo^ gentlemui 
■hot nearly a thouganil. 

Deirriptxon. Jfojs.— Bod; above, pale bay, Hshllr un- 
du'ated wilh ruroas-brovn ; neck, a few spotf on thewingi, 
and belly, white ; the head, which is crested, the outer wing- 
coverts, the quills, and the large mark on the breait, black ; 
irides deep-brown ; bill and f^t yellowish. Length, incln* 
live of tail, SR} inches ; tail. 13^ inches. 

FtntaU. — She resembles the male in plumage, but is only 
4U inches, including the tail, which is 10} inches. 

The male is Punished wi^t the guloi pouch, like OHt 
tarda. 

Egg. — Col. Sykes found only one in % hole in the eai^ 
on the open plain, and that considerably advanced in the 
process of incubation. In shape It was a perfect oval ; and 
in colour a brown-olive, with obscure blotches of darker 
brown-olive. Length 3^ inches, diameter 2,^ inches. 
African Sficiks. 
<W* eceruiaeeni. Deteription. — Summit of the head 
narked with black and reddish lig-zags, straight and nearly 
approximated. Above the eyes extends a large whitish 
band, punctured as it were with brown ; plumes near the 
ear-opening of a clear ruddv colour. Under the neck a 
denii-circular band of pure wnite ; and below, another twice 
as larce, of deep black. Front of the neck, breast, and all 
the other lower parts of a lead -colour. All the upper parts 
of t)ie body of a reddish or yellowish brown, marked with 
black xig-zags and dots very near together. Lower coverts 
of the wings and tail-feathers unspotted, ruddy. End of the 
tail black, tinged with brown. Quills black. Feet yellowish- 

freen. Bill brown, yellow at the base. Length 30 inches; 
eight, when erect, 17 inches 6 lines. 
Le Vsillant discovered this species in the Interior of South 
Africa, inhabiting the CatAre country, and some parts of the 
colony of the Cape of Good Rope. Temminck, fh)m whom 
(he description and Hgure are taken, sayS that he is ignorant 
whether the female dlBers in plumage from the male, of 
which latter sex were the two individuals he had seen. 
There are specimens in the Museums of Puis and of the 
Pajs-Bij. 



pm 



Vila] 



) BUS 

natives for food. It vras almost invariably seen singly. 
Major Denham never having observed a pair together mare 
than once. It was always found in company with gazelles 
wheneTer a bustard was observed it was certain that the 
gaiellea were not far distant. Major Denham praises its 
large end brilliant eye. The Arabs are accustomed lo cum- 
pare the eyes of their most beautiful women to those of the 
Oubara, which seems to be a general name fbr the bustards 
in A&ica. Gmelin has given the title as a speciHc distinc- 
tion to an African bustard smaller than Major Denham's, 
which is 3 feet 9 inches in length*. But this is small in 
comparison with the bustard (Otis Kori) discovered by 
Mr. Burchell in South Africa, for that stood upwards of 
5 fbet high, and may be coneidcted the most gigantic de- 
vetopment of the form hitherto observed. 

Burchell, in his travels in the interior of Southern Africa, 
a book which, in addition to its other attractions, contains 
much valuable soological information, communicated by an 
acute and accurate observer of nature, givet the following 
account of his becoming possessed of this noble bustard on 
the banks of the Gariep. ' We shot a large bird of the 
bustard kind, which was called Wilda Paauw (Wild Pea- 
cock). This name is here very wrongly applied, as the 
bird to which it properly belongs differs fiom this in every 
respect. There are indeed three, or perhafB four, birds to 
which, in different dbtricts, this appellation is given. Tha 
present species, which is called Aori in the Bichuana lan- 
guage, measured, in extent of wing, not less than seven 
feet, and in bulk and weight was almost greater than some 



of black on a light chestnut-coloured ground. The tail and 

Juill feathers partook of the general colouring of the back ' 
]e shoulders were marked with large blotches of black and 
white, and the top bf the head was black ; the fbathers of 
occiput were elongated into a crest; those of the neck 
I also elongated, loose, narrow, and pointed, and were 
_ .. whitish colour marked with numerous transverse lines 
of black. The irides were of a beautiful, pellucid, change- 
able, silvery, ferrugineous colour. A repreientalion of the 
head of the Kori Btutard (here copied), is given at the end 
of the chapter. Its body was so thickly protected by feathera 
that our largest sized shot made no impre^ion ; and, taught 
by experience, the hunters never Are at it but with a bullet. 
It is reckoned the best of the winged game in the country, 
not only on account of its site, but because it is always 
found to abound in fat. The meat of it is not unlike that 
of a turkey, but is certainly superior, u possessing th« 
flavour of game.' 



Though we have laid it down as a general rule not to carry 
Mr diustratious beyond one species of a section, the habits 
of one of the following bustards, and the unusual siie of the 
oiher, must be our apology for shortly noticing them. 

Ofii Denhami, the African bustard met with by Major 
Denham near the laif er towns, did not occur in any great 
abundance. It frequented moist pieces, where the herbage 
was pure and fresh, and when it wat taken in snare* by the 



[RmI trotla KoiLI 



In the first part of the 3rd vol. of the ■ Descriptive and 
illustrated Catalogue of the physiologic^ series of com- 
^rative Anatomy," contained in the museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, in London, a work in every way 
worthy of the grand collection which it describes, there la 
represented at plate 33, fig. 3, the head of a bustard {Oti* 
tarda) wilh the auditory feathers or 'aurirulars' gpre-id out, 
so as to expose the external eperture and passs^e of the 
ear; the anterior feathers being shown as pressed fonracds, 
and the posterior feathers in their place, the anterior sur- 
face of the oxiemni meatus and the membrana tjmpani 
are brought into view. 

• SMTVaMliat DcDbtmudClupptniia. ^m>ci>^, p. 1 19. lu. ediliM. 
13 



BUT 



60 



BUT 



BUTCHYR-BIRD. [Laniaoa] 

BUT£. JOON STUART, third EARL OF, wm the 
eldest ton of John earl of Bute, in the Scottish peerage, and 
of Lady Anoe Campbell, daughter of the first duke of Ar- 
gyll. He was horn in 1713, and received his education at 
£ton. He was introduced to public life in February, 1737, 
by being elected one of the sixteen Scottish representative 
peers. Such at least is the common account, which adds 
that he was sent up in the same character to every sue- 
eeeding parliament till the year 1 780. But in a sketch of 
his early life, Quoted from a publication called ' The Con- 
trast,' in the ' History of the Late Minority,' it is said, ' He 
was a man that at no time of life had opportunity or inclina- 
tion of applying to business. When young he was disposed 
to gaiety ; and though having been at the close of a session 
elected one of the sixteen peers, yet by his opposing, right 
or wrong, all measures of government, he was at the next 
election excluded, and then in disgust retired to an isle in 
the kingdom of Scotland, where he spent many years in 
close monasterial retirement.* If all this ever happened, it 
probably took place, not in 1737, but some years before, on 
lis coming of age. 

. From 1737 he appears to have proceeded in a steady 
course of court fiivour. In that year he was appointed one 
of the Lords Commissioners of rolice in Scotland, a Board 
which was suppressed in 1782. It was probably in this year 
also that he was introduced to the notice of Frederick Prince 
of Wales. Of the circumstances of this introduction ' The 
Contrast* gives the following curious account- — ' The duchess 
of Queensberry having entertained her friends with the 

Slay of the Fair Penitent, the part of Lothario fell to the 
It of his lordship, in which he succeeded so much better 
than in his late performances in the character of a states- 
man, that he was greatly admired, and partioularlv by his 
late Royal Highness Frederick Prince of Wales, who took 

Kiat notice of this occasional Roscius, and invited him to 
icester House.* In August, 1738, he was made a Knight 
of the Thistle, and a few days after one of the Lords of the 
Bedchamber to the prince. On the death of Frederick in 
March, 1751, Lord Bute retired for some time to the coun- 
try ; but he is believed to have been consulted by the prin- 
cess in regard to all points connected with the education of 
ber son, afterwards George IIL He was evcTitually ap- 
pointed Groom of the Stole to that young prince. ' When 
It was proposed to settle the present king's household, as 
prince of Wales,* says Junius (note to Letter XXXV.), ' it 
IS well known that the earl of Bute was forced into it in 
direct opposition to the late king*s inclination. That was the 
salient point from which all the mischiefs and disgraces of 
the present reign took life and motion. From that moment 
Lorn Bute never suffered the prince of Wales to be an in- 
stant out of his sight' Mr. Adolphus, in his < History of 
the Reign of George III.,* states that Blackstone at that 
time nut the most mteresting parts of his ' Commentaries* 
into tne hands of Lord Bute, by whom they were laid before 
the prince. Various notices respecting Lord Bute, while 
holding ofBce in the establishment of Leicester House, may 
be found in the * Diary* of Bubb Dodington. 

On the accession of George III. (October, 1760), Lord 
Bute, who had obtained a great ascendency over the mind 
of his pupil, was sworn a member of the privy council, and 
made Groom of the Stole. In March, 1761, he resigned that 
office, and was appointed one of the principal Secretaries of 
State. This elevation of the favourite to a place in the 
government was effected by the dismissal of Mr. Legge, the 
able chancellor of the exchequer, and by the concerted 
resignation of the earl of Holdemess, into whose place Bute 
stepped, in consideration of a handsome pension, and the 
reversion of the wardenship of the Cinque Ports. Mr. Pitt 
however still continued for some time longer nominally at the 
bead of the administration. On the 5th of October Mr. Pitt 
retired from the cabinet before the growiner influence of the 
new secretary. Of the heads of the old Whig connexion, 
the duke of Newcastle, who was First Lord of the Treasury, 
still dung to office ; but at length, on the 29th of May, 
1762, he resigned, and Lord Bute was appointed his suc- 
cessor. On the 22nd of September following he was ad- 
mitted a Knight of the Garter. On the 4th of April. 1761, 
his countess had been created a British peeress, by the title 
of Baroness MounUtuart, with remainder to her issue male 
by his lordship. 

The history of the administration of Lord Bute belongs to 
Ihs history of tfat oountiT, It is written by the pen of a 



hitter ODDonent, in the first eleven ehapters of the work en 
titled ' Tne History of the Minority/ the object of whirh u 
a defence of the politics of Lord Chatham and Earl Teinp> 
Wilkes's weekly paper, the • North Briton,' which bepm 
and ended with Lord Bute's administration, is also through- 
out ooouoied in the abuse of his lordship and ever>tbii.j 
connectea with him. The * North Briton' was set up w 
opposition to the ' Briton,* a paper established in the inte- 
rest of the minister. One of tne principal objects of Burke's 
celebrated ' Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discon- 
tents' (published in 1780), is to expose what he describes as 
the new project or system of government contrived and at- 
tempted to be carried into effect by this minister. But he 
observes, ' This system has not arisen solely frtan tbe ambi- 
tion of Lord Bute, but from the circumstances which fi- 
voured it. • • • We should have been tried with it if the 
earl of Bute had never existed ; and it will want neither a 
contriving head nor active members, when the earl of Bute 
exists no longer.* Lord Bute occupies a large share of the 
latter part of Dodington s ' Diary,* which however only comn 
down to the 6th of February, 1761 ; but Mr. Adolphus, m 
the Appendix to the first volume of his History, has printfrd 
a series of ' Letters between Lord Bute and Lotd Melcombe 
(Dodington) on the state of parties and politics, previous to 
and during Lord Bute's administration,* which he had ob- 
tained from Mr. Penruddocke Wyndham, the publisher of 
the • Diary.' 

Whatever were hts merits or his demerits, Lord Bute was 
certainly the most unpopular English minister of modem 
times. While he maidly attempted to govern the country 
bv the king*s name alone, he had opposed to him not only 
all the old factions of the state, which he aimed at putting 
down and destroying, but the whole nation. Ported br 
circumstances, therefore, as well as on principle, for he pr^ 
fessed to hold the doctrine that the ministers were not really 
the executive government, but literally only the senrants or 
clerks of the crown, he surrounded himself while in power 
by individuals in general utterly incapable of adding strength 
to his ministry by their abilities or personal importance, xhe 
late Lord Liverpool, indeed, then Mr. Jenkinson, was his 
private secretary ; but his chancellor of the exchequer, for 
instance, was Sir Fhmcis Dashwood, afterwards Lord De- 
sponsor, a person wholly incompetent. 

The only important event in Lord Bute's admhiistratioo 
was the termination of the war with France, by the peace of 
Paris, concluded February 10th, 1 763. It was long a strtHi? 
popular belief that the English minister was bribed bf 
France to consent to this treaty ; but no evidence worthy of 
credit was ever brought fbrward to confirm this nimoar 
On the 8th of April, 1763, Lord Bute suddenly resigned. 
His fViends generally gave out at the time that he had 
taken office only with the purpose of bringing the war to ao 
end, and that in now retiring he only followed a determt- 
nation which he had from the first openly avowed. His own 
account however is somewhat diffierent, as it is given in a 
letter to a friend, which has been published by Mr. Adal> 
phus. — * Single,' he there says, • in a cabinet of my own 
forming, no sonl in the house of lords to support me exrrft 
two peers (Lords Denbigh and Pomfret), both the secfvUne? 
of state silent, and the lord chief justice, whom I brought 

myself into office, voting for me, yet speaking against me 

the ground I tread upon is so hollow, that 1 am afraid not 
only of fallinj^ myself, but of involving my royal master in 
my ruin : it is time for me to retire.' Efis lordship a c/vn 
powers of oratory were not such as to make op for il-t 
silence of his colleagues. He expressed himself with • 
deliberate pomposity of utterance, his words slowlv dropptr; 
out at regular inter\*als, which the witty Charles 1'owm> 
bend used to call the minister's minute guns. 

Though Lord Bute retired from office he sdll retained tbe 
confidence of the king; and he undoubtedly nominated l:« 
immediate successors. In the following August, also, whrn 
the sudden death of the earl of Egremont, one of the Mrryr- 
taries of state, again shook the new cabinet, he engaiced r i 
a negotiation, which came to nothing, with the vicv f 
bringing Lord Chatham into office. Lord Bute's conunn«*l 
influence, as supposed to be exerted behind the throne, ws* | 
long a favourite topio of popular declamation : but certaiu.> 
no proof of the fact was ever brought forward. We be%e 
heard on good authority, that not long after he ceased le (« 
minister, the king one day met him in the ga£de«a si 
Kew, and turned his back upon him. 
Aocofding to Sir Egerton Brydges, in his edilioii U Coi* 



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61 



BUT 



lins's ' Peen^t' Lord Bute * paoed the last »bt or leren 
years of bis life in the most deep and unbroken retirement, 
principally at a marine villa, which he built on the edge of 
the cliiT at Christchurch. in Hampshire, oTerlooking the 
Needles and the Isle of Wight. Here his principal delight 
was to listen to the melancholy roar of the sea/ ' He was 
more fond of the sciences,* it is added, * than of works of 
imagination ; but his favourite study was botany, on which 
he printed at his own expense a work in nine volumes 
quarto, of plates appertaining orly to England. Only twelve 
copies were printed, of which the expense amounted to 
1 0«000// Lord Bute had the merit of being a liberal patron 
of men of genius, both in literature and the arts. Among 
others. Dr. Johnson, and Home, the author of the tragedy 
of ' Douglas,' were indebted to him. the one for a pension, 
the other for a place. The architects George and Robert 
Adams, and Joshua Kirby, were all employed and munifi- 
cently encouraged by him. The first part of Kirby 's ' Per- 
spective of Architecture* (published in 1761) contains ' the 
description and use of a new instrument, called the Archi- 
tectonic Sextor,* which is stated to have been invented by 
the Earl of Bute. He employed Robert Adams to build a 
splendid mansion for him at Luton Hoo, near St. Alban's, 
where he amassed a valuable library, and one of the richest 
DoUections of paintings, especially of the Dutch and Flemish 
Bchools, in the kingdom. (See a description of the library 
and gallery in the Gentleman s Magcusine tor 1817, Part 
2nd.) He died at his house in South Audley-street, Lon- 
don, on the 10th of March, 1792. He had married in 1 736, 
IVfary, the only daughter of Edward Wortley Montagu, of 
Wortley, in Yorkshire : and by that lady, who eventually 
inherited a large fortune by the death of her brother, Ed- 
ward W. Mont^u, the traveller, he had seven sons and six 
daughters. His eldest son was, in 1796, created Marquess 
of Bute, in the British peerage. 
BUTEA, [Ptbbocarpus.] 

BUTESHIRE consists of the islands of Bute, Arran, 
Inchmarnock, and the Cumbraes, in the F^ith of Clyde, on 
the W. coast of Scotland. [Arran.] 

The island of Bute is about 6 miles from Ayrshire, and 
half a mile from Cowal in Argyleshire. It is about 18 
miles long and 4 or 5 in breadth. To the N. it is elevated, 
rocky, and barren ; the central part is diversified by hills, 
valleys, and fertile tracts; and the S. end is hilly and 
divided from the rest of the island by a low and sandy 
plain called Langal-chorid. From Kilchattan Hill, in the 
S. district, there is an extensive prospect. The coast is 
rocky and indented by bays; the soil consists of clay, 
loam, and sand, with moss lying on gravel. The greater 
part of the arahle land is inclosed and cultivated ; bar- 
ley, oats and potatoes are raised: turnips and artificial 
grasses have been introduced with success. 

The minerals are limestone, freestone, slate, and some 
indifferent coal. Beds of coral and shells of considerable 
thickness are found in many places half a mile from the 
Bea-coast. Rothesay, a smaU royal burgh on the N.E. coast 
at the bottom of an extensive hay, was formerly frequented 
by herring-boatSt and it is now a favourite watering-place. 
The castle, which was sometimes inhabited by the kings of 
Scotland, and afterwards by the Bute family, was burnt in 
1685 by the Marquis of Argyle, and is now in ruins. In 
fortcer times there were 10 or 12 churches and 30 her- 
mitages in this island. In the S. part of the island there 
in a place called the Devil's Cauldron, which is formed of 
stone without cement ; the walls are now only a few feet in 
height and 10 in breadth ; the area 30 feet in diameter: 
the object of the erection is unknown. 

Inchmarnock, an island on the W. coast of Bute, about 
a mile in length, contains 120 acres of arable land and 340 
cf moor and pasture.* Its minerals and agricultural pro- 
iuets are the same as Bute : it was a seat of the Culdees. 

The Cumbraes are two islands opposite the E. coast of 
Bute, and separated from Amnngham. in Ayrshire, by 
a narrow channel oedled Fairly Road. Little Cumbrae is 
a mile long and half a mile broad. A lighthouse 
^as erected on the highest part of the island in 1750. 
Oreat Cumbrae, two miles from Ayrshire and three from 
Bute, is separated from Little Cumbrae by a channel three- 
<|tiarter8 of a mile broad. It is about 2^ miles long and 
H bcoad. The surfaee contains 2300 acres, a few of which 
^1^ under cultivation. The village of Milnport has a eon* 
yeaieikt karboui; and iji frequented aa a watering-plaoe. On 
^ £«.ooast two igeka ealM Rippel W«Ua> aiaUmtlrom 



each other 500 feet, and etretching in parallel lines a^rosa 
a plain, are composed of the same materials as the basaltic 
rocks at Stafia, but are not columnar. - • 

By the Scotch Reform Act the burgh of Rothesay waa 
made part of ^he county of Bute, which sends one mem- 
ber to parliament. 

The population of Buteshire, in 1831, was 14,151. The 
island of Little Cumbrae was inhabited in 1831 by three 
femilies, those of a grazier or rabbit -catcher, a fisherman, 
and a lighthouse keeper, making in all 1 7 persons. More 
than 200 males, upwards of twenty years of age, are em- 
ployed as weavers in the county of Bute: of these 90 are 
in the parish of Rothesay, 66 in Great Cumbrae, and 46 
at Kilmory weave cotton goods in a wholesale manner, the 
intercourse of that place with Glasgow by steam-boats being 
cheap and rapid. Since 1821 the population of the parishes 
of Kilbride and Kilmory have respectively diminished 58 
and 56 persons, owing to emigration to America. The 
enlargement of farms and removal of cotters has decreased 
the population of the parish of Rothesay 333 persons, while 
the influx of strangers has added to the burgh 710 persons^ 
From the returns from sheriffs in 1826, it appears that 
the number of schools in Buteshire was then two schools in 
the parish of Cumbrae, a parish-school containing eighty 
scholars, and a private one containing thirty- five; the pri- 
vate schoolmaster was supported by fees of 2s. td. per 
Suarter for reading, and 3s, for writing, and by working at 
le looms during vacant hours. The parish schoolmaster 
was supported by school-fees, and a salary which amounted 
for the year ending 1835 to 30/. Gaelic and English have 
both been taught from time immemorial in the parish of 
Kilmory. It has five schools, attended by about forty pupils 
each ; the teachers of each of which receive a portion of the 
salary. Besides these there are seven private; they are 
taught only during the summer and winter quarters, and 
their average attendance is about thirty-five. There ai^ 
three teachers who have salaries on a legal provision in the 
parish of Kilbride ; and besides these there are two other 
schools, to one of which there is a small salary attached. 
By the Scotch Reform Bill the borough of Rothesay wai 
made part of the countv of Bute. 

BUTLER, CHARLES, was born in London of a Roman 
Catholic family in 1 750. He was the son of Mr. James 
Butler, who was the youngest son of Simon Butler of Apple* 
tree, Northamptonshire : his mother's name was Grano. 
After receiving the rudiments of education at a Roman 
Catholic school at Hammersmith, he was sent to the 
English college at Douay, where, according to his own 
account, the scholars were excellently instructed in their 
religion, and the classics were well taught ; * but writings 
arithmetic, and geography were little thought of, modern 
history was scarcely mentioned, and but small regard waa 
paid to manners.* The discipline was somewhat ascetic, 
and its object was far more to qualify those trained under 
it to become obedient members of a particular church, than 
to be useful and active citizens of general society. 

From Douay Mr. Butler removed to Lincoln's Inn, where 
he entered on the study of the law, and ultimately practised 
as a conveyancer : the remainder of his life may be com- 
prised in tne history of his numerous publications. He 
first appeared before the public anonymously, in an essay 
publisned in 1773, ' On Houses of Industry,' written at the 
request of Sir Harbord Harbord, afterwards Lord Suffield, 
and of a Mr. Chad, afterwards created a baronet. It chiefly 
related to the county of Norfolk, beyond which, as its author 
very modestly says of it, it obtained very little circulation. 
Five years afterwards he wrote a more important pamphlet 
' On the Legality of Impressing Seamen.* It was favour- 
ably receiv^, and procured for him the acauaintance of 
Lord Sandwich* at that time first lord of the aamiralty, who 
wrote a few pages in the second edition, and of Wedderburne. 
then solicitor-general, and afterwards Lord Loughborough, 
The chief arguments and authorities were taken from the 
speech of Sir Michael Forster, in the case of Alexander 
Broadfoot, who was indicted for the murder of a sailor, being 
one of a party that endeavoured to impress him. So little on- 

S'nal matter is added in the pamphlet to the arguments of Sir 
. Forstor, that Mr. Butler afterwards refused to admit it into 
the general collection of bis works. In the following year Mr, 
Butler prepared a speech, which Lord Sandwich delivered 
in the House of Lords, in defence of his government of 
Greenwich Hospital ; and about the same time, in conjune- 
tioa witih Mr, Wilkes, he appeared as an inquirer into the 



BUT 



62 



BUT 



■ntlionliil) of Jnniui. A letter, itidndini^ the resnltB of 
their eonTertations, was printed without Mr. Bntlef s know- 
ledge in the * Antt-Jaoohin Review/ and it is reprinted in 
his * Renitntscences/ It rather disputes the claims of all 
the eandidates who hare heen hrou}^ht forward from time to 
time, than affirms the pretensions of any one of them. In 
the additional remarks made on the reprint in the ' Remi- 
niseences/ Mr. Butler seems inclined to believe that Junius 
himself has never been detected ; that he was of too hi^h 
a rank to be bought, and that Sir Philip Francis was his 
amanuensis. Mr. Butler next engaged himself in the pro- 
fessional task of continuing and completing Mr. Hargrave*s 
edition of * Coke upon Littleton.* Eleven years had been 
employed by the first editor on half of the work. Four terms 
was the short period allotted to Mr. Butler for the execution 
of the remainder. The value of the original is well known 
to lawyers, but it perhaps is scarcely so well appreciated 
without the bar as it deserves to be. The following testi- 
mony may be little expected : — * It is very remarkable,* says 
Mr. Butler, *that some English gentlemen, nowise con- 
nected with the profession of the law, bepiiled their tedious 
exile at Verdun with a serious perusal of Coke upon Little- 
ton, and have often spoken of the great mental delight 
which it afforded them.' Numerous editions of Coke 
vpon Littleton fbllowed at intervals during the life of 
NT. Butler. To this work succeeded * Horto JuridicsD 
SQbseeiv9t being a connected series of notes respecting 
the geography, chronology, and literary history of the 
principal codes and original documents of the Grecian, 
Roman, feudal, and canon law ;' an outline of very great 
Bse to the historian as well as to the lawyer. Mr. Butler 
also superintended a new edition of Feame*s 'Essay on 
Contingent Remainders,* and he contributed to Mr. Sea- 
ward's ' Anecdotes' an ' Essay on the Character of Lord 
Mansfield's Forensic Eloquence.* The 'Horn BiblicsB* 
eomes next, and is perhaps the most popular of idl Mr. 
Butler s works. It had long engaged his thoughts, and 
a private edition of the first paft had been printed before 
its completion in 1797. The first part professes to 
contain an historical and literary account of the original 
text, early versions, and printed editions of the Old and 
New Testaments; the second to embrace a similar account 
of the Koran, the Zend-Avasta, the Kings, and the Edda. 
It is free (torn party theological spirit, and it speedily ran 
through five editions. In 1806 me great change in the 
oonstitution of the Austrian dominions induced Mr. Butler to 
draw up, chiefly lh>m Anderson and Koch, a succinct his- 
tory of the geographical and political revolutions of the 
German empire ; and his pen, for the remainder of his life, 
was largely employed on subjects regarding his own church, 
which are collected in his general works. Among them are 
several biographies, drawn up with spirit and accuracy; 
lives of Bossuet, of Fenelon, of Ahh6 do Ranc^, abbot of 
La Trappe, of St. Vincent of Paul, of Erasmus, of 
Grotius, of Henri Marie do Boudon, of Thomas i Kempis, 
of the Chancellor LHdpital, fltc., and of his own uncle 
the Rev. Alban Butler, author of ' Lives of the Saints,' 
a work which Mr. Butler himself continued. The relief pro- 
pose<l to be given to the Roman Catholics in 1795 occa- 
sioned three books, written in conjunction with Joseph 
Wilkes, a Benedictine, and named, from the colour of their 
covering, the * Blue Books.* It is needless to say that Mr. 
Butler was a strenuous advocate of Roman Catholic eman- 
cipation, and that much of the successful progress of that 
measure is to be attributed to the ' Historical Memoirs of. 
the English, Irish, and Scottish Catholics,' 1819. Hitherto 
he had abstained fh>m controveray, but the appearance of 
Dr. Southey's * Book of the Church' engaged him in a series 
of letters to that writer, and afterwards in two replies to 
the present bishop of London, and to the Rev. George 
Townsend. They were written in a spirit of gentleness 
very seldom found in similar publications. The fint volume 
of hii * Reminiscences,* chiefly containing the history of his 
literary life, was published in 1822, the second in 1827. 
They contain some very interesting details, but are expressed 
in the cramped style of most autobiographies. As a con- 
vevancer Mr. Butler had full practice, and he was the first 
of his communion who was called to the bar after the Relief 
Act in 1 791 . He was aftervrards made king s counsel. He 
married in early life, and left two daughters, one of whom 
married Andrew H. Lynch, Esq., of the Chancery bar, and 
the other Lieut Col. Stonor. Mr. Butler died at his own 
hMM in Gnat Otmond Street^ London, leaving behind bim 



an unblemished cdaraeter and a oonsid«rable literary 
tation, June 8. 1832. {Obituary in the ' OentlemsLn s 
MairiLzine.* Sept 183*2; Bemfhticencei^ 

BUTLER* JAMBS. [Orhond, Dvki of.] 
BUTLER, JOSEPH, bom at Wantage in Berkshirv in 
1 692, was the son of Thomas Butler, a respectable shopkec per. 
and a dissenter of the Presbyterian denomination. He re- 
ceived the rudiments of his education in the free i^rammar* 
school at Wantage, whence he was removed to the Disflentu.;* 
Academy of Tewkesbury in Gloucestcrahire, then auper in- 
tended by Mr. Jones, who had the singular fortune of ba% ir.e 
for pupils, with the view of being oi^ained lo the Pre»bi- 
terian ministry, three young men, afterwards pivlates of th« 
Established Church— Chandler, Butler, and Seeker; the 
two latter were contemporaries. It was here that Butler 
gave the fint proofs of the peculiar bent of his mind to ab- 
struse speculation. Being dissatisfied with the argument 
d priori of Dr. Samuel Clarke in his ' Demonstratioo of the 
Being and Attributes of God,* he venturedi being then only 
in his twenty -second year, to express by a letter hia doubtr, 
and to offer his objections, to that acute writer. Dr. Clarke 
was for a time unacquainted with the name of hia eorre* 
spondent The manner in which he replied to Butler's ob- 
jections, and the fact of his publishing the letlen in which 
they were conveyed, with his own answers, in sabaeqoent 
editions of his work, sufficiently show that he fhlt the re- 
marks of his yoothftil correspondent to be not without tbes 
weight. 

About this time Butler was led to a more paztienlar eli- 
mination of the tenets of the religious body to which he be- 
longed, the result of which* after some natural oppositiiHi 
from his father, accompanied with remonstrances from several 
respectable Presbyterian divines, was a secession lh>in Pre»- 
byterisnism, and a conformity to the Church of KngUoH. 
His views being thus changed, he entered Oriel Collesr* 
Oxford, in March, 1714, and soon after was admitted into 
holy orders. While at Oriel he formed a friendship with 
Mr. Edward Talbot, the second son of Dr. Talbot, bishop fi 
purham, a circumstance to which he appears to hare owed 
his subsequent promotion. In 1 7 1 8 he was recommended br 
Mr. Talbot and Dr. Clarke to Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the 
Rolls, by whom he was appointed preacher at the RolK la 
1721, on being presented by Bishop Talbot to the reetorr of 
Haughton, near Darlington, he divided his residence betwWn 
the Rolls and his panxmial benefice. In 1 725 he received 
Stanhope, one of the wealthiest but most retirsd rectories m 
England, from the same patron, in exchange fbr HaughtoiL 
In 1726 he resigned the Rolls preachership, and went to 
reside upon his rectory of Stanhope. In the same year be 

Published a volume of fifteen sermons preached at th« RolK 
'hese sermons are, upon his own acknowledgment, of a 
somewhat abstruse character, which arises as moch fmm 
the method as from the scope of his argument, which is t > 
demonstrate vice to be ' a violation or breaking in upon oar 
nature.* He wished to show that man was fbrmed fbr virtue; 
and that vice is a departure from his intended coodttino : 
to prove that religion and virtue were primarily natturml m 
man ; that they constitute order, whereas their ofBositc n 
disorder. Although his object mi^ht hate heen ercCi^d b« 
the more direct proof that * Vice is contrary to the naturv 
and reason of things,* he chose the other method, as * in a 
peculiar manner adapted to satisfy a fkir mind, and as nutn 
easily applicable to the several particular relatione and nr* 
cumstances in life.* The first three sermons are entitled. 
'Upon Human Nature; or, Man considered as a M^nl 
Agent* That man is made fbr society, is evident fh^m sU 
we know of him ; the veryparts of his body show depend- 
ence one on another ; and it Is no wresting of wonls or d 
argument to carry the comparison farther, and to show that 
mankind in general is a body made up of a nombtr and 
variety of members, like the natural body, Aa it m the 
office of his own several component parts, or membsffa, each 
to assist and benefit the others, so it is the duty cf each 
member of society to promote the general weUkra ; and any 
deviations from this rule, whteh is in fact a mla of natareL 
have been the deviations of ignorance and sin. The aatlMr 
establiihes his point by three proofb. First, there ia in nea 
a natural principle of benevolencot whidh is, in its degree to 
society, what self-love is to the indivklual ; and that there 
is such a principle, appears fkom the existence and ommuds 
of those feelings, wnich are called afeetiona. Are w» 
not inclined to love, to fiiendahipk to oampaasioft? That 
we U9 %hm inelined in ciir dagiaa Ii onanf h f 



BUT 



BUT 



purpose. Tt inattort not bow namw and obaeare tfaeae 
feelings are. If they exist at all, they • prove the aaser- 
lion, and point out \»hat we were designed for.' Secondly, 
there are several aflTections or passions distinct both ftom 
benevolence and self-love, which in general contribute 
and lead us to public gtxxl as really as to private. Thirdly, 
there is a principle of reflection, by which men approve 
or disapprove of their own actions; this is conscience, 
ivhich faculty tends to restrain men from doing mis- 
chief to one another, and leads them to do good. That 
man has evil dispoiitions is no objection to this mode of 
irq;unient, for his ungovemed passions incline him to act 
miiinst his own interests, as well as against the interests of 
jthers. The pure nature of man then would lead him to 
ri^ht conduct in society, or what we denominate virtue. To 
understand the purpose of a being, we must ascertain the 
bent of his true nature ; and, where the true nature is known, 
there can be no difficulty. The illustration used is that of 
ihe eye. The eye is designed for vision ; and, as we are not 
:o judge of first design fVom anv state of defect into Which 
t may nave casually fallen, neither are we to judge of the 
rue nature of man from any presenjt perversion of inclina- 
ion ; and the objection to his argument, ' that nature is 
;hat to which any man is most inclined, and that the fol- 
owing of nature is but a following of inclination, which may 
)e different in different individuals,* is answered by an ex- 
)lanation of the term. * By nature,* he says, ' is often meant 
10 more than some principle in man, wrthout regard either 
the kind or degree of it.* This however is manifestly 
irrong ; for the same person may have contrary principles, 
triving or urging him contrary ways. Again, 'Nature is 
requently spoken of as consisting in those passions which 
ire strongest, and most influence the actions.' This is 
rrong too. Men are certainly now vicious, as it w^e, by 
lature; but they are so because their nature is dete- 
iorated, and the argument refers to the original and pure 
lature. In neither of these senses is man's primary nature 
be received, because, to follow nature in either of them« 
eould be a wandering from the original design, and a fol- 
owing of what had become faulty. The text of the second 
ermon shows the meaning in which the word nature ought 
be used. * For when the Gentiles which have not the 
aw, do by nature the things contained in the law, these 
laving not the law are a law unto themselves. Which show 
he works of the law written in their hearts, their con- 
ciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean- 
while accusing or else excusing one another.* Conscience 
nakes man a moral agent. It justifies and it condemns, 
t cannot justify what is wrong ; it cannot condemn what is 
ight ; right, therefore, is natural to man, and determined 
»y the testimony of conscience alone. After establishing 
he supremacy of conscience, he forms his notion of human 
lature, in the foUowingof which virtue is said to consist, 
ind the deviation from which is vice. ' As the idea of a 
tvil constitution implies in it united strength, various sub- 
trdinations, under one direction, that of tne supreme au- 
hority, the different strength, of each particular member of 
he society not coming into the idea ; whereas, if you leave 
lut the subordination, the union, and the one direction, you 
lestroy and lose it : so reason, several appetites, passions, 
ind affections prevailing in different degrees of strength, is 
lot ihat idea or notion of human nature ; but that nature 
lonsists in these several principles considered as having a 
latural respect to each other, in the several passions being 
laturally subordinate to the one superior principle of reflec- 
ion or conscience. Every bias, instinct, propensbn within, 
s a real part of our nature, but not the whole. Add to 
hesc the superior faculty, whose office it is to adjust, ma- 
lage. and preside over them, and take in this its natural 
iuperiority, and you complete the idea of human nature.* 
V deviation from it, or its violation, he thus defines: ' And 
IS in civil government the constitution is broken in upon 
ind violated by power and strength prevailing over autho- 
ity, so the constitution of man is broken in upon and vio- 
ated by the lower faculties or principles within prevailing 
rver that which is in its nature supreme over them all.* Man 
ndeed cannot be considered as left to himself, to act as pre- 
sent inclination may lead him : the very ability of putting 
he questions, * Is tl^s I am going about right, or is it 
wrong ? Is it ^ood, or is it evil ?* implies an obligation to 
let rightly. Cor it shows that he has a natural conception of 
right. The Qbj^c^on, ' Why should we be concerned about 
iny thing out of and beyond ourselves?' is thus removed. 



Are we, or Mil we be, indiffmnt to cUsgraee, aegleel, ot 
contempt ? Man is by nature disposed to aetion ; and * upoft 
comparing some actions with this nature, they appear suit 
able and correspondent to it: from comparison of othet 
actions with the same nature, there arises to our view some 
unsuitableness or disproportion.* Those which aiv most 
suitable to it are the law or design of nature ; and that which 
promotes real happiness, or the true purpose of nature, is 
virtue. 

These sermons contain' the germ of those principles of 
analogy which were afterwards developed by the author in 
a separate work ; when viewed in all their parts and bear- 
ings, they must be considered as one of the most successful 
attempts to explain the true nature of man as a moral agent, 
and to discover the springs of human action. It has been 
observed by a recent writer (Austin, The Province o/JuriS" 
prudence determined, p. 109), ' In so &r as I can gather his 
opinion from his admirable sermons, it would seem that the 
compound hypothesis (that is, the hypothesis compounded 
of the h3rpothesis of utility, and the hypothesis of the moral 
sense) was embraced by Bishop Butler. But of this I am 
not certain : for, from many passages in those sermons, we 
mav infer that he thought tne moral sense our only index 
and guide.* In this remark we concur : in several passages 
Butler seems to consider the moral sense as that by which 
we judge of the character of actions, and yet there are 
other passa|^es which appear to prevent us from adopting 
this conclusion. 

It is unnecessary to analyse the other admirable disr 
courses : that on the government of the tongue is a master- 
piece of its kind ; and the sermons on resentment and for- 
giveness of injuries are equally remarkable for the profound 
insight into the principles by which human society is held 
together, and for their practical utility. 

To this volume, in a later edition, he appended six other 
sermons, preached on ceitain public occasions. One of 
these sermons (the fourth) is well calculated to meet certain 
objections that have been made to the education of the poor. 

His residence at Stanhope continued until 1 733, when he 
was drawn from his retirement by being appointed chaplain 
to Lord Chancellor Talbot. About the same time he was pre^ 
sented by his patron to a prebend in the church of Rochester. 
This was done through the interposition of his friend and fel- 
low-pupil Seeker, who was anxious for his re-appearance in 
the world, and wished to see him in some more conspicuous 
station than the rectory of Stanhope. Seeker, having taken 
occasion to mention him to Queen Caroline, her Majesty 
remarked that she thought he was dead ; and, not satisfied 
with his assurance to the contrary, she inauired of Arch- 
bishop Blackburne, who replied, * No, maaam, but he is 
buried.' In 1736 Butler was appointed clerk of the closet 
to the queen, upon whom he was in constant attendance 
until her death in the fdllowing year. So highly indeed 
did she esteem him that she required his presence two 
hours every evening. He had lately produced his great 
work, * The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, 
to the constitution and course of Nature,* which he had 

S resented to her Migesty before publication, and which he 
edicated to the Lord Chancellor Talbot, ' in acknowledg- 
ment of the highest obligations to the late Lord Bishop of 
Durham, and to himself. In this work it was his aim to 
demonstrate the connexion between the present and a 
future state, and to show that there could be but one author 
of both, and consequently one general system of moral 
government by which they must be regulated. Of this 
admirable work it has been justly observed, *Upon the 
whole, as our author was the first who handled the argu- 
ment in proof of religion from analogy in a set treatise, be 
has undeniably merited the character of a first discoverer ; 
others indeed had occasionally dropped some hints and re- 
marks of the argument, but Dr. Butler first brought it to a 
state of perfection. The treatise ooutains the finishing and 
completion of that way of reasoning, the foundation whereof 
was laid in his sermons.* •. The year after the death of 
Queen Caroline he was made bishop of Bristol ; and in 
1740 he was presen^^d to the deanery of St. {^auVs, on 
which occasion he resigned the rectory of Stanhope. One 
of his first acts of patronage was to bestow on his old master, 
Mr. Barton, master of the school at Wantage, the rectory 
of Button in Essex. Butler was always liberal in the ex- 
penditure of his money ; he laid out on the episcopal palace 
of Bristol 4006/., and he was a munificent benefactor to 
charitable institutions. In 1746 he was appointed clerk of 



BUT 



64 



BUT 



the doMt to tte king; and in 1750.ifu teBtkiM to the 
see of Durhun, vwant by the dettlh of Dr. Bdveid Chand- 
ler, who had abo been a pupil, aa ahead^ mentioned* at 
the academy at Tewkeabtti7. The abort time that he held 
thU lee allowed him to make onfy one visitation of his 
diocese. The charge which he delivered to his clergy on 
that occasion subjected him to muoh animadversion. He 
had begun by lamenting the general deeay of religion, and 
noticed it * as a complaint by all serious persons.* As an 
aid in remedying this evil he recommended bis clergy to 
' keep as well as they were able the form and face of reli- 
gion with decency and reverence, and in such a degree as 
to bring the thoughta of religion often to the minds of the 
people; and to endeavour to make this fbrm more and 
more subservient to promote the reality and power of it/ 
He insisted that although the form might and often did 
exist without the substance, yet that the substance could 
not be preserved among mankind without t'ae form. He in- 
stanced the examples of heathen, Mohammedan, and Roman 
Catholic coontries, where the form had been very influential 
in causing the superstition to sink deeply into the mind ; 
and he infoired that true rehgion would, by the same rule, 
sink the more deeply with such aid into the minds of all 
who should be serious and well disposed. These observa- 
tions, which, like all the remarks of this profound thinker, 
show an intimate acquaintance with human nature, were 
stronglv censured as savouring of popery, and he was par- 
ticularly attacked in a pamphlet entitled ' A Serious Inquiry 
into the use and importance of External Religion, occasioned 
by some passages in the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop 
of Durham s Charge to the Clergy of that Diocese.* The 
very sentence in which he says that the form is to be made 
* subiervient to promote the reality and the power/ ought 
to have been sufficient to protect him. Bishop Butler did 
not long emov his last preferment. His health rapidly 
declined, and be died at Ba& on the 16th of June, 1752. 
and was buried in Bristol cathedral. His writings^ tiiongh 
net numerous, are sufficient to show the extent of his 
knowledge, the solidity of his jndgment, and the great 
powers of his mind. His sUtement of a qnestion is fair 
and candid, his reasoning is dose and sineere, and his con- 
clusions nearly always just and convincing. His pieCy was 
unostentetious but fervent, with sometlung fiom natnnl 
disposition and the grave direction of his studies ^proach- 
ing to gloom. A man whose thoughts were so seriously 
employed, whose inquiries were of so abstruse a diaraeter, 
could hardly be otherwise. Still *no man ever more 
thoroughly possessed that meekness of tcisdom which the 
apostle eiyoins; he had noticed the expression for its 
beauty ; his heart and disposition were conformed to it, and 
in high as in humble life it was uniformly manifested in 
his conversation. Neither the consciousness of intellectual 
strength, nor the just reputetion which he had thereby 
atteined, nor the elevated station to which he had been 
raised, in the slightest degree injured the natural modesty 
of his character, or the mildness and sweetness of his 
temper.* His intereoune with clergy and laity was open 
and free ; his income he considered to belong to bis sUtion, 
and not to himself; and to th>n^ughly was this feeling of 
his understood that his reUt.ves never indulged the ex- 
pectation of neeumary ber^e&t from his death. It was his 
remark, on bis promr/U>fi to Ltarh^m, 'It would be a 
melancholy thing m toe e/->«e of UU: to have no reflections 
to enfettain mie^M mf.*u tf«u ozm had spi.'nt the revenues 
of the bi'thr/pnc of Durham in a somptw/us course of living, 
and enrcncd ooe's friendA with the promotions of it, instead 
of tfs^Wy bannir set oneself to do good, and to promote 
wortny meaJ It has already beeii stated that he was 
aenMed of a dispoaitioo to popery, in eonsequence of some 
erxprcMioos m bia change to the clergy of Durham. This 
charge was repealed by an anonymous writer fifteen years 
after his death, and was made to rest chiefly on the ciraim* 
stance td his having pot up a cross in the episcopal chapel 
of Bristol. It was also asserted that he had died in com- 
manioQ with the church of Roma His friend Seeker, at 
thai tUM archbishop of Cantorbnry, satisfactorily disproved 
the charge. He did not denv that the bishop had erected 
the cms, but this, he eontended, was no manifestation of 
popery; it was merely as an emblem and a memorial of 
the Christian frith. With respect to his having died in 
eottmnniott with the ehorch of Rome^ the circumstance 
was not even Unled at until fifteen yean after his death ; 
Md It ts ctearly shffwii, by the testimony of those who 



attended him in bis last Olnesa, that thetw is no truth in the 
statement. Bishop Butler was never married. His works 
are eotleetod in two volumes 8vo., which have been sever:.] 
times reprinted. 

BUTLER, SAMUEL, was bom at Strensham. in Wor- 
cestershire, aix>ut 1612, and educated in the Free 8choo) at 
Worcester. The finances of his fether, who was a stna 1 
farmer, would not allow him to be matriculated at Catx.- 
bridge, to which university he desired and his pruflcaenc> t.« 
learning entitled him to proceed. Accordingly he eng»v^d 
as clerk to Mr. Jeffereys, an eminent justice of the peace, of 
Carlscroom, in his native county. Here in his leisure hour* 
he employed himself in studying history, poetry, musie, and 
painting; some specimens of his skill in the laat-namel 
art existed not long since, and it is said were not wurij 
preserving. We know not how he afterwards obtained an 
introduction to Elizabeth Countess of Kent, but under h<rr 
patronage he had access to a well-stocked library, and eii- 
joyed the conversation of the learned Selden. He entc.«rtl 
afterwards into the service of Sir Samuel Luke, a kn:^.! 
of antient family in Bedf6rddiire» who had been one U 
Cromwell's commanders, and is supposed to have bcea 
the prototype of the character of Hudibras. After the Re- 
storation he became secretary to Richard Earl of Carbuii. 
Lord President of the Principality of Wales, who. en 
the revival of the court of the Marches, made him stewari 
of Ludlow Castle, soon after which he married Mrv 
Herbert, a gentlewoman of good family, whose fortune 
was lost to him by being invested in iMd securities. It 
is also said that he was secretary to the second George 
Villiers. Duke of Buckingham, when he was chancellor cf 
Cambridge. With that nobleman, with the Earl of Dorset, 
and with many other wita of the time, he certainly lived 
on terms of familiar intercourse ; yet he died, as is believed, 
in great poverty in 1 680. and was buried in the churcb> ard 
of Sl Paul's, Covent Garden, at the expense of his fner.d 
Mr. William Longueville, a bencher of the Inner Temple, 
who, according to common report, rescued him firom abso- 
lute starvation, and after his iteath became possessed of bis 
papers. 

The first part of Hudibras, containing three cantos, wai 
published in 1663, and soon became eminently popular, 
and was much quoted even at court. In the next ye^ 
appeared the second part The third part, which doe« iu4 
bring the poem to a cooclusion, was not published till UTk 
Three small volumes of posthumous works were publtsbe ), 
as Johnson says, ' I know not by whom collected or \ > 
what authority ascertained/ Two more, undoubtedly ge- 
nuine, were afterwards printed by Mr. Thyer of Manchester 
Some of his posthumous poems are very obscene. 

Such is the scanty record of perhaps the most witty wntrr 
in our language. *The events of his life,* says his bt-*- 
grapher wl^m we have already cited, * are variously stated, 
and all that can be told with certainty is that he was pocr. 
On a work so well known as Butler's Hudibras it is scarcely 
necessary to make a single remark. Voltaire has well bsmI 
of it that it unites the wit of Don Quixote with that of tbc 
Sat}'re Menippee. Hudibras, the hero* is a Presbyten^i 
justice, who, fired with the same species of madness' as ilw 
Don Quixote of Cervantes, undertakes the reform of abat«>. 
in company with his Squire Ralph, an Independent rler«w, 
with whom he is almost always engaged in oontrmez^T. 
This union of the knight errant and the Preabytenan :s 
fhulty in the outset, and in the eonehtct of the poem there 
is httle to satisfy the reader. The adventures an tiresome 
and tedious, but the dialogues are carried on with % strain 
of wit which appears to be exhaustless. The chnr»eter> 
which were before the eyes of our fiirefathen have passed 
away, but so great was Butlers knowledge of homaui na- 
ture, that many of his distiehs have become proverbiaL 
However easy may appear the st)'le of burlesque which he 
has adopted, and however frequently^ similar eottrae has 
been followed after him, it is not among the least proofs of 
Butler^s extraordinary excellence that ne is still without a 
rival among his imitators. The standard edition was pol^ 
lisbed in 1744 in two vols. 8va, with laboriously illustrative 
notes by Dr. Grey. In 1 721 John Barber, eitiien and one 
time Lord Mayor of London, erected a cenote|di in Wees- 
minster Abbey to Butler's memory, which profvnked a jim 
epigram from Samuel Wesley, and a sareaam, whi^ ap- 
pears to have been little merited, from Fspe. 

BUTOMA'CEiB, a natural order •of Bndogena. the type 
of whibh is the Butwnue umb§Uahi$, ■ 



B UT 



BUT 



to remain in it It thoold be washed <mt twioe a day, im- 
mediately beibre each milking; which, besides ensuring 
cleanliness, prtxiuoes a refreshing coolness highly useful to 
the milk. The teats of the cows should be washed clean 
with water and a sponge. The yessels in which the milk 
is drawn from the cow should be made of very clean white 
wood; they should be scalded immediately after having 
been used, and then exposed to the air, so as to be perfectly 
dry by the next time of using them. Tin or eopper vessels 
are preferable to wood, because they are not so easily 
tainted, and are more easily kept clean. Where these are 
used they should always be kept bright within and without, 
by which means the least speck of dirt is immediately dis- 
covered. 

The milk as soon as it is brought into the dairy is strained 
through a fine sieve or doth, in order to remove any extra- 
neous matter, and it is then poured into shallow pans, or 
troughs lined with lead. The oest pans are of metal, either 
of iron carefully tinned, or of brass. Such pans are cool in 
summer, and in winter allow of the application of heat, 
which is often very useful to make the cream rise. When 
leaden troughs are used they are generally fixed to the 
wall, and have a slight inclination towards one end, where 
there is a hole with a plug in it, by drawing which the thin 
milk is allowed to run off slowly, leaving the cream behind, 
which runs last through the hole into the pan placed under 
to receive it The milk in the pans or troughs is generally 
four or five inches in depth, which is found most conducive 
to the separation of the cream. The place where the milk 
is set should have a thorough draught of air by means of 
opposite wire windows. The sun should be carefully ex- 
cluded by high buildings or trees, and the floor, which 
should always be of brick or stone, should be continually 
kept moist in summer, that the evaporation may produce 
an equal cool temperature. A small stove in winter is a 
great advantage, provided smoke or smell be most carefully 
avoided, and the temperature be carefblly regulated by a 
thermometer. All these minutisd may appear superfluous 
to those who have no practical knowledge of the dairy, and 
many dairymen, who cannot deny the truth of what we have 
stat^, mav excuse their deviation from these rules bv saying, 
that good butter is made without so much care ana trouble. 
This may be true, but they cannot ensure good butter at 
all times ; and when cleanlmess and order are brought to a 
regular system the trouble disappears. It is well known 
that even the complexion and temperament of a dairy* 
woman are not a matter of indifference ; and that however 
clean she may be, there are times when the insensible per- 
spiration of her body will have a powerful effect on the milk. 
In Switxerland men are chiefly employed to milk the cows, 
and in all the process of the preparation of butter and 
cheese. The women only clean tne utensils, and carry 
green food to the cows when thev are kept in the stable. 
When the milk has stood twelve hours the finest parts of 
the cream have risen to the surface, and if they are then 
taken off by a skimming dish, and immediately churned, a 
very delicate butter is obtained; but in general it is left 
twenty-four hours, when the cream is collected by skim- 
ming, or the thin milk let off by taking out the plug in the 
troughs. All the cream is put into a deep earthen jar, 
whicn should be glased, but not with lead : stone ware is 
the best More cream is added every day till there is a suffi- 
cient quantity to churn, which in moderate dairies is every 
two days. It is usual to stir the cream often, to encourage 
a sliffht acidity, by which the process of churning is accele- 
rated. This acidity is sometimes produced by the addition of 
vinegar or lemon-juice ; but however this may facilitate the 
conversion of the cream into butter, we would not recom- 
mend it as the quality is decidedly injured by it especially 
butter which is to be salted. It has been asserted by some 
authors that butter will not separate tmm the butter-milk 
until acidity is produced, and, no doubt there is more or 
less of lactic acid in all butter-milk; but perfectly fresh 
cream, which has stood only one night and is churned early 
next morning, will generally produce excellent butter in a 
quarter of an hour or twenty minutes in summer, and no 
acid taste can be discovered in the butter-milk. The change 
by which the butter is separated in a solid fbnn tsaooom- 
panied by the development of heat in churning. That the 
state of the atmosphere with respect to electricity as well 
as the temperature has a powerfid iuflnenoe on the making 
of butter, no one can doubt who has paid any attention to 
the eflSsci of a thundentonn in a dairy, especially when it 



ooeoia at the time of ehnrning. As 
dually applied to all the common arts of lifis some accurals 
experiments will probably be made to throw light oo ilus 
subject and an electrometer may be found as naeful in a 
dairy as a thermometer is already. 

The common method employed to separata the butter 
from the thinner portion of the cream is by strong agitation. 
In small quantities this may be done in a bottle ; but the 
common instrument is the chum, which is a wooden cask 
rather wider at bottom than at the top, eovered with s 
round lid with a hole in the centre. Through tbia bole 
passes a round stick about four feet long inserted in tb« 
centre of a round flat board with holes in it : the diameter 
of this board is a little less than that of the top of the 
churn. Various improvementa have been made on this 
machine. The cream should not fill above two-thirds of 
the chum. By means of this stick held in both hands and 
moved up and down, the cream is violently agitated, pasaing 
through the holes in the board and round its edge e\'ery 
time the stick is raised or depressed, and thus every portioa 
is brought into contact with the air. In the eourae of aa 
hour's churning, more or less according to cireutnstanccs, 
small kernels of butter appear which are soon united by the 
pressure of the board against the bottom of the chunu and 
form a mass of solid butter. The butter is coUacted with the 
hand, and placed in a shallow tub for the next oneratioa. 
The butter-milk is set aside for the pigs, or for aomestie 
use. The butter is still mixed with some portion of butter- 
milk, but much of its quality for keeping dependa on thea 
perfect separation. The most usual way is to spread it this 
m a shallow tub, beating it with the hand or a flat woodtn 
spoon, and washing it repeatedly with clear spring water 
until all milkiness msappears in the water which ia poured 
off. Some experienced dairymen pretend that the butter is 
deteriorated by imuch washing, and therefore ezpreas the 
butter-milk by simply beating the butter with tae haod. 
kept cool by frequently dipping it in cold water, or with t 
moist cloth wrapped in the form of a ball, which aoaks dp 
all the butter-milk, and leaves the butter quite dry. This 
operation reouires the greatest attention, especially in warn 
weather, and no person should work the butter who hu 
not a very cool hand. The less it is handled the better, aoi 
therefore a wooden spoon or spatula Is much to be preferred. 

When it is entirely freed from the butter-milk and of s 
proper consistency, it is divided into poitions of the weight 
required, if it is mtended to be sold fhesh. Hie mode of 
preparing fresh butter for the market is either by nakiar 
It into rolls of two pounds, or into flat round cakea of cue 

Sound or half a pound each, which are impressed with so^ 
gure cut in a round piece of wood like a lari^e seal, hence 
called prints. The rolls are made oblong with four s^ 
slightly flattened by throwing the lump on a stone or hmtc 
successively on each of the four sides, and then on the tvj 
ends. This requires some dexterity, which ia aoosi se- 
quired, and it is done to avoid unnecessary handling. 

To make prints the butter is first made into Mls» an^ 
then applied by pressure to the wood, which makes the icH 
pressions ; the sides are trimmed up along the edge of the 
wood, and the whole is pressed against a marble or wooden 
slab, so as to have the impression uppermost and fbnn a 
flat cake. The wooden print is readily detached by holdic^ 
it in the left hand, and giving a smart blow with the ngt% 
upon it A hole, bored through the centre, prevents the 
adhesion of the butter from the exclusion of the air. Ii 
Cambridgeshire butter is made up into rolls a yard looc. 
and paswd through a ring of a certain diameter, fbr tbt 
convenience of dividing it into small portions without the 
trouble of weighing. Hence the butter is said to be ai^ 
by the yard. 

The greatest portion of the butter that is made^ espeaany 
at a distance from large towns, is immediately aahed as4 
put into casks, which usually contain fifty-six nounds* aai 
are called firkins. The quality of the salt uaea is of grvu 
importance ; if it be pure, the butter will keep ita flavMir 
fbr a long time, but when it is impure and contains bitter 
and deliquescent salts the butter soon becomes rancid. Tb» 
Dutch are very particular in this point They nae a kiai 
of , salt which is made by slow evi^Kiratum, and perfiecCy 
crystaUiied. The salt is mtimately mixed with the hoxut 
From 3 to 5 lbs. are sufficient fbr a firkin of 56 Iha.* The 

* The foUowinf mixtare has been feand tmrior to nit 
tmttori— half an otmtn of dry mU povaded m^ teg 
twodxuBgofHJtp«tfo, ISn «TW7 yound olbiitm. 




BUT 



«? 



B -U T 



casks are made of dean ^hito wodcL^ They an eareftiUy' 
washed inside With Stloii|; brine made hot, and rubbed over 
with salt The butter being quite dry is pressed close into 
the cask, a small layer of salt having been first put on the 
bottom. Ever^ addition is carefully incorporated with the 
preceding portion. If there is not a suffieiBnt quantity to 
fill the cask at onoe^ the surfhee is made smooth, some salt 
is put over it. and a cloth is pressed cloae upon it to exclude 
the air. When the remainder is added, at the next churn- 
ing, the etoth is taken off, and the salt, which had been put 
on the suilboe, earefiilly removed with a spoon. The surftoe 
is dug into with a smaU wooden spade, and laid rough, and 
the newly-salted butter is added and incorporated completely. 
This prevents a streak, whieh would otherwise appear at the 
place where the two portions joined. When the cask is full 
some salt is put over it, and the hekd is put in. If the butter 
was well freed from all the butter-milk, and the salt mixed 
with it quite dry, it will not shrink in the ca^, and it will 
keep its flavour for a long time. Should there be an 
appearance of riirinkiRg, £e cask must be opened, and 
melted butter poured round it so as to fill up the interstices 
between the butter and the cask ; in this way it will not 
suflbr in its quality. There is a mode of preserring butter 
for doraeetie use without salt, in the following manner :«- 
the butter is set in a clean pan over the fire and melted 
very gently ; it is not allowed to boil, but is heated very 
nearly to the bdling point. Experience has shown this 
heat to be attained when the relleotion of the white of the 
eye is distinctly seen on the surfaoe of the butter on looking 
down into the pan. All the watery particles are then 
evaporated, and the eurd, of which a portion always remains 
in the butter, and which is one cause of its becoming rancid, 
falls to the bottom. The clear butter is poured into an 
earthen vessel and oovered over with paper ; and a bladder 
or a piece of leather is tied over the jar to exclude the air. 
When it is oooled it much resembles hog*s lard. It has 
lost some of its flavour, but it is much superior to salt butter 
for culinary purposes, and espeeially for pastry. 

The Devonshire method of making butter diflbrs ma- 
terially from the eommon process whion we have described, 
and is peculiar to that county. The milk, instead of being 
set ft>r the cream to rise, is placed in tin or earthen pans, 
holding about eleven or twelve quarts each. Twelve hours 
after milking tiiese pans are fuaoed on a broad iron plate, 
heated by a small ratnaoe. The milk is not allowed to 
boil, but a thick scum rises to the surfaoe. As soon as 
small bubbles begin to appear, where a portion of this is 
removed with a spoon, the milk is taken off and allowed to 
cool. The thick part is taken off the surface, and this is 
called clouted cream. It is a sweet pleasant substance, 
more solid than cream, but not so solia as butter ; and is 
considered as a dainty by all those who have been early 
accustomed to it A very slight agitation converts it into 
real butter; after whieh it is treated exactly as we have 
before deooribed. It does not appear that there is any 
peculiar advantage in the Devonshire method. 

Another method of making butter, which is more gene- 
tmllv adopted, is to chum the milk and cream together. 
This method is pursued in parts of Holland, Scotland, and 
Ireland, and is said to produce a greater abundance of 
butter from the same quantity of milk. In the Dutch 
method the milk is put into deep jars in a cool place, each 
meal, or portion milked at one tune, being kept separate. 
As soon as there ia a slight appearance of acidiw the whole 
is churned In an upright chum, which, fhMn the quantity 
of milk. Is ef veiy large dimensions. The plunger is there- 
f>re worked by machinery moved by a horse, or sometimes 
by a dog walking in a wheel, which he turns by his weight. 
When die butter begins to form into small kernels, the con- 
tents of the ohnm are emptied on a sieve^ whioh lets the 
butter-milk pass through. The butter is then formed into 
a mass, m described before. In Ireland the process is very 
similar, but the milk is allowed to arrive at a greater de- 
gree of aeidily, which is a delbct. 

In Seotlsknd the following method is pursued : the milk is 
allowed to ooel Ibr six hours, and then put into a dean vat. 
As long aa it remains sweet mwe milk may be added, but 
not after any acidity is produced. It is then covered and 
' allowed to get sodv, till it eoagulatee at the top ; this coagu- 
Him is caBed ttie Immt, whieh must not be broken till the 
butter Is churned. When the clotted milk is put into the 
chum, warm wafer is added so as to raise the temperature 
%0ffi^ere«*»ttaiwhilebehiggnidaiUy8tiRed in. Wheu 



this is properlv. .eondoeted tbO'^ bultes-milk will be very 
pleasant and wholesome, with a sub-acid taste, the serum 
and ourd not being separated from each other for some time 
after. The butter is said to be fUUy equal to that made 
from cream alone. {Quarterly JourruU qf Agriculture, 
December, 1834.) 

Butter is a most valuable article of commerce, and a great 
souice of wealth to those nations which produce it in the 
greatest perfection. The Dutch have hitherto had the pre** 
eminence : but there is no good reason why the rich pas- 
tures in England and Ireland should not produce as good 
butter as those of Holland, if suflicient attention were paid 
to the minutiiB of the dairy, to the purity of the salt used, 
and especially to cleanliness, for which the Dutch are so 
remarkable. The quality of the butter depends on some 
very minute circumstances, which escape the notice of all 
superficial observers. The smallest particle of putrescent 
matter, accidentally added, and even mere effluvia, give a turn 
to the chemical action going on from the moment the milk 
is exposed to the air, and they taint the cream more or less. 
The quantity of pure cream which rises when the milk is 
set in the pans, as well as its quaUty, is influenced by these 
oircumstanoes. When the milk cuitlles before the cream is 
separated, it is almost impossible to prevent some portion of 
the curd being mixed with the butter. In its perfectly firesh 
state the taste is not affected by this ; but the butter will 
not keep f^sh above twenty-four hours, and when salted 
soon becomes rancid. Thus a greater (quantity is produced* 
but of inferior quality. When cheese is made of the milk 
from whic^ the cream has been taken, it will be found most 
profitable not to attempt to take off all the cream by re- 
peated skimming; for more will be gained in the better 
quality of the cheese, than by an increase in the quantity of 
tne butter, at the expense of the quality. 

It is an acknowledged fact, that such are the niceties ot 
the dairy, that great experience alone can ensure a produce 
of superior quality, and this experience would be more 
readily acquired if the circumstances were accurately ob- 
served and noted. We would recommend to those who 
have extensive dairies to mark by the thermometer the tem- 
perature of the milk and cream in the different stages of the 
process ; occasionally to test the acidity of the butter-milk 
by means of alkalis; and to note any peculiarity in the 
atmosphere by an electrometer. A few observations care- 
fully noted, repeated, and compared, would throw more 
light on the true causes which favour or oppose the produc- 
tion of good butter, than all the guesses that have hitherto 
been made. 

The quaUty of the butter depends materially on the na- 
ture of the pasture. The best is made from cows fed ib 
rich natural meadows. Certain plants which grow in poor 
and marshy soils give a disagreeable taste to the butter 
The common notion that the yellow flower called the butter- 
cup gives colour and flavour to butter is a mistake : cows 
never crap the flower if they can avoid it, and the whole 
plant is acrid and unpalatable. When cows are fed with 
cut grass in the stable the butter is inferior, except in the 
case of some artificial grasses, such as lucerne. Tuniips and 
other roots given to oows in winter communieate more or less 
of a bad taste to butter, which is corrected in some degree by 
means of a small quantity of water and saltpetre added to 
the milk ; and also, it is said, by giving salt to the cows with 
tlieir food. But there is no butter made in winter equal to 
that which is made where the cows are fed entirely with 
good meadow hay, especially of the second crop, called after- 
math hay, which contains few seed-stalks. [Aptbricath.] 

The yeltow colour of fine May butter is fluently imi- 
tated artificially by mixing some ground annotta root, or 
the juice of carrots, with the eream. This is easily detected 
by the taste of the butter, whieh is not improved by it. and 
has not the peculiar flavour of fine grass butter ; but in 
other respects it is a harmless addition. Some cows give a 
much yellower cream than others, especially the Alderney 
oows ; and the butter made from it is of a peculiarly fine 
flavour. When a cow has lately calved the milk is also 
much yellower, but this soon goes off, if it be not the natural 
cok)ur ; and the butter made by mixing this with other 
milk, although of a deeper colour, is not improved by it. 

AocQffding to the aecounts of the produce of butter from 
different countries and various breeds of cows, we may 
state that, on an average, four gallons of milk produce six- 
teen ounces of butter ; and to make the feeding of cows for 
the dairy a profitable employment in Bngland, « good cow 

K2 



BUT 



68 



^ U T 



AoqU modoee six poands of butter per week in summer, 
und halftbat quantity in winter, allowing from six weeks to 
two months for her being dry before calving ; that is, 120 lbs. 
in twenty weeks after (living, and 80 Ibe. in the remainder 
of the time till she goes dry,— in all about 200 lbs. in the 
year. If she produces more she may be considered as a su- 
perior cow, if less she is below par. To produce this quan- 
tity the pasture must be good, and if we allow three acres 
to keep a cow in grass and hay for a year, which is not very 
far from the mark, the butter made will produce about 1 OL, 
at the distance of fifty miles from London, if it is sold in a 
fresh state, and the calf about \5i, at a week old. This does 
little more than pay rent and expenses ; the profit must be 
made by feeding pigs, or making skim-milk cheese. 

An inferior kmd of butter is made in some cheese dairies 
from the oily portion of the milk skimmed from the whey, 
whidi is set in pans like milk alter the cheese has been 
made. It is sold at an inferior price to labourers, and sel- 
dom comes to market. It is totally unfit for salting and 
keepi ng. I t is known by the name of tvhey butter. 

BUTTBR-TRADE. Butter is an article of great com- 
mercial importance in many countries, and especiallv in 
India, where, under the name of ghee, it forms one of the 
staple productions of many districts. In Europe the greatest 
trade in butter belongs to the more northern nations. The 
quality of that produced in England and in Holland is 
considered the best in the world. A considerable quantity 
of Dutch butter is exported, but all that is produced in 
England is consumed at home, in addition to large quan- 
tities imported from Ireland and the north of Europe. The 
()uantit^ so imported has been for some time progressively 
increasmg. 



IreUad 



Coantriat. 



«t 



•I 



M 



»• 



M 



Cwts. Cwta. 

Ann. average of 3 years to 1790 • . • 198,149 

3 „ 1800 . .-. 215,100 

5 „ 1S05 . • . 225,187 107,169 
5 „ 1810 .. . 303,586 72,424 

5 M 1815 .. . 330,635 67,450 

5 „ 1820 .. . 365.226 60,627 

5 „ 1825 • • . 422,883 159,332 

„ 5 „ 1830 .. . 173.206 

H 5 „ 1835 .. . 134.346 

No account of the importations from Ireland can be had 
later than 1825. the intercourse between the two islands 
having then been placed upon the footing of a coasting 
trade ; and there is no statement of imports from foreign 
countries of an earlier date than 1801. In 1834, the latest 
year for which the accounts of the trade with different 
countries have been made publio, the importations, which 
amounted to 133,871 cwts., were received from the following 
countries : viz., Russia, I cwt ; Denmark, 8846 cwts. ; 
Prussia, 5 cwts. ; Germany, 17,693 cwts.; Holland, 106,776 
cwts. ; Belgium. 526 cwts. ; France. 2 cwts. ; Italy, 4 cwts. ; 
other countries, 18 cwts. : total, 133,871 cwts. 

It is not possible to state the quantity of butter exported 
from the United Kingdom to our colonies and foreign 
countries, in oonsequenoe of the practice at the custom- 
house of including butter and cheese in the same state- 
ment The shipments of butter so made are entirely of the 
produce of Ireland. The chief customer is Portugal ; next 
to that country Brazil takes the largest Quantity ; and about 
40,000 firkins, or 1000 tons, are annually sent to the Eng- 
lish West India colonies. 

Various acts of parliament have been passed with the 
view of preventing fraudulent nractices in the packing of 
butter, but such legislative interference seems unnecessary. 

The average contract price for butter purchased for the 
nse of Greenwich Hospital at various times since 1730 
has been as under:— 1730, 5d. per lb.; 1740, 5d.; 1750, 
5|</., 1755, bid.; 1760. 5id.; 1765, 5^; 1770, 6id.; 
1775,6|dL; 1780,61</.; 1785, 6fl; 1790, 6 |d.; 1795, 8i</.; 
1800, llK; 1805, llfl; 1810, 13f/.; 1815, I4d.; 1820*, 
9|</.; 1825, IQid.; 1830, 0\d,; 1834, 7{</. 

The rates of duty payable at different times during the 
present oentury on the importation of butter from foreign 
countries have been varied as follows: — 1801, 2t. 9^. per 
ewt, and 3 per cent ad valorem ; 1803, 3#. Ofd. per cwt. ; 
1804, 3<. 11A</.; 1803, 4«.; 1806, 4s,3id.; 1809, 4f.4d; 
1813, 5«. l|d. ; 1816, 20#.; at which last-mentioned rate it 
has been continued to the present time (1836). 

BUTTER. [DiXT.] 



BtPTTER TRIOR. [Babsia.I 

butter; and TAXLOW tree. [PfwrADtinia.] 

BUTTERFLY. [LRPiDorrBRA.] 

BUTTERFLY PLANT. [Oncidiuii.] 

BUTTERFLY ORCHIS. [Plat anther a.] 

BUTTE RMERB, a chapelry of the parish of Brigham, 
in Cumberlaiid, much freouented by travellers for the «ake 
of the beautiful lake which bears its name. This lake is about 
U mile long, and } mile broad : a swampy flat, partly inea* 
dow-l%nd, partly under the plough, intervenes bttwp«n it 
and the grand nill at the head of the valley, called Hoois- 
tarCtag. Another level tract, about a mile long, separates 
it from U)e fine sheet called Crummock Water ; the chapel 
and village of Buttermere stand at some little elevatioti un 
the E. side of the valley, between the two lakes. The number 
of inhabitants, who are chiefly employed in pasturage and 
agriculture, is thus given in the population returns : — 
1801. 1811. 1821. 1831. 
74 109 136 89 

exhibiting a remarkable decrease, which is oorrbborated by 
a decrease in the ntunber of inhabited houses from 21* ui 
1821, to 19. The chapelry contains 3480 stcres. Slate 
quarries have been worked m Honistar Crag ; but not, ve 
believe, for the last few years. The river Cocker rieet at 
the head of the valley, traverses both lakes, and falls iulD 
the Derwent at Cockermouth. 

There is a tolerably good road from Cockermouth and 
Lorton, by Crummock Water, to Buttetfnere, which is ooiw 
tinned, as a mountain road, to SeatoUar. (Bobbowdali.) 
There is a road through the Vale of Newlands to Zeswick. 
distant about 9 miles, but it is not suited for heavy carriages, 
being rough, narrow, and for 2 miles extremely steep. Tbc 
mountains which inclose this valley belong, on the £. side, 
to the lowest, those on the W. side and end to the middk; 
slate-formation ; and the smooth conical shapes of the forsMr 
are remarkably contrasted with the abrupt outlines of the 
latter. The whole tract, from the foot of Crummock upwardi, 
presents a good specimen both of the sterner and soiter fea- 
tures of mountain scenery. About a mile down Crununock. 
and half a mile from the W. side of the lake, a small stream. 
falling over a precipice of .1 56 ft., forms the waterfall of Sruk 
Force. Near its foot, and past Floutern Tarn, over a low 
but wide moor, runs the ordinary footway lor tboi«e who 
cross from Buttermere to.Ennerdale. From the upper end 
of Buttermere there runs another mountain path of mut-h 
bolder character, over the pass called Scarf Gap, descendinc 
into the head of Ennerdale (here called GillerthwaiieK ihes 
mounting the Black Sail and running rapidly down M*nt- 
dale to Wasdale Head. The writer has crossed these paMo 
with a lady on a clever pony ; but the ground is diffirub, 
and a considerable part or it must be dont: on foot : to Uyc^ 
who can walk, a norse will be more plague than piufit. 
From Buttermere down to Wasdale Head may be from S tn 
9 miles : from thence to the next public-house, below the f ji< 
of Wastwater, is 4 miles more. It is a route of great vanci) 
and grandeur. 

BUTTERS, VEGETABLE, the name given to tU 
concrete oil of certain vegetables, from its resemblanoe ao 
the butter obtained from the milk of animala, and £na 
being employed for similar purposes. The term is a^o 
oocasionallv, but improperly, applied to some vegetable po 
ducts which are entirely of a waxy nature, such aa the wax 
of the Myrica cerifera. The name is likewise bestowed ia 
Siberia on certain algss, species of the genus Abeloc. sock 
as N, pruni/orme. The most important vegetable buxiers 
are produced by the Btutia butyracea and oU&er species ef 
that genus iBateia) and certain palms, such as the Coe^ 
butyracea and the Elaie Gmneensii, the former of which :s 
of gceat utility to the inhabitants of BrasiU whan it gfwwt 
naturally, and to the negroes of St. Domingo, wbcse a « 
cultivated ; while the latter is very serviceable to tha natives 
of Guinea. {Library of Entertaining KnmeUige; />* 
getable Subetancee; MateriaU of Man^acturtt p. SSI.) 

BUTTERS (in pharmacy) was the name fomerly given 
to certain hydrochlorates of the metals, such aa aaluaov*. 
arsenic, bismuth, tin, and sine. Precipitated sulphur like- 
wise was termed butter of sulphur. These lifrsignatieBs aiw 
now nearlv obsolete. 

BUTTAANN, PHILIP KARU n cmineat sattlsr 
and mythologer, was bom on the 5th Deoembsr, 17(4, «l 
Frankfort on the Main. In the latter part of Jut lifc b 
dropped his second Christian name, but toey boUi appear 
the title-pages of his earlier works. Be wm 



;B U T ( 

from (ha Franeb Proteitants who took nft^^a-iK Canwny 
from the perMcutioDi of I^hiib XIV» uid his name it k 
Gvrmaa represenUtiTe of (he Franch BoudaniCHiL His 
Ikther, Jacob Busman, a respociable BU(ioDBr, i>]ac«d him. 
at an earlj •ge,.UDdar theeara oTPurman, tha l«amed rec- 
tor of the KJIoBasiuiii of hii native place, in wUcJi be first 
acquired that taste fbr philological studiea and that love 
for the Greek. language in particular fbr which he wai dis- 
tinguished through lire. In 1782 he vent to GoUingen to 
follow up his olssaical ipvestigatioos under the superintend- 
ancedfHeyne. In 1786, after a short stay at Frankfort, 
he visilod his brother-in-law. Dr. Blurnann of Strasbourg. 
There he became acquainted with Schvreighiiuser, who was 
then engaged on his edition of ' Polyhius,' and Buttmann 
made his Srst appearance as a phllologer in lODie notes 
which he fumiabcd to that laborious work. Shortly af[er 



for about eight months. In 1788 he went to Berlin, end 
had the good fortune (o make some Ijlerary acquaintances 
in that city, which led to his being appointed, in a year or 
two, assistant librarian to the king, and he added to his 



him acquainted with the various errors of the Greek gniD 
mars then in use, and with their uselessness as text-books 
for beginners. Accordingly, in 1792, he published a short 
Greek grammar, which was so superior bo(h in matter and 
manner to every fbrrocr book on the suHect. that it at once 
established itself in all the schools of Germany ; and even 
DOW. atier a lapse of more than 40 years, it is the only 
accidence used in the gymnasia of that country. Buttmann 
iTDs Mppoin(«d, in )79B, secretary to the royal library, and 
Four years afterwards he was made a professor in the Joa- 
;himthalscbe ^mnasmm, the high school of Bcrhn , he 
held ihis appointment till 1808, when he was 3ppqin[ed 
jneof the original professors in the new university. He 
was elertod a member of the royal academy of sciences in 
ISOe ; but so great was his reputation, that his ' Essay on 
Apollo and Artemis' was inserted in the transactions of 
that society three years before he entered it. Shortly after 
liis appointment as professor in the university he wu 
lelected from his colleagues as classical tutor to the prince 
'oyal. Arter Spalding's death, in June, IS11, Buttmann 
fas elected his successor as secretary to the histoiical phi- 
ological class of the royalacademy of sciences ; but he felt 
his office so irksome, that nothing but his regard fbr the 
ntere^ts of the academv could have induced him to retain 
t; for, as Schleiermacher observes (* Gediichtnissrede auf 
l^itlipp Bultman,' p. xxi,). ' he never bad any inclination 
or public business, partly because he abhorred complicated 
'esponsibilities; partly bct^ause he had a well-founded aver- 
ion to all mere formalities.' The peculiar constitution of 
he society, however, induce<1 hira to accept this appoint- 
ncnt. and his panegyrist adds that he introduced many 
-onvenient'abridgments of formalities wilhout departing 
roro essentials. In 1821 he was appointed head librarian 
o the king, and tn 1 82 1 was made a knight of the Prussian 
led Eagle of the third class. From this year till his death he 
vas afflicted with repeated attacks of apoplexy : he died on 
he 2lBt June, 18^9. Buttmann was married, in 180U, to 
he eldest daughter- of Dr. Selle. the king's physician, by 
thorn he left a family ; his son Augustus is a good seholar, 
md republished, in 1833. his father's well-known edition of 
Demosthenes' Oration against Midias.' Buttmann wrote 
lis own life, upioihe timeof his becoming a member of the 
lerliD academy, in the third part of Lowe's collection (Bild- 
lisce jetilebender Berliner Gelehrter mit Selbstbiogra- 
•hien). 

The best known ofButtmann'i writings are:— I. His three 
elebrated Gramraan : (1 ), the School Grammar, which has 
leen very badly translated in America ; (3), the intenne- 
iiate Greek Ormmmor, which has been twice translated— 
<nce by Boileaa, Lend., 1833, and also by the American 
irolessor Robinson ; (3), his complete Greek Grammar, 
rbieb only contains the Accidence: unfortunately it b not 
'M accessible to the English student, though it is far supe- 
tor to Matthiii as a collection of facts with regard to the 
brmal part of the Greek language. 

IL Ilis ' Lexilogus,' wbieb has been well translated by 
Mr. Fishlake. 

III. His * Mythologus ;' a rolleetion of his mythological 
nd bittorinl eswya. 



B B U T 

The moat remarkable fedaiB in Buttmann'i literary cl» 
rocter was his willineness to give assistance to other writer*. 
Hi began With assisting Schweigbauser j and Heindorf, 
Biester, Wolf, Spalding, and Ntebuhr,iuecessively received 
and acknowledged his valuable aid. In all his literary 
labouis Buttmann was distinguished for an honest and dia- 
criminatinK scepticism; he never doubted, however,. but 
with a wish to Dnd out the truth, and in contriving methods 
of fathoming a difficulty he never was. exceeded in ingS' 
nuity. Hia private character was very amiable, and doub(^ 
less Schleiermacher was justified in saying that 'there wu 
hardly one in the circle of his literary acquaintances so w^ 
known, so unanimously appreciatufl, and so antitely he1ove>i 
as he was.' 

BUTTNERIA'CE.^, a group of plants, by some bota- 
nists considered a distinct natural order : by others reduced 
to a section of Slerculiaceie. Tbey belong to the malvd 
alliance of Exogens, and are readily known bv their petals 
being bagged at the base, their stamens partly sterile and 

Ktaloid, and their fruit covered with basked spiny hairs, 
om SterculiaccB Proper, they ditfvr by the presence of 
Ktals, and their stamens not being united into a column; 
>m Malvacete, by their two-celled anthers and bagged 
petals; and from LasiopetalCEB, by their calyx not being 
coloured like a' corolla, and their petals not rudimentary. 
The species are chiefly inhabitants of tropical countries; 
they partake of the mucilaginous inert properties of Mal- 
vacete { their bark ofl^n yields a tough fibre St for moou- 
facture into cordage ; and one species, Theobroma Cocaot 
produces the seeds from which the buttery and somewhat 
bitter substance called cocoa is obtained, and whi^> mixed 
with vanilla, tbrms the basis of chocolate. 






petnlii ktnl IbB frnr« 
t\ji cnl afta, vtlh Uie • 



R {KBUcon !• oihs: I 



■ilidlul HcliDD d > toHr. (fanrins t^ odilii of At p «m«; 4, ■fatal) 

hoskid ^in vitli vbieh It !• mwrd pn4ntiii( tl«ii <u ildH ; t, i ■unMl 
7. the erriiTT, 

BUTTON. This usefbl liUIe appendage to almost every 
dress is made of nearly every variety of material. Gold, silver, 
brass, copper, pewter, mother-o'-pearl, hard wood, bone, ivory, 
boro, leUtwr, paper, glass, silk, wool, cotton, linen, thread. 



fi UT 



7D 



BUT 



0B to ft vfliy gnftt cstoiit. 

Tbe vftrktief of tba fem of taHom WMf be ndoeed to 
imn vis. L thoM tnlA «teiJtt/ fl. Hum mIAovI gktmkf; 
8. ilMM0OiiflMr»ftiMilir<orriD0i);MiiC lNiltonft0ov«f«rf 
with nft. ebth, or other OMteffttL 

1. Metal hottoBsvitbihftiikt oio gwieteliy yuuA e d out 
of ft plate of hnns hoThig rather bee tine in itt eompoeitioii 
Ihaa ordinarf braiB. The diilueo punched ooV alter having 
their edgoe trimnod to take off the hnrr, are readjr for the 
diank. The ahanke are Baade of wire by a moat ingenions 
aaachine invented by Thomaaon of Birminflham. A eoil 
of wire it plaeed in the maeiiine, one end of iniich gradually 
advances to a point where a pair of shears cuts df a piece 
of the requisito length; a stud then presses against the 
Biddle of the piece Mid forces it between the two jaws of a 
▼iee into a staple^ike Ibnn : the jaws then compreea it so 
as to fbrm the eye of the shank ; a little hammer then 
atrikes the end and makes it level, and another movement 
Anally drops it complete into a box. 

The shanks being placed upon the disk in their proper 
position, and kept tnere by a bent flat slip of iron, a small 
pieoe of solder is placed at the foot of the shank. In this 
atato 100 or more are put upon an iron plato and heated in 
an oven till the solder runs and fixes the shank. Ther are 
then turned sojparatoly in a lathe, the chuck of the lathe 
being so flbrmed as to allow the buttons to be put in and 
taken out with great facility. The gilding is performed 
with an amalgam of gold and mercury about the consist- 
ence of butter : Ave grains of gold are sufficient for a gross 
of buttons. 

White metal buttona, anch as those on soldiers* dresses, 
are east in moulds, containing ten or twelve dozen, and the 
shanks are placed in the moulds previous to casting, so 
that when the buttons are cast the shanks are fixed at the 
same time. 

MotherK>*-peail bttttoiia are eut out of the pearl shell bv 
means of a small cylindrical saw, i, e. a tube of steel with 
its edffo cut into teeth. This tubular saw has a pulley on 
the tube, and it is made to revolve rapidly after the manner 
of a lathe. The ahell is then pressed up against it, and 
thus the oireular disk for the button is quickly cut out of 
the shell ; if the ahell la thick the oireular disk may be 
split into two ; the disks are then turned in a lathe. As 
the ahanka cannot be soldered in, and they would not look 
neat if rivetted through the button, a hole is turned about 
half way through, the hole being wider at the bottom than 
at tbe top, or, as it is ealled, dove-tailed. The stem of the 
metel shank is just the sise of the smallest ^art of the hole, 
and the stem is made a little hollow by drilling a conical 
hole np it, so aa to leave the metal very ttiin at the 
edsea. The shank being now put into tbe dove-tailed hole, 
a Slight blow with the hammer spreads the thin edge of the 
stem under the dove-tailed edge of the hole, and the shank 
is firmly fixed. Mother<-o*-pearl buttons are sometimes 
ornamented with excentric circles, flutes radiating from the 
centre, &c., all of which are executed in the lathe bv means 
of an excentric chuck and slide rest. 

2. Buttons without shanks are made of nsother>o*-near], 
wood, bone, metal, &c., the metel onee being stampea and 
the rest turned. They have four holes through which the 
thread is pasMd to fix them on the garment. These holes 
are stamped in metal buttons, but thev are drilled in those 
which are made of other material. The holes are drilled 
while the buttona are in the lathe; four long drills are 
made to converge towards the button, and thus the four 
holes are all drilled at enee. 

3. Buttons on wire moulds are merely wire rings eovered 
with thread. 

4. Covered buttona. Although many beautiful speci- 
mens of metal buttons have been produced by the manufac- 
turer, still metal buttons may be said to be in great measure 
superseded by covered bottone. The stimulus being thus 
given, a great deal of higenuity has been shown in the 
manuiiMture of covered buttons, and a number of patente 
have been obtained for tbe inventions : the fdlowmg two 
plana will give a general idea of the principles of their con- 
struction. In one nlan a metal disk is punched out of thin 
iron nlato* which oy subeeauent punches has ito edges 
turned up and then bent a uttle inwards: thia is dcme to 
form the Dodv of the button.. Ane^r smaller disk, capable 
of lying withm tho edfea of ^ above, haa a ramd or oval 
^ole in ^ centre: ibis ia to form tiie badk Aeiieular 



pteee of tfw staff ealled noientue is fMii viappsil iosbo 
the larger disk, and the edgea brongfat ewer and praased into 
the hollow; the smaller disk or bad is then preesed into ita 
]daee, and then the tanied-np edgea of Ae face being eocn- 
pressed on the ba^ the whole b ecom es firmly fixed togethct. 
and the ckdi protading ttmmgh the hcle ki the back 
aflbrds the meana of fixing it to the ganaent. In tbe other 
plan, which prodneea a very neat button, tbe disk for the 
body is left flat, and the ba» is a small eireular disk with a 
round hole in the centre, bat the onter edge is eat into 
eight aharp triangular pointa Hke a little star. Tbeae 
pmnta are bent to a little less than a right angle to the 
disk, so that the potato tocline a little inwards. Besides 
these two metal disks, three pieces of paper and two pieces 
of doth are necessary, so that the button oonsiata of no te« 
than seven separate pieces, which are put together in the 
foBowing order: — 1st. On the piece of florentiDo which 
fimns the outer covering is laid a piece of paper of the same 
size ; on this the iron disk forming the body ; on this another 
piece of paper the same size as the body ; on Ala another 
piece of paper crumpled up into a little pellet to help to form 
the shank ; on this a piece of coarse cloth ; and finally tbe 
metal back. In putting on the back the florentinc ii 
gathered up over the whole of the materials, and then tbe 
pointt of the back are pressed into it ; and as the points of 
the back are bent a little inwacds (as was mentioned above ;, 
the consequence of the pressure is, that as they enter the 
cloth they bend more and more inwards, and thus forts 
eight little hookt which very neatly and effectively bold tu 
whole together. The little paper pellet makes the cloib 
protrude through the hole in the back, and forms the dutii 
shank by which it is attached to the coat Almost tU 
whole of these processes are performed by punches of vaiiuoi 
forms, but it has even been proposed to do the whole bf 
a machine, and a patent has been taken fiir one in whicb 
bv placing two plates of iron, a roll of florentinc. a roll of 
cloth, and three rolls of paper, and by settine the nuachint 
in motion, the whole of the seven parte of tnis iiigeiu0Qs 
button are to he cut out, put in their respective poaitioQi, 
and combined together into a perfect button. 

A very beautiful and perfectly novel steel batton hs$ 
been lately produced by Mr. Barton of the Royal Mint It 
is intended lor oourt dreases, being far too dehoato and toe 
expensive for ordinary purposes. By means of most accu- 
rate dividing machinery, a number of groups of fine hnw 
are engraved on the button, the graving point being th« 
splinter of a diamond ; — the macmne is so accurate, that 
10,000 lines can be drawn within the inch. The groups u^ 
lines may be disposed in triangles or hexagons, alter tbe 
manner of a honeycomb, or in any other form at the opULt 
of the artist or the lines may be made to eroaa each otbcr 
in any direction. The pattern is comparatively of Utile is- 
portenoe, the beautiful efiect being produced by tha hrillust 
reflection of the light, which exhibite all the colours of tit 
rainbow in playful clouds like mother-o* -pearl, or in intensi 
colour like the ruby or the emerald. 

BUTTON, THOMAS, one of the early aretic na^r- 
gators, was an able seaman in the reign of James I., whose 
son (the Prince Henry) seems to ha\B been his first patras. 
In 1612, about three years after the unhappy deaah of tbe 
navigator Hudson, the merchanta of London «nx%is««: 
Button to follow up Hudson's discoveries with two ship^ 
the Resolution and the Discovery. He waa aocampanwii 
on this expedition by Bylot and Pricket who had sailed 
with Hudson, their experience and high qualities aa seaacn 
being considered sufficient in those days to outweigh tbt 
siupicions of their having partaken in the mutitty that dr> 
prived Hudson of life. Crossing the Atlantio, ButSoa e«H 
tored Hudson's Stratto to die south of Reeolatbn IsUcdt. 
and then keeping without deviation a western coovsew ht 
reached Southampton Island. Sailing atitt to tbe west* bs 
fell in with the American continent in lat 60^ 40^. From 
this point of the main land, which he named *Hope 
Checked,* he made away to the south, and on the ]5tli it 
August, 1612, he discovered the mouth of Nelsons Ri\«. 
in lat bT" 10^ At this point which subseouently betaav 
the chief esteblishment of the Hudson's my Oompac*. 
Button determined to winter. To secure his snipe agaui*: 
the ioebergs, he caused strong piles to be driven into tU 
sea. To keep his men warm, he had three large fires c\>c 
atantly burning in each of his vessels. Notwithstanding x 
his precautions, several of the sailors died, and be himML* 
had a severe illness. Button, like Ci^taina FrankLa. 



BUT 



^i. 



B tJt 



MIB0 towert. ne /burth kiad of bnttregi of tbii period, 
and perbmp* the lateit. ii divided into iX%get or dtviiioni 
Tcoedins one behind the other ; but thii iIm it net eommon. 
Like bU the former, it is flnitbed with k triftngular top, 
(imilw ta the roof uid gabia ends of a building. TheM two 
Uat kindi are verv limilar In character. 

Mr. Rickman is of opinion that about the eloM of thii 
period, llf in^; buttressec were &nt coDBtmcted, being thrown 
ftnm the (ide aisle buttreisee to the buttress of the nave 
and choir. He cites Salisbury and Chichester cathedrali 
as examples. Early Engliah buttresses have ^nerelly 
pyramidai tops ; the sides of theee buttreiises are sometimes 
■played at the edf^, with pedeslal-like bases. The shaft 
also is at times divided into one or more diTisions, u at 
Lincoln. 

Beverley minster has columns at the angles of the bnt- 
treases. wilh a niche in the pyratnidHl head. The decorated 
English buttresses which succeeded these present many 
varieties: they exhibit some of the lending features of their 

ErrdecauoTB, but are generally highly enriched. These 
utires&es, when used at the angles of buildings, are often 
applied diagonally to the angle. Mr. Rickman observes 
thai Ibe decorated buttress is Hoiahed in a variety of ways ; 
'same slope under the cornice, some just through it, and 
sane run up through the battlement and are finished with 
pianacles of Tarious kinds.' He mentions three exampti 
of ricb buUreue* of the decorated style ; one in the we 
fr<nl of York minster, another at the east end of Howden 
chiuch, Yerkshire ; « third at the east end of Wakingham 
pnccT- Thii hat is alnwst in the perpendicular style, 
wiivfa JMiwJiatflT MIowed the doeonted. The decorated 
kauraoes an eniidted with panoels, niches, and a variety 
ai sr^MKBta. Perpendicular English buttresses, used ex- 
trrBally. vary hot little from those which prepeded them, 
cuvf* >i to the freedom of design, in which they are in- 
ferar. Tbc traogiilar or roofed heads are seldom used. 
H '. RjFSJBan utiauiu that there are few lar^ buildings of 
-..1 J list ptrud witiioDt Sying battresses ; and also that the 
(ju... i=tircHaa at this style attached to loreen-work, stall- 
w:cv. lad BKbe* m diflerent from any befors used, and 
x irK tbc penod diMiDetly. Octagonal tnrrets are some- 
- 3n ased as bcttiMMS, as ia Henir VII.'s chapel at 
* a<»-att«T, bam wbkh s^ing the flying buttresses. 



\ 



~ J - - ' - J ■ - . ■ J 

« asses 1^ -.Ijt k-=ij enr exeeoted in this country 
u ^u v^^^t. Far a Wtetj at details relative to 
■sa s* siLii: :ijt mder to RickiBMi's 'Attempt to 
LjiJt ^la ^Tijet at AiaiieeaiTe in England from the 
< n Sie H^ijemaiiim.' RnOoa't ' Ee^eaiaitical Ar- 
m cu-ra~* irf^^ g-^oA cx*iaple* of buttrassea. 
1 i^ H A-JID oonin bm only in butter, but in the 
juiTC aiii KTiae. In order lo obtain it, butyrate of 
viifi IS Lnned far a tedioox process) is to be 
w la aae-aitd-c-thiM iii»e its weight of phoapborio 
■fwofic graiuy 1' IS ; the bulync acid set free, rs- 
s ift iha liquor, rttidt is lo be wpeledly thi^n 



wfth a>Bier to combine witli the batyrie acid ; Ibe etber 
being distilled with a gentle beat, butyric acid remain*. 
Tfaenropertiesof this acid are, that it ia a colonriesa liquid . 
t smell is oeid, penetrating, and analo^us to tbatof raiu-M 
buttCT. Its taste ia acrid and biting, with a sweetish after- 
taste, like that of nitric lether. Iti Speciflc gravity at 7y 
Pahresbeit is 0-97fiS. It remains fluid at 1^ Fabrenhcu. 
Its boiling point is lower than that of water. It eombii.pi 
with water, and with anhydrous alcohol, nther, and Bied oilt. 
in all proportions. When exposed to the air it evapora;.-* 
gradually without leaving any residue. When diiiilled i: 
absorbs the oxygen of the air in the retort, and decompuio. 
leaving coaly matter. 
It is composed nearly of 

Carbon 63*3 or S eqnivftletila. 

Oxygon 30'6 or 3 „ 

Hydrogen 7'1 or 6 „ 



butvr 

applied to any use : instead therefore of giving a 
of the individual salts, their general protieriies oDiy will be 
mentioned. When irj they aro usuJly inodorous, b;:i 
if maitC they emit a smell of butter. When the dry i^it 
are subjected to a strong heat they are decomposed, and 
yield carburetted hydrogen gas, carbonic acid gas. •u.<: 
on eropyreumatic oil, of an orange-yellow colour and ii. 
atomaticodour, while the base of the salt is left mixed mi:^ 
charcoal. These salts are eaailv recognized by the cfaarK- 
teristic odonr of butyric acid, which is emitted when a vwr 
small quantity of the salt is moistened with eoncentriU^. 
sulphuric acid. 

BUTYRINE, a peculiar oleaginoos matter, diMovntd 
by Chevreul, in butter, in which it exists comtnned «.; . 
oleine and stearine, and a very small quantity of bulir- 
acid. In order to prepare it, butler must be first ■eparit.^: 
from butler-milk by melting and pairing it off, and ihf 
butter thus purifiea is to be allowed lo cool vety slowly ;; 
a deep porcelain vessel, and then it is to be exposed for sod' 
days to a temperature of 66" Fahrenheit ; by this trealowc.i 
alargequantity of stearine ia separated, crystalliied in smi . 
grains, and an oily compound ia obtained, which is lu b( 
carefully filtered, and then put into a glass vessel with i.-. 
equal weight of alcohol of speciBo gravity 0-796, end kct: 
at the temperature of 66°. The mixture ia to be ftequenti, 
shaken during 24 hounsand then the alcohol is tobepourc: 
off, and the insoluble poriion set aside. By carefully diuiKi: : 
the akohol. on oil rich in butyrine is left, but as it is iliglii:> 
acid itis to be treated with carbonate of magnesia: the bun- 
rate of magnesia thus formed being very soluble in water, a 
readily separated ; the remaining fatty matter is then [« ti> 
treated with alcohol, and this being distilled the butynnc a 
left pure. 

The properties of butyrine are, that at GE** it ia rerj- tiuJ. 
and it oongeals at about 32°. Its smdl rcsemhlss that ..f 
heated butter. It is generally yellowiBb, but this coloui * 
not essential, for some kinds of butter yield it almost eoh-ur- 
leaa. Its ipeeifio gravity is 0'90S; it is insoluble in water . 
but aloohol of specific gravity 0'fi22, when boiling. diuoJtts 
it in all proportions. When two parts of butytiiM ore coc- 
bined wilh ten parts of boiling alcohol the mixturs on cow- 
ing becomes turbid ; but when twelve parts oif butyriiM an 
similarly treated with the same quantity of akMhol, lU 
mixtnie remains transparent even after it has become esxi 
During distillation the alcobolio solution becotnes very 
slightly acid; and the residue contains traces of butrni- 
aoid. But;prino readily saponifies, and is then eonrarVi! 
into glycerine, and butyric, caprio, capnk, mai^garic, and 
oleic acids. 

BUXAR, a fortified town in the district of Shahabaid. 
province ofBahar, situated on the right bank of tbs Guifn. 
m as" 33' N. lat. and 83° bT B. long., about 60 miles beL- 
the dty ot Benares. The fort is budt on an enRetv^ 
which projects into the river, the works are kept in gr^.l 
repair, and there is constantly an English garriMB in ,i. 
The place is principally oelebr«t«d as the seen* ot oor .' 
thoee victories by whiob the British power in India wu 
seeured. The Mogul ohieh Sujs ud Dewlah and Cmc-a 
Khan were encamped here wUh an army eonpulMl u 
40.000 men, when, on the 23id October, 1764. ttaey w«« 
aUacked and eom|det«Iy rooted by 8SS BuropeM wid i: : ^ 
utlin tampe. u&te Miior (aftenrudi Sir HM«ar> 7 ~ 



B UX 



B UX 



Upwards of 2000 of the Mc^ul troops fell in tbe battle, and 
many more were drowned in their flight across a bridge of 
boats thrown over the Ganges. The force of Suja ud 
Dowlah, who was then the only Mogul chief possessing any 
considerable power» being thus destroyed, the emperor was 
thrown into the power of the English, and on the day fol- 
lowing the battle applied to Major Munro for protection. 
(Miirs HUt of BntUh India.) 

BUOCINA, a vegetable alkali obtkined from' the box-tree 
(Buxus sempervirens). It is difficult to procure this sub- 
stance colourless ; and it has generally the appearance of 
a translucid deep brown-coloured mass. Its taste is bitter, 
it excites sneezing, and is insoluble in water, but is dissolved 
in small quantity by alcohol and sstber. It acts as other 
alkalies on reddened, litmus paper, and forms neutral salts 
with the acids, which are more bitter than the base itself; 
and the solutions give gelatinous white precipitates with 
potash. Sulphate of .buxina crystallizes confusedly. This 
alkali is contained in every part of the box-tree, and the 
bark gives nearly one per cent, of it. 

BUXTON, a market town and chapelry, in the parish of 
Bakew ell, and in the county of Derby, with 1211 inhabitants, 
is situated m that part of Derbyshiro called the High Peak, 
in the hundred of High Peak, on the high road firmn 
Derby to Manchester, 33 miles N.W. irom Derby, 20 miles 
S. from Manchester, 22 miles N.W. from Matlock, and 159 
miles N.W. by N. from London. Its baths have been cele- 
brated from the time of the Romans. 

Tho town is situated in a deep valley or basin, surrounded 
by bleak hills and extensive tracts of moorland. It would 
be entirely environed with mountains but for the narrow 
ravine down wluch the river Wye flows on its way to the 
Derwent, parallel with the high road which leads to Bake- 
well. Axe Edge^ on the Leek road, 3 miles from Buxton, is, 
next to Kinder-scoutf the highest mountain in the N.W. 
of Derbyshire, being 1000 feet above the valley in which 
Buxton Crescent stands, and 2100 feet higher than the town 
of Derby. . From this mountain four rivers issue in opposite 
direction^«-the Wye, the Dove, the Goyte, and the Dean. 
CAeo Tor^ a perpendicular and stupendous rock of lime- 
stone, 360 feet high, is situated near t)ie village of Wormhill, 
mid about 5 miles from Buxton. A few miles farther is ilfcim 
Tor, il 300- feet above the valley in which it stands; and a 
little E., the still higher peaks of Winhill and Loschill, 
which may be distinguished by their form from all the 
mountains in the county. The sterility which once formed 
the chief feature in the scenery round Buxton is fast dis- 
appearing. Bxtensive woods and plantations now clothe 
the sides and summits of many of the neighbouring 
hills. 

Buxton consists of two parts, the old and the new town. 
The former stands upon much higher ground than the 
latter, and has still the reinains of a cross in the centre of 
the market-place. The main street is vride, and contains a 
iew good inns and lodging-houses, but the buildings in 
general are old and low. This was formerly the only en- 
trance from the W. into Buxton, until a new road was made 
a few years ago, which avoids the old town and joins the 
London road at tbe church. The new part of the town may 
be said to begin at the Crescent and to stretch along the 
Bakewell road, the buildings of which form a han&ome 
entrance to the town on that side, and afford many pleasant 
residences to those who seek more privacy than can be had 
at the public hotels. 

The Creaoent at Buxton is in the form of a segment of a 
circle. The basement story is a rustic arcade, forming a 
piazza 7 feet wide within. Over the arohefl a balustrade 
runs along the whole building. Above the piers are Done 
pilasters that support an ornamental architrave and cornice, 
which is terminated by another balustrade, in the centre of 
which, cut out of stone, are placed the arms of the Cavendish 
family. This extensive and elegant structure is three 
stories high, and contains 378 windows. It comprises two 
hotels, a library, an assembly-room 75 feet long, and a news- 
room, besides the baths and a few private residences. The 
stables, as complete and extensive as the Crescent itself, 
occupy a large site of ground on the hill behind the chief 
structurey but divided from it by the main road. They are 
built in a circular form, and have a covered ride 160 yards 
round. This immense pile of building was erected by the 
late duke of De^'onshire, in 1781, at a cost of 120,000/. 
The stone employed in the foundations and inner walls was 
found near the spQt; and the ine beestone, used in the 



front and skies of the building, was dug out (^ a quarry no* 
a mile distant. 

At the W. end of the Crescent, and nearly adjoining it, 
is the old hall, the most antient building in the lower ]^ft 
of Buxton, having been erected in the reign of EhzabetH, 
by the earl of Slu-ewsbury, in whose custody Mary, queen 
of .Scots, was placed In one of her visits to Buxton, the 
queen occupied apartments in this building which are still 
snown as hers, on one of the windows of which are 
scratched the Unes said to have been written by her on her 
departure. 

Bnxtaauu inuB ealida celebnben nomine lympbl^ 
Fort« muil posthso non adeoada, vale. 

* Buxton, farawelll no more perhaps my feet 
Thy funoua tepid streams shall ever greet.* 

This house was considerably enlarged in 1670, and though 
inferior to the more fashionable w>tel8 in the Crescent, is 
preferred by many families on account of its having baths for 
both ladies and gentlemen fitted up within its walls. There 
are also warm and shower baths, besides a bath for the 
gratuitous use of the poor. 

The public baths at Buxton are very numerous, and are 
fitted up with every attention to the convenience of the 
visiters. The common tepid baths all lie together at the 
W. end of the Crescent, forming a part of the lower story. 
Besides a pubUc bath, around two sides of which are nume- 
rous dreasmg-rooms, there are two private baths for gentle- 
men, and the same number for ladies. At the opposite end 
of the Crescent, adjoining the piazzas, are two hot baths, 
and vapour and shower baths, all heated by steam, which 
are supplied from what is called Bingham*s well. Most of 
these are Uned with white marble, and the temperature of 
the hot baths is most accurately adjusted by an ingenious 
oontrivanoe for the introduction of cold and hot water. 

At the extreme end of the town, on the Macclesfield 
road* is a cold bath, said to be of the same temperature as* 
the waters at Matlock (66° Fahrenheit). 

The well at which the water is supplied to those vho 
resort to it is in a small building, in the style of a Grecian 
temple, in front of the W. wing of the Crescent. In the 
centre of this tastefUl building, called St Ann*s Well, is a 
white marble basin, into which the water issues from the 
spring. By the side of this basin is a double pumpr, from 
which either hot or cold water may be procured within a 
few inches of each other. The spring flows at the rate of 
60 gallons a minute, the water being somewhat colder than 
the waters at Bath, but wanner than those of Matlock and 
Bristol. 

Besides what is properly called the Buxton water, there 
is a chalybeate sprins of a rough strong taste, issuing from 
a chalky stratum on tne N. side of the river Wye, at the side 
of the turnpike-road behind the Crescent, over which a neat 
stone structure has been erected by the duke of Devonshire, 
to preserve it for the use of visiters. Mixed with the other, 
this water proves purgative. 

The public walks at Buxton, of which there is great 
variety, are laid out with much taste, and ornamented with 
shrubs and plantations. 

The environs of Buxton abound with natural curiosities 
and romantic scenery. The high perpendicular crags on 
the Bakewell road, bordering the valley of the Wye, make 
it the most interesting, as it is the most accessible of all the 
scenery in the immemate vicinity of Buxton. At the dis- 
tance of about half a mile, in a different direction, are the 
limestone quarries and Pool's hole. The latter is a cavern 
of considerable dimensions in a limestone rock, contracted 
in its entrance, but spacious in the interior. Its roof and 
sides are covered with stalactites, one of which, more re- 
markable than the rest, about the middle of the cave, is 
called ' the flitch of bacon.* Here the cave again con- 
tracts, but beyond it becomes wide and lofty as far as a large 
massy column of stalagmite denominated 'the Queen of 
Soots* pillar,' fi;om a tradition that she stopped at this point. 
The further end of the cavern, comprising about 100 yards* 
is not very aooessible. The whole len^h is 56 ya^s. The 
sides of the mountain are partly occunied with dwellings, not 
built, but excavated out of the asnes which have been 
thrown here from the lime-kilns. A considerable quan* 
tity of lime is burnt here, and sent into distant parts by 
the Peak Forest railway, which is near. At a little distance 
from the mountain beneath which is Pool's hole, is a place 
called ' Diamond Hill,* firom its furnishing srocimens of 
quartz of an hexagonal shape, whioh are known by the name 



No. 348. 



[THB PENNY CYCLOPiBDIAJ 



YoulTU-L 



B U X 



74 



B U X 



of Buxton diamonda« the whitest of which ha^ the pro- I 
petty of catting glass. About 5 miles from Buxton, at Bar- 
mour Clough, by the side of the road leading to Castleton, 
is an intermittent spring, called ' the ebbing and flowing 
well.' The water issues in different quantities, and at irre- 
gular intervals, out of several openings by the side of a small 
pool or basin. In dry seasons severd weeks elapse without 
any flow into the well ; whilst at other times the water flows 
once in twelve hours* sometimes every hour, and occasion- 
ally three times in an hour. A gurgling noise is heard 
when it flows, which continues for 4^ minutes. In the 
space of one minute 23 hogsheads have been discharffed. 
This curious phenomenon is supposed to be occasioned by 
there being a reservoir of water in the hill above, irom the 
lower part of which a duct rises to some height, but not so 
high as the reservoir, and afterwards descenduig to the well 
at the foot of the hill, acts on the principle of the siphon. 

The rocks about Buxton consist of beds of limestone and 
of lava or toadstone, which lie alternately one upon the 
other. In many parts of the county there are three beds of 
each, which are many yards thick. There are many shops 
in the place for the sale of the mineral productions of the 
Peak, manufactured into various articles of ornament and 
use, besides fossils and specimens of natural curiosities. 
Amonz these is a beautiful spar, denominated ' Blue John.' 
formerly used in repairing the roads, but now worked into 
the most elegant vases, and purchased at the expense of 
forty guineas a ton. This spar is found near the Snivering 
Mountain, in the neighbournood of Castleton. 

The church in Buxton is an elegant modem edifice, built 
in 1812 by the duke of Devonshire, its patron, adjoining to 
which is a large burial-ground. The living is a perpetual 
curacy in the diocese of Lichfield. The building formerly 
used as a church is now converted into a school upon Dr, 
Bell's plan, having endowments which amount to 94/. per 
annum. There are places of worship in Buxton for Pres- 
byterians, Independents, and Wesleyan Methodists. 

The market is held on Saturday ; and the fairs on Feb. 
3rd, April 1st, and May 2nd, besides a cattle-&ir on the 8th 
of Sept The town is in the honour of Tutbury, duchy of 
Lancaster, and within the jurisdiction of a court held at 
Tutbury every third Tuesday, for the recovery of debts 
under 40 shillings. 

The number of visiters at Buxton varies from 12,000 to 
14,000 annually. There are accommodations for 1500 at 
one time. The season commences in June, and ends in 
October. 

BUXTON WATERS. The waters of Buxton belong 
to the northern or Derbyshire thermal springs, which have 
a lower temperature than those of the southern or Glouces- 
tershire and Somersetshire group, except Bristol. They 
are of the calcareous class of mineral waters, and rise in a 
valley situated on the west edge of the great limestone 
range, which extends through the county of Derby from 
Castleton southwards, comprising what is termed the Peak 
Forest. The surface of this district is occupied, according 
to Farey, by the outcrop of four strata of limestone and 
three beds of amygdaloid or toadstone, interposed between 
the limestone strata; but it should be observed that this 
division of the limestone by regular beds of toadstone, has 
been stoutly denied and at present is not generally received. 
Above the upper stratum of limestone is a coarse sand- 
stone or millstone grit, considered by many as the infe- 
rior bed of the coal formation, which occupies the whole 
country £. and N. of thii district. Buxton is immediately 
to the S. of the outgoing of the lowest stratum of limestone. 
The limestone, which is of a whitish or yellowish colour, 
is full of encrinites, madrepores, and other organic re- 
mains. The direction of the strata is generally N. and 
S. A remarkable fault is observed in the valley of the 
Derwent at Matlock : the upper bed of limestone on the 
western side of the valley is brought down below the second 
bed on the E., and the upper bed of toadstone on the one 
side is nearly on the same level with the second bed on 
the other. The fiiult is said to extend N. as fiu: as Bux- 
ton, where it takes a N.W. direction to North. Bradwell, 
and terminates at Litton near Tideswell; but both the 
direction and extent of this fault have been much disputed. 
It is in the course of this fault that the thermal springs 
of Buxton and Matlock are found. That of Buxton pos- 
sesses the higher temperature, viz. 82° Fahr., which never 
vanes at any hour of the dav or season of the year. 
IThis water has been long celebrated for its medicinal 



virtues. It it more remarkable for the nature of its gaseous 
impregnations than for the quantity or naturs of its salins 
ingredients. By a recent analysis it appears to contaia 
only 15 grains of solid contents in each wine-galloD* Ac* 
cording to Mr. Gairdner itsoompositioa is-^ 
Of gaseous contenU— ^*^^l3£? 

Carbonic acid • « • « 1*50 

Nitrogen « » • • • 4 '64 



Of solid contents^ 

Hydrochlorate of magnesia • 

„ soda • • 

Sulphate of lime • « • 
Carbonate of lime « * 

Extractive matter and vegetable flbras 
(Loss) . . « • < 




15*00 



Owing to the quantity of calcareous matter, the water is 
hard. It sparkles a little when first received at the fount 
It is exceeoingly clear, and does not become turbid by lung 
exposure to the air* Over the bath a stratum of vapuur 
hovers, which is more or less dense according to the stats 
of the weather and the degree of attention paid to th* 
ventilation of the apartment. The chalybeate spring con- 
tains about half a grain of carbonate of iron in each gallon, 
and is a soft water. 

The waters issuing from the warm spring are employed 
both internally and externally. A course of the water 
internally is generally taken at the same time as th« 
baths are used ; but in some habits of body the one 
mode only is admissible. Persons of the sanguineou* 
temperament, especially if plethoric, can rarely take tht 
waters internally, without at least previously undergo^x^ 
some preparatory treatment, — either venesection, cuppmfp 
or the use of purgative medicines. During all acaw 
inflammator]r diseases they must be avoided ; and tbougb 
ver>[ beneficial to persons subject to gout and rhui- 
matism, the waters must not be employed either when sa 
attack of the disease is approaching, or while much pain of 
the joints remains when toe disease is receding. Per»on» 
in whom the digestive organs are feeble, either naturally < r 
from the effects of what is termed good living, denve. la 

feneral, much benefit from the interoal use of Qiese watcm 
n most cases they should be taken early in the morainz. 
after the bath, if these two modes be employed simultan<- 
ously. The quantity to be used should not at first exoeed 
half a pint, taken in two eoual portions, a quarter of aa 
hour (auring which the invalid wUl walk along tbe terror 
when practicable) being allowed to intervene between tie 
two glasses. About noon the same quantity should U 
again taken, observing similar rules. Some patients an 
however obliged to restrict themselves to its use durine ihi 
forenoon, omitting the morning dose. No one should ex- 
oeed a pint and a naif in the course of each day. 

The chalybeate water is sometimes used at the aaaac 
time, and it is said that a mixture of the two forms a pu: 
gative draught Upon the propriety of using the cbal> be lu 
at any period during his stay, the invalid must consult 1 ^ 
medicat adviser on the spot It ought never to be used . j 
a common drink> more particularly by persons of a pleth^c^ 
habit of body. 

The warm baths may be employed even by the mf< 
delicate persons, provided bathing m any form be pruf c* 
At first tne stay in the bath should not exceed one minut- 
as the plunge is the most beneficid part of the nroce»» 
The time may be gradually extended, but shoula ne%cr 
exceed fifteen minutes. Where a general balh cannot be 
borne by gouty or rheumatic patients, |iumping the « air r 
upon the affected joints is frequently highly emcaciott* is, 
reducing the swelling and restoring flexibility. Dunajc ^'^^ 
use of the baths no mercurial medicines of any kind shod i 
be taken, unless under the direction of a competent medKrm. 
adviser on the spot (Farey 's DerbyMre; Gaiidoer «.« 
Mineral Springs ; Denman, Saunders, ScudamoreO 

BUXTON, JEDEDIAH, was bom at Elmum, vicxr 
Chesterfield, about the year 1705. His grandCsther h«i 
been clergyman of the parish, and his laUier was sch^K^- 
master of the same place ; but Jedediah was so iQiier»t« 
that he could not even write, and his ment^ faculties^ "ssi :: 
one exception, were of a low order* He possessed, howe^ 



B UX 



75 



B Y B 



remarkable ftflility in peiforming arithmetioal calculations ; 
and when he Mrly understood a problem, which it was 
not easf for him to do if it was a little complicated, he 
solved it with wonderful rapidity. He was alt<^ether inca- 
pable of looking into the relations of things, except with 
respect to the number of parts of which they were composed. 
After hearing a sermon he knew nothing more of it than 
that it contained a oertain number of woras, which he had 
counted during its delivery. If a period of time were men- 
tioned he began caloulatmg the number of minutes which 
it included ; and if the size of any object were described, he 
would at onoe compute how many haii^s-breadths it con- 
tained. His ideas were comparativdy childish ; and his 
mind was only stored with a few constants which fecilitated 
his calculations ; such as the number of minutes in a year, 
and of hair*s-breadths in a mile. His system of mental 
arithmetio was not founded upon any sound principles ; in 
fact he could scarcely be said to haTe a system. He would, 
for instance, in order to ascertain the product of 478 multi- 
plied by 100, proceed first to multiply it by 5 and then by 
20, instead of at once adding a couple of ciphers. ' 

His condition in life appears to have been either that of 
a small land-owner or a day-labourer; but probably the 
former. Haying a strong desire to see the king, he walked 
up to London to gratify this wish ; but from some circum- 
stance or other he did not see him. During his stay in the 
metropolis Jedediah was seen by several members of the 
Royal Society, who examined him. He was taken to see 
Gamck in Richard IIL, and during the performance occu- 
pied himself in counting the number of words which each 
of the actors made use of; the quantity of steps in a dance ; 
but he acknowledged that the instrumental music, with its 
complication and varied of sounds, baffled his skill. In 
June, 1T64, a portrait of Buxton appeared in the'Gentle- 
inan*s Magazine,' with a short account of his life, which is 
probably the most authentic of any of the notices which 
Lave been published concerning him. He is represented 
in the print as being in his 49th year. Glover, in his * His- 
tory of Derbyshire,* states that he was bom in 1707, but is 
unable to give the exact time of his death, Which however 
occurred between 1770 and 1760. He was married, and 
liad a family. 

BUXTORF, a family celebrated for its attainments in 
Hebrew literature. Jomr Buxtorp was bom on Christ- 
mas-day, 1564, at Camen in Westphalia, of which place his 
father was Calvinist minister. He was educated at Marburg 
and Herbora, under Piscator, and afterwards received in- 
structions at Bdle and Geneva from Grynssus and Theodore 
Besa. He occupied the Hebrew chair at Bdle for 38 years 
of his life, and so attached was he to that University, that he 
declined many advantaffeous offers of a similar occupation 
both at Saumur and at Leyden. Besides maintaining a large 
correspondence with all who Were skilled in the leading ob- 
ject of his research, he lodged and supnorted in his house 
many learned Jews, with whom he ramiliariy conversed, 
daring his leisure hours, respecting their language. He 
died, September 13th, 1629, after having published, besides 
many sepaitte tracts, more than one *Sammar' and Lexi- 
con * of the Hebrew and Chaldee tongves, a ' Concordance/ 
and a 'Hebrew Bible * with tiie notes of the Rabbhis. 

JORir,«Bon of tiie preceding, was born at B&le, August 
13th, 1599, and ethibited prMoeity so remarkable, that in 
bis fourth year it is said that he understood German, Latin, 
and Hebrew ; a statement doubtless greatly exaggerated. 
After euItivBting Hebrew, in Fmnce, Germany, and Italy, 
be succeeded his Ikther at Btle, 1630, where he SUed, August 
16th, 1664. Besides eoUecting, augmenting, and editing 
many of his fkther's works, he was the author of several 
oriffinal treatises on Hebrew literature. 

JoHir Jakis, son of the preceding, like his father and 
gmndlather, was professor of Hebrew at Bftle, where he 
was bom September 4th, 1645, and died April Ist, 1704. 
He trsTclled in Holland, France, and England, and was 
r ece i ve d every where with honour, especially at Cambridge. 
He printed nothing in bis liibtime but a preface to his grand- 
fiither's work entttM ' Tiberias,* which is an historical 
and critical vindication of the Masorethic points, the origin 
of which he assigns to Esdras. But he left behind him 
many MSS. connected with Rabbinical Kteratilre. Ano- 
ther John, nephew to the above, was also professor of the 
Oriental langnaces at B^e, and died in 173t, leaving a 
son to dtstin^ilsu Umself by similar learnings 

The works of the Buxtorfs greatly advanced the progress 



of Hebrew literature, and the depth of their learning has 
never been disputed. By the Romanists in general they 
have been esteemed as too much addicted to Rabbinical 
fancies, and in the controversy respecting the Hebrew 
points, their espousal of them has been a frequent object of 
attack. 

Of the elder Buxtorf, however, scholars, such as Vossiua 
and Casaubon, spoke with the highest encomium, and Joseph 
Scaliger expressed himself thus — that he ought to be con- 
sider^ the master of the Rabbins, that he was the onlv man 
who understood the Hebrew language thoroughly, and that, 
notwithstanding his own grey beaid, he would gladly be- 
come his scholar. 

BUXUS, the genus of plants whose species afford the 
valuable hard wood called Box. It is remarkable botani- 
cally as being the most northern arborescent plant of tbe 
natural order Euphorbiaoece, all the other trees of which are 
confined to mild or tropical climates. Its essential character 
is to have both the male and female flowers upon the same 
individual ; a three or four-parted calyx ; in the males a two- 
lobed scale and four stamens placed round the rudiment of 
an ovary; in the females three small scales, three styles, 
three blunt stigmas, and a three>horned, three^oelled, six- 
seeded capsular fruit 

The only two oertain species are B, tempervirens and B, 
Balearica. The former or common box forms a large ever- 
green bush or small tree, comnron all over the south of En- 
rope, from Spain to Constantinople, and reaching even so 
far as die north of Persia^ In this country it is only found 
on warm chalky hills. Many varieties are known in gar- 
dens, the most remarkable of which is the dwarf-box, so 
much used for the edgings of walks. Between this and the 
arborescent form the difference is so great, that one wonderg 
how they can be both the same species, and Miller and 
others have even considered them distinct. But De Can- 
dolle states, that the wild plant in France is very variable 
in size, rising in some places to the height of 15 or 20 feet» 
and in rocky localities not exceeding 3 feet It is iW>m the 
arborescent Buxtts senmervirens that box- wood is obtained. 
For the turner, for mathematical instruments, and especially 
for the uses of the wood-engraver, it is invaluable. The 
French employ it for coat-buttons, &c. * The value of the 
box-wood sent from Spain to Paris is reported to amount to 
about 10,000 francs a-year. In 1815 the box-trees cut 
down on Boxhill, near Dorking in Surrey, produced upwards 
of 10,000^.* (Maoculloch, Dtcf. 0/ Com.) Great quantities 
are imported from Turkey, and of fine quality. This wood 
sells in the London market for from 7/. to 14/. a ton, the 
duty of 5/. a ton included. The leaves have been employed, 
medicinally, as a tonic, a substitute for Pemtian bark. 

Buxus Bateariea, the Majorca box, is a handsomer plant 
than the other, with broader leaves, and a more rapid 
growth ; but it is much more impatient of cold. Plants of 
it however live in the neighbourhood of London without 
protection. It is found wild in the neighbourhood of Lluch 
in Majorca, on the hills, at the height of 1 560 feet ; and it 
also occurs abundantly on Mount Galatzo, where it is 
mingled with the palmetto, but not in great masses. (Cam • 
bessldes.) We find nothing in books concerning Uie quality 
of its wood ; but there is reason to suppose that a part at 
least of the Spanish and Turkey box-wood is famished by 
this species. 

BUZZARD. [FALcAmn*.] 

BUZZARD'S BAY, a bay on the south coast of the 
State of Massachusetts, U. S. The peninsula of Barn- 
staple projects in the form of a boot, the point of which, at 
Cape Cod, is curved like aram*shorn ; Buzzard's Bay forms 
what may be termed the top or opening of the boot. The 
neck of land wMch connects the peninsula with the rest of 
Massachusetts, between Cape Cod Bay and the head of 
Buzzard's Bay, is only about four miles in breadth. This 
bay was entirely frozen over early in February, 1836, a cir- 
cumstance which has not happened for many years. In 
the harbour the ice was from eight to twelve inches thick. 
The parallel of about 4r35', and the meridian of 71° 15' 
Wn intersect each other in Buzzard*s Bay. 

BY6LUS, an antient town of Phoenicia, now called Je- 
bail, and situated nearly halfway between Tripoli and Bei- 
ront, by the sea-coast, and at the foot of a mountain which 
is one of the lower range of Libanus. • The town is enclosed 
by a wall, some parts of which appear to be of the time of 
the cnisaders. There is a small castle, in which the Bmir 
Beshir or pnnce of the Druses keeps about forty men. 

La 



fBonUiudt'* TVoMb im Syria, 1B12.) The Mlebnted 
Jnruh Tiiter Philo wu a nitive of Brbliu. Thi* place «ai 
ODM (kmoni (^ the temple of Adonu, (Haundrall, /our- 



[CMnrfBrUot.^ Bitt.Hu. C*ffv. Wr.) 

BYLAW. Bylan an the pfiTata reKutatloni of a 
•oeietf or corporatioti, agreed upon b; the major part of iti 
memben, ft» purpoae* A •eir-govemment, or Ibr more eon- 
Tenientlr carrTing into effect Uie object of its institution. 

It ia not eren voluntar; usociation to which the law of 
England girei the power of binding diMentLtntmembergbr 
the enaetmentt of the majarit]'. Immemorial custom or 
preicription, or legal Inoorporation by the king, or some 
natitive act of pBTliamen^ isDecesaarytoeonfer this power of 
local or private legislation ; and even in those 'cases the 
mperior courts of law exercise the right of discussinc the 
validity or policy of the bylaw, and of eatabliihinK its lega- 
lity or declaring it to bo void. In order to stand this test 
it moat be reasonable and agreeable to the general policy of 
the law of England, and mnit not attempt to bind atrangers 
snconnected with the society, or to impose a pecuniary charge 
without a fair equivalent, or to errata a aonopoly. or to 
subject the freedom of trade to undue restraint. The gene- 
ral object of a bylaw is rather to regulate existing rights 
than to introduce Itew ones or to extinguiab or restrain the 
old. 

The power of maUng bylaws is not absotutelv confined to 
corporate bodies. It is in lome instances lawftitly exercised 
bv a elan of persons having no strict corporate character. 
Thua the tenants of a manor, the jury of a court-Ieet, the 
inhabitants of a town, village, or otber district, frequently 
«[goy a limited legislative power of this kind, either by 
apecial ouatom or common usage. But in general the power 
is exercised only by bodies t^ulariy incorporated, and in 
iueh bodies the power ia inherent of common right without 
any speciflo protiiion for that purpose in the charter of their 
incorporation. The expediency of this power is so obvious 
that wa cannot b« niiprised at meeting with proofs of its 
exiatenea in all eountriea and at a very early date. The Ro- 
man eode tMogniied a right among the confraternity of its 



Oar own term byUae is of Saxon origin, and is fbrmed bv 
pieflxinK to the word Uae another wonl 6y or bye, which 
IS htMte at tomn. Hence its primary import it a tovm- 



tiae, and in this form and with this meaning it ia said to be 
Ibnnd among the antient Oothi, the Swedes, the Danes, and 
other nations of Teutooie descent (Cowel, voc AVatc* ; 
Spelman on Rud*. ehap. iL, and the Glossaries under the 
bead Bilago, or BtUago-} 

The birlaut and birlaw eoMrti of Scotland, mentioned by 
•oma of the jurists of that country, are said to present some 
malogiaa to our bylaws, and may pmhaps be reftered (o 
the aana origin. 

The lata aet for the regulation of mnnioipal oorpotationa 

S'ms to the town ooudciIb a power of making bylaws for 
e good lule and government of the b<»ougha, and Ibr the 
mppnasion of vanoua Dniaances ; and of enforcing the ob- 
sarvanoe of them by flnea limited to it. It directs however 
that no bylawa ao framed ahall oome into operation until 
they have been submitted to the privy oouncil for his ma- 
jaMy'a tpfiroval— a precautioo resembling in some degree 
the pRmaioDi of the Sutute 19 Hen. vn., c. 7, by wbioh 
the on l i n ane ea of trading guilds were made subject to the 
ajnirobatian of the chancellor, treasurer, chief justiceB. or 



'"^NO^G 



NO, GEORGE, eldest son of John Byng of Wrotham 
ia Kant, Esq.. by Philadelphia, daughter of Hr. Johnson of 
Loans in Sumy, was bom in 1663. He entered aa a vo- 
Innteat in the navy at Slteen yearsofage. From 1681 to 
1*M ha was saigaged aa a cadat in tha land aanica with the 



( B Y N 

garrison of Tan^rs, where ha recmved promotion, Srat as 
ensign, afterwards as lieutenant In the following year, 
while acting a* lieutenant on board the Fhwnix in the E.i<t 
Indies, he was desperately wounded in a gallant action w^ih 
a Zinganese pirate, whose vessel he bosroed and sent to the 
bottom, himself being picked up out of the tea with diffi- 
culty as she went dawn. In 166B he was particularly aclite 
in attaching the fleet to the interests of the Prince of 
Orange, and he afterwarda served with distinction under 
Sir Q. Rooke and Admiral Russell. He commanded a 
third-rate in the auccessftil expedition to Tigo in 1703, was 
made rear-admiral of the red in the year fellowing, and re- 
ceived tbahonour of knighthood after the battle ofMalasa 
in 1 701. In 1 706 he was commissioned vice-admiral of tl>e 
red, and returned member of parliament for Plymouih. 
which borough be tepretented till be was created a pe«r in 
I72I. 

His continued and important serrioes had already ob- 
tained for him the dignity of baronet in 1715. In 1716 he 
totally defeated a Spaniih fleet off Hessina, and be w3i 
finally rewarded with some of the highest profcasiocal 
honours, as Rear-Admiral of England, and Treasurer of 
the Navy : he was also made a Member of the Privy Coun- 
cil, Baron Byng of Southhill in the county of Bedford. Xa- 
caunt Torrington in Devonshire, Kuieht of the Batli. axiil 
First Lord of the Admiralty, in which exalted station he 
died January 17,1733-3. 

BYNG, JOHN, fourth son of the preceding, by Mary. 
daughter of James Master of East Langdon, in the count) 
of Kent, Esq., was bom in 1704, and entered early into hi'i 
father's profession, in which he made the usual fFTogrrit 
through subordinate stations. In 17SG he was appointpd to 
command a squadron of ten ships of the line in the Mediter- 
ranean, destined for the relief of Minorca, at that timu 
menaced by the French, and tunsted his flag accordingly en 
board the RamQies. His equipments were by no meant 
adequate to the service required, and on touchinK at Gibral- 
tar to take in provision* and to reSt, he learned that not Im 
than twelve sail of the line, numerous frigates, and a lan;<; 
flotilla of traniports from Toukm, had already landrd 
19,000 men in Minorca, and that the whole of the ial:in<l. 
excepting Fort St. Philippe, was reduced. A council of 
war declared, on the unanimous authority of officers well 
acquainted with the island, that relief under tbeie cimim- 
stanceswss impossible. Nevertheless Byng proceeded, an I 
mode an unsuccessful attempt to establish a commnnicsUon 
with the garrison by his frigates. An engagement with ihe 
French squadron, under the Matquis oe la Galistoni^. 
ensued, and the fleets separated after an indecisive bj 



to fit out the fleet properly, than a^^ainst the admiral, who 
hadfousht lan^idly ; and the cabinet weakly and wickedly 
resotvea to sacriflco Byng in the hope of securing their pwd 
reputation. Thev were assisted in this design by his pro- 
fessional unpopularity: his habits were austere; he wms ■ 
rigid disciplinarian ; and he had no brilliant former scrrirv 
to uige in bis favour. He was accordingly superaeded, 
and brought to a oouit-martial. It appeared fhnn the eri- 
dence that he bad not been anxious to engage ; but ample 



little chance of victory which the crippled state of his (hi;n 
permitted him to entertain, and the eelamitoas results wbH-h 
tnuMt have followed defeat. After a long trie) be wms feund 
guilty of not having done hia utmost, senteneed to be 
shot, but unanimously recommended at a proper objeef 
of mercy. The intrigues of hia political enemies howrtTr 
prevailed ; the press was employed against him ; and Mal- 
let, an able but venal w '■- '-'-'- — -' ' 

of many repreientationa _.. .._. 

executed at Portamouth on March 1 7, 1 757. Bynw met hit 
fate with calmness and fortitude, and poaterityba* done 
ample justice to his memory. 

BYNKBRSHOEK, CORNELIUS VAN, «m hewn 
at Uiddelburg in Zealand, on the SSth of Hay. ie7S. Ht< 
father, who was a merchant, paid great attention to fcia e<lii- 
cation. He was aent, when about aeventaen j*i»r% of mc'. 
to the University of Fnnakor, at ttiat time a ••■( of laamidr 
of considerable repatatioa, where, after two yaaia' atndy . hi- 
began to apply himself sedulously to jarwinideM*^ and in 
the ooorse of the two following yean wrote tfane dispnu- 
tiosia, whioh giiiiad him gnat endit by the atuditiaB aa! 



B Y R 



78 



B Y R 



mored him to thtt oTMr* Patenon, ^e son of bU shoe- 
maker, who taught him a littlo Latin, and attended to him 
with much kindnetft, until Mra. Byron sent him to the free 
grammar-iehool of Aberdeen, where he was studying when 
the death of the lord, his grand-unole, recalled him to Eng- 
land, and to the enjoyment of such a proyiston as suited a 
peer of the realm in his minority. This uncle, to whom he 
succeeded, was a man of turbulent passions, aiid a melan- 
choly occurrence had thrown a gloom over the last thirty 
yean of his life. In a dueU which some pecple say was 
rather a chance scuffle arising out of the heat and intoxica- 
tion of the moment, he killed his neighbour and relative 
Mr. Chaworth. The House of Peers, before whom he stood 
his trial in 1765, acquitted him, but his own conscience and 
his country neighbours never did. He shut himself up in 
his patrimonial mansion, the old and then melancholy Ab- 
bey of Newstead in Nottinghamshire, and thenceforward 
lea an unsocial and eccentric course of life. He took no 
interest in his heir, who was destined to illustrate the proud 
name of Byron ; he never seems to have exercised any pecu* 
niary generosity towards him, and it is said that, on the rare 
occasions when he mentioned him, it was always as t' the 
little boy who lives at Aberdeen.* In 1798, when the poet 
succeeded to his uncle's titles and estates, he was little more 
than ten yesn old. His mother, whose weak head was 
turned by the sudden change in her fortunes, immediately 
removed to Newstead Abbev, and took great pains to keep 
always before his eyes the fact, that, though only a boy, he 
was now a lord. To attend both to body and mind, she 
employed one Lavender to straighten his unfortunate foot, 
ana a ICr. Rogers to instruct him in Latin. The former, 
who was an impudent quack, did him no good ; but the 
latter, a respectable schoolmaster of Nottingham, improved 
him considerablv by reading passages from Virgil and Cicero 
with him. In less than a year Byron's mother carried him 
to London* whence* after consulting more able surgeons, 
who eonld no more cure a deformity than the empiric had 
been able to do^ she had him conveyed to Dulwich and 

Kaced in a quiet boarding-school, under the direction of the 
te Dr. Glennie. But for the indiscretions and constant 
interference of Mrs. Byron, Dr. Glennie might not only 
have made him a better scholar than he ever became, but 
have checked in the germ at least some of those infirmities of 
temper and those vices which embittered his after-years. He 
had not been two years under charge of this excellent man, 
when his mother removed him to Harrow, where, with the 
exception of the usual long vacations, he remained till 1 805, 
when he was sent to Cambridge. Dtiring his stay at Har- 
row he was irregular and somewhat turbulent in his habits ; 
but he fttquently gave signs of a frank, noble, and generous 
spirit, which endeared him to his school-mates : he had no 
aptitude for merely verbal scholarship ; his patience seems 
to hsve ftuled him in the study of Greek, but this might be 
the f^ult of the system under which he was taught. He 
Jiowever read a great deal, and by occasional fits or applica- 
tion laid in some store of miscellaneous knowledge. During 
his vacations his mother continued to spoil him by alternate 
fits of harshness and indulgence. She introduced him to 
masquerades, and other scenes of excitement and fashionable 
fooleries, before he was fifteen years old. It was at about 
this period of his life that he became acquainted with Miss 
Chaworth, the heiress of Anneslej and descendant of the 
Mr. Chaworth whom his lordship s great-uncle had killed. 
We have no doubt that this very circumstance bad a great 
oflfbct on his excitable and romantic imagination. In one of 1 
hit memorandum-books he wrote, ' Our union would have 
healed feuds in which blood had been shed by our fathers ; 
it would have joined lands broad and rich ; it would have 
joined at least one heart, and two persons not ill matched 
in yeara-4he was two years my elder/ His lordship had 
fencied himself in fove two or three times before, but this 
more than half-imaginary passion for Mary Chaworth seems 
to have haunted him almost to the lost hours of his exist- 
race, and he alwavs persisted hi saying, that had he been 
united to her be should have proved a hotter and a happier 
man. The young lady treated him as a clever, warm- 
hetitedy hut eaprwioua school-boy, a friend and nothing 
moM, and a year er two after her first acquaintance with 
the poet she gave her hand to Mr. John Musters, a 
gentleman of Notts. But all Byron*s Harrow vacations 
were not spent in making love : he passed one of them in 
the house of tiie Abb6 RoofRgny, in Took'k Court, for the 
-^vpaM cT Mdyiag tto tHmk toguage; bat he apeat 



most of his time in boxing and fencing, to the no ^miiV '^ ^ 
turbanoe of the old Abba's establishment. 

In October, 1805, he went to Trinity College^ Camhridc^. 
where he spent two years in the way that is not nncomni«'n 
vrith younff men of rank and feshion ; l)ut still, by II ti and 
starts, he devoted himself to pretty hard study, and conti- 
nued to enlthrate that taste for poetry which fiiat showed 
itself when he was about ten years old, and which he had 
never since permitted to lie wholly dormant. At the same 
time he indulged in many eccentricities, and caused gr^ac 
Kiftioyance by keeping a bear, and several bnll-do|Qs. But 
at Cambridge, as at Harrow, he frequently evinced tb« 
most generous and noble feelings, and chose his assoeistct, 
with one or two exceptions, ftom among the young moi of 
the greatest ability, wit, and character, to a few of whofro be 
seems to have continued mnch attached in after-life. In 
1806, while yet at ooHe^ he printed a very thin qwano 
volume of poems for private dreulation. Of this edition 
Mr. Moore says there are bat two or at the nsoat three 
copies in existence. In 1807 he brought ont, in one voL 8vo., 
his ' Hours of Idleness,' which were veiy severely, hat we 
cannot say altogether ui^justly, handled in the fiidiiihurirh 
Review. It was just such a eollection of ftigitava pieces 
as any tolerably read young man of nineteen might wme : 
it was not less, and it certainly was not more, thas this. In 
this volume we can scarcely aisoover any indieatkNi of the 
superior genius which he afterwards displayed ; and tbeie 
was in it an assumption of aristoeratio airs that rcndcnd 
the author peculiany obnoxious to writers who adTocaied 
liberal principles. - The severitv of the reviewera s eem s to 
have produced a good effbct on his lordship's mvse, whirh 
was aiways too readily animated and inspired by feelings M 
suite and revenge. He collected his powers, he brought 
them to bear on one point, he took more pains with his 
style, and in 1809 brought out his well-known satire, * Rng* 
lish Bards and Scotch Reviewers,* which, however feulty ra 
parts as a composition, and blameable in moral fediag, wa% 
a wonderful improvement on his preceding productiomL 
A f^w days before the publication of this satire be took lit 
oath and seat in the House of Lords. He always ei«s- 
plained bitterly that, on this trying occasion, yoong. ior\- 
perieneed as he was, he was left to face the House alone — 
that none of his noble relations or connexions were thtrt 
either to introduce him or receive him— -that never vai 
youth of his rank left in a state more lone and unft-iended. 

At one time Byron thought seriously of devoting him»Wi 
to politics, and wrote to his mother that he * must do fnine. 
thing in the House soon.' He delivered two set spe4rhr« 
in the Lords, with indifibrent success and a tdcrable tgik- 
ranee of the subjects on which he spoke, and then his sena- 
torial ardour ceased altogether. This was after has letura 
from his travels, in 1812. 

On the 2nd of July, 1809, Lord Byron, in company vtih 
his friend Mr. John Cam Hobhouse, left England to tra^l 
in Portugal, Spain, Greece, Turkey, &e. He was abMn.t 
two years on this classical tour, which enriched his mutd 
with incidents and noetioal imagery, and filled it with le^ 
flections of some of tne finest and most melancholy scvt«e v 
in the world. His travels, in iact, finished his pDc4iral 
education, and nearly everything he wrote afterwards is 
redolent of the glowing atmoaphero of the £ast« and hcar« 
mora or less directly on the adventuroua, impasskmed nar* 
natives which he heard in ' the clime of the £aat»* in * the 
land of the sun.* 

In March, 1812, Byron published the two tint eaaieK vf 
his splendid poem * Childe Harold,* which at onoe gained 
him tne very highest name among the poets of the day. 
The popularitv of this production was as immediate as it 
was great, and he used to say, he went to bed one niche, 
and, on waking the next morning, found himself /eawvx. 
He was now sought after by the rich and great, who for- 
merly knew him not, or avonkd him ; and he threw himself 
into the vortex of feshionable dissipation without much 
taste for its pleasure, and with little reqieot ftr tlw mass ef 
those with whom he associated* 

To pass over some minor productions, it was in the aonth 
of May, 1813, that his wild oriental tale, «r imther fragment 
of a tale, 'The Giaour/ first appeared; this was followed, 
in December of the same year» by the 'Bride ef Abvdtt^' 
another passionate Eastern noenK mmooBseeiitiin as a nar- 
rative than the QiMur, and equalljrtieh in aeenie deemp* 



tions. In January, 1814» he vMmitA hfs'Cenain ^^ 
oCteniMt inikwIsdrihgvBhte o« afUohte ftM Wif 



» YR 



79 



B Y R 



one of the beat of hie productions, He^ however, showed 
in it an admirable mastery of the ten-syllahle English 
verse and what he called * the good old and now neglected 
heroic couplet,* His descriptions of the Greek islands and 
the scenery of th^ coast of Greece are exquisitely beau* 
tiful : they are moreover correct pictures, as must be felt by 
all who have travelled in thope climes. The story, like aU 
his storieSt is badly construoted ; the oharacterB are not 
very dramatically lustainedt and have Uttle in them to lav 
hold of the heart when the fervour and passions of youth 
are passed. It is stated on the heat authority that 14,000 
copies of the Corsair were sold in one day. In May, 1814, 
he published his splendid ode on the first fall of Bonaparta. 
In August of the same year appeared his * Lara,* an ine- 
gular sort of sequel and wind-up to the * Conair,' written 
io much the same style, but with rather less power. 
During the blase of his poetical fiune, and his intoxicating 
tuooess in aooietyt Byron was hardly ever happy, and he 
oooasionally withdrew for considerable periods to the soli- 
tudfi of the dd abb^ at Newatead. In October, 1814, he 
was married to Miss Milbanke, a great heiress in pro- 
snoot, but at the time possessed of little money, wnile 
tha poet stood in need of a ^seat deal. He was in fhot so 
inrolved in his pecuniary a&irs,tliat ha tells us he had nine 
exaoutions in his house during the first twelve months of 
hia marriage, besides having his door continually beset by 
dans* These were not oireumstanoee Ukely to soothe the 
irritable temperament of Lord B3rront he sought a reftige 
from them in pleasuiea ftomhome; and an utter incom- 
patibility of character between him and his lady becoming 
every day more and more, conspicuous, augured ill for this 
hastily-formed alliance. On toe 10th of December, 1815, 
Lady Byron bpre him a daughter, the Ada «^ his poems 
(now Lady King); and in the latter end of Jknuary she 
left his house iin^4^r infant, and retired to her father*s 
residenee in Leicestershire: the poet never saw his wife or 
child again. 

At nie cud of Febnuury, 1815, he published hie two| 
poems, the 'Siege of Cirinth' and ^Parisina.* On the 
25th of April following, he set sail for Ostend, with a fixed 
determination never more to return to a country which had 
given him honourSf titles, competent wealth, and fame. 

On starting on his continental travels, he went through 
Beleium, up the Rhine, and then through part of Switzer- 
land to Geneva, where he fixed himself for some time, his 
favourite companions there being the late Mr. Shelley, the 
poet, and Mrs. Shelley. He often crossed the lake to 
visit Madame de Stacl at Coppet. His frequent voyages 
on the lake of Geneva, and excursions amonj; the Alps, 
revived all his passionate adoratiei; of sublime scenery. 
I>uring his stay at the villa* IKodati, near Geneva; he wrote 
the third canto of * Childe^ Harold,* the * Prisoner of Chillon,* 
' The preapi,' and several of his fugitive pieces. In Oc- 
tober; 1816, he left Switzerland for Italy, and by the middle 
of the following November, we find him at \8enice, where 
he remained for niore than three years, whicH»were mainly 
spent in an alternation of literary laboux«eLnd debauchery. 
We must, however, deduct firom this long sojourn some 
three weeks, which he employed in visiting Rome in com- 
pany with his friend Hobhous^ and a few excursions he 
made to Bologna and other places. In January, 1820, he 
took up his residence at Ravenna, where he involved 
himself with secret societies and Italian plots to overthrow 
the government of the pope. The brother and other near 
connexions of the Countess Guiccioli, a married woman to 
whom he had attached himself, were so seriously committed, 
that the oapal government exiled them from the States of 
the Ohurcn. Upon this, the lady and her relatives took 
refuge in Tuscany, and ultimately fixed themselves at 
Pisa, whither Bvron soon followed them in November, 
1821. 

Soon after his arrival at Pisa, he was joined by Mr. and 
Mrs. Shelley, and his party was subsequently increased by 
IVf r. X«etgh Hunt and family. Byron, Shelley, and Hunt 
started a work called ' The Liberal/ which was to appear 
periodically, and to be written and edited bv the three con- 
lot ntly. It was altogether a badly-devised scheme, and, 
after the irregular appearance of two or three numbers, 
the work stopped. In July, 1822, he was much affected by 
the death of his friend Shelley, who was drowned in a 
nnall pleasure-boat off tlie coast of Tuscany. In October 
ii« wexit to Genoa, Early In 1893 he received flattering 
>Tertuxe8 fix>m the committee \of friends to the Greeks esta- 



blished fn London fost tho purpose of aiding that people m 
their struggle for independence. His knowledge of th^ 
country, the beauty and energy of the many verses in 
which he had described her sad condition under the Turks, 
naturally directed attention to his lordship, who, after 
a short correspondence with the committee, determined 
not merely to assist in purse, but in person and with arms 
in his hands. With his usual haste and impetuosity, he 
prepared forthwith to leave Italy. During Us stay in that 
beautifnl country, he had written the fourth canto of Childe 
Harold; Beppo, a Venetian story; Maseppa; Manfred; 
the Lament of Tasso; Ode to Venice; the Prophecy of 
Dante (wherein he imitated, not very successfully, the 
terza rima of the Italians); Cain, a Mystery; Marino 
Faliero, the Two Foscari, Sardanapalus and Werner, 
tragedies ; the Cantos of Don Juan (the most astonishing 
of all his productions) ; the Vision of Judgment ; and many 
fugitive pieces. 

with nis head fhll of warlike notionS| Byron sailed finom 
Genoa on the 14th of July; on the 19th he put into Leg- 
horn to purchase gunpowder and other commodities for the 
Greeks, and sailing again on the 24th, he reached the 
island of Cephalonia in about ten days. He had scarcely 
arrived there and looked a little into the affairs of the 
Greeks, when he repented of his expedition. 'I was a 
fod,* he w^te to a friend, ' to come here ; but being here, 
I must see what is to be done.' He, however, showed a 
talent ibr public business that surprised most people, and 
a degree gf good common sense tnat contrasted very ad- 
vantageously with the wild theoretic dreamings of many of 
the Philhellenes who had repaired to Greece. 

At the end of December, 1823, his lordship sailed from 
Cephalonia, and after a narrow escape froni a Turkish 
frigate landed at Dragomestri, a wretched seaport of the 
Greeks on the coast of Acamania. In sailing from this 
point to Missolonghi he was near suffering shipwreck, and 
by an act of imprudence sowed the seeds of the malady that 
soon terminated his existence. On the 3rd of January, 
during a rough and cold night, he leaped into the sea, and 
swam a long way : two or three days after he complained 
of a severe pain in all his bones, which continueu more 
or less to the time of his death. He reached Misso- 
longhi on the 10th of January, 1824, where he found every- 
thing in a most perplexing and almost hopeless state of 
anarchy and confusion. He set to work with spirit and 
application, and again showed a great aptitude for the dis- 
patch of public business. The weather was detestable and 
the place unhealthy. At the beginning of February he 
got wet through ; on the evening of the 15th he was seized 
with a dreadful convulsive fit, and was for some time 
speechless and senseless. Soon after this paroxysm, while 
stretched on his bed faint with over-hleedmg, a crowd of 
mutinous Suliotes whom he had engaged to fight for their 
country burst into his apartment brandishing their arms, 
and furiously demanding their pay. Sick and nerve- 
shaken as he was, Byron is said to have displayed great 
calmness and courage on this trying occasion, and his 
manner soon inspired the mutineers with respect and awe. 
At the end of January he had received a regular commis- 
sion from the Greek government, and was appointed to the 
command of an expedition that was to besiege Lepanto, 
then in the hands of the Turks. The difficulties and ob- 
structions encountered by his lordship in preparing and 
providing for this siege were perplexing and irritating in 
the extreme, and altogether too much for a man whose 
health was evidently undermined. Still, however, he would 
not listen to those who advised him to retire. ' I will stick 
by the cause,* said he, ' as long as a cause exists.* 

On the 9th of April he again got wet through, and 
returned to Missolonghi in a state of violent perspiration. ~ 
Fever and violent rheumatic pains ensued. On the fol- 
lowing day he took a ride among the olive woods, but 
complained of shudderings, and had no appetite. On 
the evening of the 11th he was much worse, and by Uie 
14th he was evidently in danger. For several days he 
obstinately refused to let his medical attendants bleed him, 
and when he gave his consent the bleeding was too late. 
Inflammation fell upon his brain, and he expired at six 
o'clock on the afternoon of the 19th of April, 1824, being 
only 36 years and three months old. The bitter grief of 
his followers and attendants of all nations was a proof of 
his frequent kindness of heart» and his goodness as a 
master. 



id puiioii 
occupy « high plica, ifiough va doubt ini 

e in after-agM the mbaolute lupmiiMy which h 



mtny of hi* cantBinponriM gm him u hii right. Whan, 
M the proftKH of twW and tight feeling, the public mind 
shall be attuned to the deep, tender, and philowphic •traini 
of Wordtwortli, we are in^ed to beliefs that the author 
of the ' EscuTtion' will rank higher than the author of 
' Childo Harald.' 
Tho least eucceaafiil of Byron*! ptoductioni, notwith- 



•tatiding the admiiable pauasei in wnich they abound, are 
hi* tragfldiea: the work which gives ui the highett notion 
of his geoiui, power, and venatility ii hie 'Don Jnan.' 



The Don is at timet five and ilmoit ohioene, and thi 
whole tendency ef the poem may be coniidered immra^ , 
but there are, ic»ttered throughout it, the most exqubite 
pieces of writing and feeling, — inimitable blendingt of wit, 



maanar; for the Bernesco style of the Italians, to which it 
has been compared, ii not hke iL (X'tttT* and JournaU 
qf Lord Bffrom, teith Noliett of Ait Lift, by Thomas Moore ; 
Oalt'a £i/>o/'£ord^nm; Dallas's AfMt.Ar,- LadyBles- 
iinjtton'i Convertalioiu with Lord Byrom.) 

BYRON, JOHN, second ton ofWilliam Lord Byron, 
by his third wife FreDcea. second daughter of William Lord 
Berkeley of Stretton, was bom Nor. S, 1 733. He was en- 
gained as midshipman on board the Wager, the store-ship 
which accompanied Lord Anson's squadnin in its voyage 
round the world, oommenced in September, 1740. That 
vessel, an old ^*t Indiaman, fitted out aa a ship of war, 
and deeply laden, was manifestly de&cient in equipment, 
and the expedition i«a unfortunately delayed till a season 
very unfitting fbr the navigation on which it was to be em- 
ployed. On the lath of May the Wager, having before 



the -latitude 47° S. on the western coast of America. Her 
condition waa to craiy that she lOon afterwards bilged, 
and grounded between two small islands about a mus- 
ket-shot from the shore. Her captain, who had succeeded 
to the oommand during tho voyage in consequence of the 
death of his superior otBeer, appears to have rendered 
Vim— K hateful to the ihip's company by iroperioui and 
tyruinieal conduct; and the crew, on the other hand, 
were mutinous and insubordinate. No hope of preserv- 
ing the vessel remained, and the mariners were happy 
in being able to land upon a wild shore, which after- 
wards proved to be part of an uninhabited island, and the 
wretehedness of which mav be inferred from the name 
which the sailon gave it, 'Mount Misery.' After several 
months' residence, part of the crew embarked in the cutter 
and long-boat to attempt the passage of the Strait* of Ma- 
gelbaeni, and a homeward return by BraiiL, The cutterwai 
loat,but the long-boat, alterundergoing incredible hardships 
and sailing mare than 1000 leagues, arrived at the Portu- 
guese settlements in Braiil. A narrative of this remarkable 
enterprise was publiahed by two of the survivors, John 
Bulkeley and John Cummins, late gunner and carpenter of 
the Wager. Byron and his companiong, after enduring the 
utmost extremity of fiimine, bad weather, oold, fatigue, 
hunger, sickness, and general destitution, and having made 
one useless attempt to quit the island, were relieved by a 
Chanoa Indian cacique, who conveyed them to the island of 
Chiloe, after thirteen months had expired since the loss of 
the Wager. The hardships which the party endured dely 
abridgment, but the narrative which Byron published on hit 
return to England in 1741 ia amon^ the moat intereiling 
aooounts of nautical adventures with which we are ac- 
quainted. Byrm was seldom unemployed ; he afterwards 
terved with tome distinction in 17iS during the war against 
France; in 1760 be performed a brilhant service in de- 
■tioying a French tquadron in Chaleur Bay, and on the 
return of peace in 17S4 he was deepatched on a voyage of 
diacovery to the South Sea, in command of the ihipi Dol- 
phJR Mi Tamar. Although bit discoveries were by no 
meana graal, he may he considered as one of the ablett 
praourtota of Captain Cook, in the preliminary volume to 
whoaa Toyagea, ooUeeted by Uavkeawortli. Byron' t journal 
oecupiea the ftnt plac*. 

He waa afterwards, in 1769, appointed govotnor of New- 
foundland. In 177B he eommaiMied the fleet destined to 
obaerve the nwrenwiita of the Fnneb admiral H. d'Es- 



B YS 

taigne in the West Indies, but profiting by hit great sow- 
eriority in nnmbert (27 ships of the line to 21), eludrd 
every attempt to bring him to close engagement. Dunni; 
this expeditwn he received the highest piomrtion which be 
attained, that of Viee- Admiral of the White. In 1748 he 
married Sarah, daughter of John Trevanlon, Eaq., of Car- 
trayi, in the county of Cornwall, who outlived her bntband 
only one month, and bore him two tons and seven daugh- 
ters. Commodore Byron, as he is usually styled, died m 
London on April 10, 1 786, in the enjoyment of a high and 
merited reputation for courage and professional skilL 

BYSSOARCA, a subgenus separated by Bwaiiuon from 
the genus Area of Linnnus, and considtted \Jf tiM furmer 
aa the sedentary type of that genus. The folknraig is the 
sut^ienerie charseter given by Swminson in Us atvood 
series of 'Zoological Illutlrationi.' Animal fixed bgr bjs- 
siform fltamenta to other bodies; thell tcanivene; nm- 
bones remote ; valves gaping in the middle of the ventral 
margin. 

' The animals of these thellt,' says the author last quoted, 
' affix themtelvei to other bodies by a partieular tnuacle, 
which is protruded through the gapmg part of- the valvea ; 
they abo adhere vbait young by the bysaifbriD cfidvmit 
which cover* the exterior. A tpeoiinML now baare tis, 
which we procured in the bay of Naplei, peribetly axem- 
pliDei tliit tingular property-' Hr. G. B. Ekiwerby has de- 
tcribed several new species collected by Hr..Oai>uBK on ilw 
western coast of South America and aowngthe isUnd* ut 
the South Pacific Ocean, in the Prooeedingt of the Zoolo- 
gical Society of liondon for 1833. BysBoarea ha* beenfouud 
moored to sionet and shell* at deptu varying from ftte aor- 
face te seventy-five fathonu. 



r,g.j. 



Fig. 9. 



Vilm clowd. 1 Vdn ehiud, *fa 

Tl of Ibfl tttdtnl B1VR11 whm IIh ^ 
liBBotibfiUmiiiaattHL. 



!• t^V. to |lt»m 



BYSSOHYA, a genua of eonohifhrous moUusks tep*- 
rated by Cuvier, and^ placed bv him under his •oephal>-u< 
testacea between Pandora ana HiaUUa. De Blainiilli^. 
who approves of Cuvier't separation, observing that tbiHuu 
the shell diffen little from Saxieava, the aoim^ u teiy 
distinct, arranges it in hi* hmily of I^lohdta betwrvn 
Sa^cicava and khomboidet. 

Ofneric Character. — Animal mora or less clon^t^ 
■ubcyliudrical, obngaled behti)|} by a long tube, whtch b 
bifurcated at its extremity only. A hole at the lower aad 
anterior part of the mantle for the passage of a saaa 
conical, canaliculaled foot, and of a byssu* lituated al it* 
posterior bate. Two strong adductor muscles. 

Shell often irregular, covered with a strong epidenoii. 
oblong, strongly striated longitudinally, lequivafvo, itrj 
inequilateral, obtuse and wider befure, and attenuaiot -c 
rotttated, aa it were, behind. Umbone* but litita deir- 
loped, though distinct and t, litUe cured formtd. time* 



B Y Z 



81 



B YZ 



tooililc^s, or pnly having & rudiment of tfeth under the 
cirt-selet External ligament rather long. Two strong, dis- 
tant, and rounded muscular impressions. 

Example, Byswmya Pholadis^ Saxieava Pholadiit of 
L&marck. The species inhabits the norttiern seas, living 
in the fissures of rocks, in company with Mytili (muscles), 
and attached by its byssus ; but sometimes it buries itself 
in the sand or lodges in small stones, the roots of /net, and 
even in the Dolymorphous mtV/epora.* in the latter cases, 
according to O. Fabricius, it is without byssus. 




[Bysioisya Fhouiilu.j 

BYSSUS (oonchology), the name of a long, delicate, 
lustrous, and silky fasciculus of filaments, by whioh some of 
the oonchiferous moUusks (the Mytilaeea, muscles, and 
MaUmeea^ Hammer oysters, for example) are moored to 
submarine locks, &e. This is not, as some authors have 
stated, a secretion spun by the animal, but, according to 
De BlainviUe, an assemblage of muscular fibres dried up 
in one part of their extent, still contractile and in a living 
state ml their origin, a condition which they enjoyed 
throughout their whole length at the period of their attach- 
ment. The tendinous foot of Byssoarea and Tridacna 
seems to be a step towards the organization of a true byssus. 
In the gtieat Prnna of the Mediterranean this substance is 
well and largely developed, and its situation is in a fleshy 
sac or sheath at the base of the foot, which is attached to- 
wards the middle of the abdominal mass of the animal. In 
Italy the byssus is manufactured into various articles ; and 
there are few museums without a glove or a stocking woven 
out of this substance. 

BYSSUS (/3v<r<foc)« It has been a subject of some dis- 
pute whether the byssus of the antients was cotton or linen : 
but recent investigations have determined that it is linen, and 
not cotton ; at least so fkr as the term has been applied by 
Greek and Roman writers to mummy-cloth. Herodotus 
states, that the Egyptians wrapped their dead in the cloth 
of the byssus; and it has been shown by microscopic oh- 
seryationsv that every specimen of mummy -cloth yet ex- 
amined is made of linen fibre. The name byssus came pro- 
bably from the PhosnicianSt and may be derived from Y^l^l 
butz. (Buxtorf *s Lexicon,) It is possible that writers later 
than the time of Herodotus may sometimes have applied the 
term indiflferently either to cotton or linen cloth. Cotton 
was known in the time of Herodotus (B.C. 484 — 408), who 
calls it tree-wool (ctpcoy (iir6 Ivkov) : but there is no evidence 
to prove that it was then cultivated in Egypt, or in any 
other coantry except India ; or that it was in common use in 
Egypt His remarks, so ikr as theyjo, seem to imply that 
the commodity was a rarity. (Vol. XXX. Library of Enter-' 
taining Kncwledge; Egyptian Jntiqtdti&t, Vol. II., Part I., 
Chapter v., pp. 182—196.) 

BYZ ANnNB HISTORIANS is the name given to a 
Mnes of Greek historians and writers who lived under the 
Eastern or Byxantine empire between the 6th and the 15th 
centnries. Tbey may be divided into two classes :-*!• The 
historians properly so called, whose collected works con- 
stitute « eomplete hirtory of the Byaantine empire IVom the 
time of Conatantine the Great to the taking of Constan- 
tinople by the Turks; and 9. The general chroniclers who 
have attempted to give a chronography of the world from 
the oldest times. The Att/onofit are : — 1. Joannes Zona- 
ras of Constantinople, first an officer of the imperial court 
and afterwards a monk of Mount Athos, who died about 
1118, and wrote the * Annals of the World,* in 18 books. 



In the first part of his work he Iwlongs to the class of gene* 
ral chroniclers or compilers, but from the time of Constant 
tine he treats more particularly of the history of the Eastern 
Empire, which he brines down to the death of Alexius I. 
Comnenus in U 1 8. 2. Nicetas Aoominatus of Chonss or Co* 
lossm in Phrygia, who filled several high offices in the court 
of Isaac Angelns, and died at Nicma in 1216. His ' His- 
tory of the Byzantine Emperors' in 21 books begins with 
1118 and ends with 1206. 3. Nicephorus Gregoras of 
Heraclea enjoyed the favour of Andronicus Paleologus the 
elder of the Palamites; but owing to the controversy, he 
was confined in a convent by the Patriaroh, in 1351, where 
he died. He wrote a Byzantine, or, as he styles it, a 
* Roman History* in 38 books, of which the first 24 only 
I)ave been printed, containing the history of the Byzantine 
Empire from 1204 to 1331. The 14 remaining in MSS. 
bring the history down to 1359. 4. Laonicus (Nicolas) 
Chaicondylas of Athens wrote a * History of the Turks 
and of the Downfall of the Greek Empire' in 10 books, to 
the year 1462. An anonymous writer has continued the 
history of the Turks down to 1565. — ^Theso four writers form 
by themselves an entire history of the Byzantine Empire 
from the time of Constantine to the Turkish conquest ITie 
following writers have treated of detached periods of the 
same history, or have written the lives of particular empe- 
rors. 5. Procopius of Cesarea in Palestine, the most cele- 
brated of the Byzantine writers, wrote the ' History of his own 
Time* in 8 books, to the year 545. He also wrote a ' Seeret 
History* (Anecdota) of the reign of Justinian down to tiie 
year 553, which» as to the manner in which he speaks of 
that emperor and of his court, contrasts singularly with the 
pan^yrioal tone of his former work. 6. Agathias of Myrina 
m ^olis, a poet as well as historian of the 6th eentury, is 
well known for his Anthology and his Daphniaca or amatory 
verse. [Antrolooy.] He studied first at Alexandria, firom 
whence he removed to Constantinople in 554, being then 
about 18 years of age, and applied to the study of tho law, 
in which he became eminent. He was snmamed * Schdlasti- 
cus,* a word which then meant an advocate. He wrote a 
History in five books of the years 553-59 of Justinian's 
reign, which forms a sequel to Procopius. He died about 
582. Agathias is one of the most trustworthy Byzantine 
historians ; inferior to Procopius in talent and information, 
but superior to him in honesty. The impartifll manner 
in which he speaks of the various parties and sects, and 
particularly of the two great religious systems whioh di- 
vided the world in his time, has made it a mattnr of 
dispute whether he was a Christian or a Pisgiui. His 
aooount of the Persians and their celebrated king Chos- 
roes or Nushirvan is much valued for its accuracy and ftiir- 
ness. 7. Menander of Constantinople, sumamed Protector, 
continued the history of Agathias to the year 582, Menan- 
der's history is lost, but fragments of it are found in the 
works of Constantine Porphyrogennetus, which relate to the 
history of the Huns, the Avari and other northern and 
eastern races, and also to the neffotiations and missions be- 
tween Justinian and Chosroes. All that remains of Menan* 
der has been published by Bekker and Niebuhr, Bonn, 1 829. 
8. Joannes of Epiphania wrote a history of the Persian war 
under the emneror Mauricius, which has never been printed, 
and the only MS. of it known is in the Heidelberg collec- 
tion. 9. Tneophylaetus Simocatta lived in the first part of 
the 7ih century, and wrote a history in 8 books, from 582 
till the death of Mauricius in 602. 10. Joannes, a monk of 
Jerusalem, in the 8th oentury, wrote a brief history of the 
Iconoclasts, which was published by Comb6fls for the ' Cor* 
pas Historisa Byzantinss,* together with an anonymous work 
against Constantine lY., probably written by the same 
monk. 11. Theodosius, a monk of Syracuse, in the 9th 
century, has left a nanative of the taking of Svracuse 
by the Spanish Arabs. It was published, for the first 
time, by Hase, with the * History of Leo Diaeonus,* Paris, 
1819. 12. Constantinus VI. Pophyroffennetus wrote the 
life of his grandfother Basilius the Macedonian, from 867 to 
886. He also wrote several other works which mav serve as 
illustrations of the Byzantine historyi such as ' De Admi- 
nistrando Imperio/ on the Administiation of the State, ad- 
dressed to his son Romanus ; * De Ceremoniis Aulas Bysan* 
tins ;* 'DeThematibus,* or military divinons of the empire. 
He also caused several learned men to compile a kind of 
historical library out of the works of all previous historians. 
This great compilation was divided into 53 books, of which 
the titles of 26 only are known. One was on the succession 



No. 349. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiEDIA.] 



Vol. VI.-M 



B Y Z 



82 



B Y Z 



of kings, another on the art of ffeneralahip, &c. Under each 
of these beads, passages from tne Tarioos historians hearing 
upon the sul^ect were collected. Three hooks alone, more 
or leas mutilated, have come down to us. One, entitled 
' De Legationibua.* ib an account of the Tarious embas- 
sies between the Romans and other nations ; another ' De 
Sententiia/ and the third ' 0e Virtute et Vitio.* 13. Genesius 
of Byzantium wrote a history of Leo the Armenian, Michael 
II., TheophUuiy and Miohael IIL» embracing the pe- 
riod from B13 to 867. 14. Leontiua of Byzantiam, called 
the younger, wrote also a histoiy of the same period, to serve 
as an introduction to Constantine's life of Basilius. 15. An 
anonymous writer has left a continnation of Constantine's 
life of Basilius, embracing the lives of Leo VL and his bro- 
ther Alexander, of Constantino VI. himself, and his son 
Itomanus. 16. Joannes Cameniata of Thessalonica wrote 
an account of the taking of that city by the Saracens in 
904, of which he was an eye-witness. 1 7. Leo Diaconus of 
Kaloe, bom about 950, accompanied Basilius II. in his wars 
a«iinst the Bulgarians, and wrote the Uvea of Romanus, 
Ixjcephorus Phocas, and Tzimisces, from 959 to 975. 18. 
Michael Constantino Psellua wrote a history from the 
death of Tzimisces m 975 till the accession of Constantino 
DucAS in 1059. It has not yet been published. 19. Nice- 
phoruB Bryennius, the husband of Anna Comnena, wrote 
* Historical Materials,' being a kind of memoirs of the Com- 
neni family, to the accession of Alexius I. 20. Akna Com- 
NKNA has written the history of her father Alexius. 21. 
Joannes Cinnamus, who lived towards the end of the 12 th 
century, was imperial notary at Constantinople. He wrote 
the lives of John Comnenus, and of Manuel his son, from 
1118, when Anna Comnena ends, till 1 1 76. Like his pre- 
decessors he is partial against the Latuss or Franks, and 
e&pecially unjust towards Roger I. of Sicilv» who was a great 
man for his time, though an enemy ox the Byzantines. 
22. GeorgiuB Acropolita, bom in 1220 at Constantinople, 
fiUed several importaat offices under Michael Palffiologus, 
and died in 128^. There are two works under his name, 
one styled a ' Chronogranhy / and the other a * Short Chronicle 
of.the late Events,* both referring to the period fiom 1204, 
when the Franks took Constantinople, to 1261, when they 
were finally efxpelled. Acropolita has also written a ' Gene- 
ral Chronicle from the Creation to the taking of Constanti- 
nople by the Franks,* which is not yet printed 23. Georgius 
Pachymeres, born at NiesBa in 1242. After the recovei^ of 
Constantinople by the Greeks he wa$ raised to high offices 
in the state. He wrote a ' Byzantine History,* which forms 
a continnation to Aeropolita*8 work, and comes down to 
1308. Pachymeres is a fkithful but dull writer. He wrote 
alao several philosophical works and a hidti^ of his own 
life. 24« Joannes Cantacnienus, after his abdication of the 
empire in 1355, retired to a eonvent where he wrote a By- 
zantine history from 1320 to 1357. Cantaenaenus is in 
general a good authority for the history of that period in 
which he acted an important part, though he is of course 
somewhat partial in his own cause. 25. Joannes Ducas, of 
the imperial family of that name, fled from Constantinople 
at the time of the Turkish invazion, and took refnge at 
Lesbos under the Genoese adventurer Prince Castellnzzi. 
He wrote a Byzantine history, which begins from Adam, 
after tho ftshion of the ehionielers, and is but a brief 
general chronicle as Ikr as the year 1341, after which his 
account becomes more circumstantial, being more especially 
occupied with the history of the latter period of the eastern 
empire : it ends with the taking of Lesbos by the Tnrks. in 
1462. This latter part therefore forms a continuation to Can- 
tacuaenus. 26. Joannes Anagnoetes of Thessalonica has left 
an account of the taking of that city by the Turks in 1430. 
27. Joannes Cananus has written a history of the war 
against Sultan Mnrad II. in 1420. 28. CSeorgiua Phranza, 
bom in 1401, of a famiy related to the Palaeologi, filled some 
of the highest offices in the state under the last emperors. 
He was made prisoner by the Turks at the taking of Con- 
stantinople, was sold as a slave, recovered his lit^rty, and 
took shelter for a time with Thomas P^lsBcAogus, prince of 
Peloponnesus. When the Turks invaded that part of 
Greece Phranza escaped to Italy, and at last became monk 
at Corfu ID 1468;. There he wrote his * Chronicle* in 
4 books, which begins with \2M and ends with 1477. em- 
bracing the whole history of the Pal»ologi. The work of 
Phranza is roost valuable, though it is full of digressions 
upon religions controversies* the origin of comets, £c. 
, The following are the general ehronielen properly so 



called, who arc also included under the general appetktioci 
of Byzantine historians:—!. Georgius Syncellua lived in 
the eighth centary. He wrote a ^Chronograph^* froon the 
beginning of the worid to the time of Diocletian, m which be 
has availed himself of Eusebius and Afiricanus. fi. Thee- 
phanes Isaacius of Constantinople, who died about 81 7» con- 
tinued the chronicle of Spcellus from 880 till Bl 3. 3. Joan- 
nes of Antioch, called Malalas. a Syrian word meaning a 
rhetor or sophist, lived in the ninth oentniy, and wrote a 
chronicle from Adam till 666. 4. Joannes Scylitzea, who 
lived in the eleventh century, wrote a 'Short History* or 
chronicle from 811 till 1057,* which he afterwards recast 
and continued till 1081. 5. Leo Grammaticss wrote a 
chronography, which is a contSnnation of Theophanei*, 
from 813 to 949. 6. Georgius Monachus has also left a 
chronicle embracing the same period as Leo's. T. The 
Chronicon Paschale, called also Alexandrian Chronicle, it 
attributed by some to Georgius the Bishop of Alexandria, 
who limad in the seventh century. It is alse called * Fasti 
Siculi,* because the MS. was discovered in Sicily. It ex- 
tends from the beginning of the world to 1042. 8. Geor- 
gius Hariiartolus, an Archimandrite, wrote a chronicle to 
the year 842, which is yet unedited. 9. Joannef of Si- 
cily wrote in the ninft century a chroniete from the crea- 
tion of the world till 866, which is not yet printed. An 
anonvmous continuation of it till 1222 exists in the im- 
perial library at Vienna. 10. Ntcephorus, Patriarch of 
Constantinople in the first part of the ninth century, ha* 
left a Breviarium Chronographicum, or short chronicle, 
from the creation to the auUior s death in 828, giving aenes 
of the kings, emperors, patriarchs, and bishops, &c. He 
wrote also a Breviarium Historicum, or general history of 
events from 602 to 770. 11. Julius Pollux, not the author 
of the Onomastioon, wrote a chronicle with the title of 
' Historia Physica/ from the creation to the reign of Talent. 
A MS. in the national library at Paris brinjn it down to 
the death of Romanus the younger in 963. This chronicle 
is chiefly engrossed with church matters. 12. Georgm« 
Cedrenus, a monk of the eleventh century, wrote a chronic* te 
compiled chiefly from the former chronicles of Scyliun 
and others. It is mixed up with fictions, and is one of the 
least valuable in the Byzantine collection. 13. Simeon 
Metaphrastes filled some high stations at the imperial court 
in the first part of the tenth century. His chronicle comcft 
to 963, and has the merit of being compiled from the 
works of ten lost writers who lived b^ween Leo Oramraa- 
ticus and Michael Psellus. 14. Hippolytus of Thel»es IiveJ 
towards the end of the tenth and the beginning of the ele- 
venth centuries. He wrote a chronicle from the birth of Je^at 
Christ to his own time. 15. Michael Glykas, whose country 
and age are not ascertained, wrote a chronicle from tbt 
creation to the year 1118. It is valuable botii for its his- 
torical and its oiblical references. 16. Constantine Ma- 
nasses, who hved in the twelfth century, has left a chronir'<* 
in verse down to 1081. 17. Ephrsmius, believed to be tie 
son of John XII., patriarch of Constantinople, wrote a chro- 
nicle in iambics of the emperors, fipom Julius Csesar to the 
restoration of the Byzantine empire after the Franktsh m 
vasion. It is followed by a chronology of the patriarch* «<f 
Constantinople till 1313. The whole poem contains 10.41 u 
lines. Angelo Mai published it first in his Vaticaii collec- 
tion of inedited MSS. 18. Joel wrote a short gener<il 
chronicle of the worid to the Prankish invasion of Consun- 
tinople in 1204. 19. Theodosius oi Melite has left a rhn>> 
nide which is not yet printed. Professor Tafel of Tubinc«a 
has published a notice of thu writer : * De Theodotio Meli* 
teno inedito hist<^i8D Bvzantina Scripto|ee/ 4to. Tiibingv-B, 
1828, from the MS. of his chronicle which is at Tabm:;tni. 
and which was brought from Constantinople by Su Geriarh 
in 1578. 20. HesychiiB of Miletus, who hved under Jot- 
tinns and Justinian, wrote a history of the world* which » 
lost, except a valuaUe fragment on the origin of Coostanti- 
nople, which has been extracted and preserved by Codinus^ 
Besides the above historians and chronideia thec« sre 
other Byzantine authors who have written on the slatistKs 
politics, sntiquitiea, 8cc. of the Roman empire^ whose h^ v 
tory properly so called they sore to illuitrate, and who ar* 
generally included in the coUectioR of Byzantine htstorc^l 
writers. Amonfi: these Procopiua tends foiciDost by l..« 
curious work, 'De iSdificiis Domini Justiaiam,' fib. n. 
which contains a brief notice of the towns, templee» coot vn rs 
bridges, roads, walls, and ibrtiliicationa >uilt or rep^wrrd 
under the reign of Justinian, 2. Joannes LaurentiaB, called 



[ColoBfBTUBtiaB- BiU.H<u. Coppn U3fi,]: 




[BrH.H*hB<lnr. S«C|r.] 

tbeir o«a d«vice. Btffled in his attempt, Philip railed the 
(iego and turned hii arms againit the Chertoneiui. Und«r 
Alexander the Great and Lysimachui, who, after his death, 
Mioceedcd to the government of Thrace, Bfiantium was 
obliged to auhmiC to the Maeedoniana, but it afterwards 
recovered ita municipal independence, which it mtained tilt 
the lime of the Roman omperori. Iti maritime commerce 
wa* proipeiDua, but it waa exposed on the land aide to con- 
tinual incursions ef Thraciaiu, Scythians, and other 
barbarians, who ravaged its territory, cut down the hurest, 
and reduced it to great distress, lie most troublesome of 
tliese incursioni was that of the Gauls, who overran Mace- 
donia and Northern Greece about 270 years b.c. The 
ByiaDlinea, in order to have some respite ttom them, were 
obliged to poj heavy sums, tiom 3000 to 10,000 pieces 
of gold a year, and at last as much m HO talents, to save 
Ibsir lands flvin being ravaged in hanest-time. These 
and other bwtfaau compelled them to have recourse to ex- 
traordinary measura fet raising money, one of which was 
the exacting of a toll from all ships passing through the 
Bosporus, which became the cause of the war between 
Byiantium and Rhodes about 221 h.c. (Bockh on Ihe 
pubiio Economy qf Ihe Athenian*, b. iii.) The Gaul* at 
lut went over to Asia, and left Byiantium in peace. The 
Rhodians, a marilima trading people, refused to pay the toll 
on ibeir ships passing through the Boaporus, which led to a 
war with Byiantium, in which Frusias I., king of Bithynia, 
aided with the Rhodiana, and Attalus I., king of Pergnmus, 
took the part of the Byiantines. The latter had the worst 
of it, and peace waa made by the mediation of Cavalus or 
CavaruB, king of the Gallo-Grteci. 

Athenaus, iCIiia, and other antient oompilers, give rather 
an unfavourable account of Byiantine monla and mannen. 
Idleness and debauchery prevailed, the eitisens spent their 
time in the market-place, or in the numerous public houses 
of the city, and let their houses and wivea to atrangen. 
The sound of a Aula put them immediatelv in a merrr 
mood, but they fled from that of a trumpet, and their general. 
Lea or L«onidu. in Ibo siege by Philip, had no means of 
kaeping tbem to watch and defend the walls but by causing 
the auilm and eaniMns to be established along the ram- 
parta.- (Athannua, z. pt 449 ; jElian. Hut. iiL 14.) By- 
santina) waa ftaU of fcreign and native merchants, sailors. 
Mid asbeTm«n.wtiomthe«ZMllent wine sold in the town and 
■uppUedbyUaronva and other districts seldom permitted to 
ntum sober to iheir ships. A democracy or such jolly 
earoniara eould not be expected to be very atrict and orderly 
'~\ its administration, and it is recorded of a Byiantine 
1 that being asked in some particular case what 



t B Y Z 

was the law of the country, he answered, 'VbateTerl pleoM. 
(Seitut Bmpiricua adrertut Rh»tortt, 37 ; O. Hiiller, tfi>- 
tory <^ the Doric Raee.'i Dion saya that the walls of Byxwi- 
tium were built of massive square sKmes batened together 
wiUi iron bolts, and fitting so well together that the whole 
wall appeared to be one block. The Byiantines at oim 
time had SOO ships, severti of Ibem with ruddera at boUi 
ends, so aa to be able to steer either way witboat war- 
ing ot tacking. Tacitui speaks of such Tesada laiag 
UMd in the Euxine in his time, (ffitlor.. lii. 46.) Aa tor 
the extent of old Bysantium previous to the time of C<W' 
atantine, there is some discrepancy of authoritiea; but it 
appean almost certain that it was much larger tlkan has 
generally been supposed. The common opinion is that its 
area corresponded to that of the present sera^io and gardens 
of the sultan ; but it appean to have occupied at leiut 4 td 
the 1 4 regions of the subsequent city or Constantinople, 
namely the 4 most easterly ones. Not. 1 to 4. (Codinna, 
Atvmml (rf* Hetychivt on the Origin ^ ConttatitinopU ; 
and Bandun, himrium OrieniaU, voL i. on the aiitiqnit^ nt 
the same, with the map* of Conatantinopte in vol ii) Diony- 
siusByiantinusgiveait40atadiainareumlbi«nce. Ibeacro- 
polis or citadel atood on the hill where the aera^lio now is. 

Bytantium allied itself to Rome against Phihp IL of Ua- 
eedonia, as well a* against Antioebus and Hithridales. Id 
consequence of its services it retained its liber^ as » free 
town confederate with Rome, and its envoys were treated 
as foreign amhassadtK^ Some domestic disputes how- 
ever occasioned an appeal to Rome from the loung parcr, 
and Clodius Ihe tribune carried a decree enjoining the By- 
cantines to readmit the emigrants. Piso was sent t« oilbrre 
this decree, but bis conduct there appean to have been thsl 
ofahoilile conqueror rather than of an ally and mediator. 
(Cicero de Provincii* Contui.) After Piae a departure the 
Byzantines leanmed iheii former independenoe. Thej were 
subject to a tribute however, at least under the flttt empe- 
rors, which Claudius remitted for five yean, in oensidentHB 
of tiieir losses during the Thracian war. (Tacitua Amm. 
xii. 6'2) In consequence of some tmb Joea esl ie famiK 
however, Vespasian took away their Uberties and eeU then 
a governor, and when ApoUonius of Tyana remenatnied 
witn the emperor on the subject, Vespasian replied that the 
Byzantines had forgotten how to be ttse. In the civil war 
between Severus and Peicennius Niger, the Byiantines took 
the part of the latter. After Niger's death Severus baiir):cd 
the town, which the inhabitants defended for three )e«ii 
with the courage of despair. At last famine obli|;ed tiiem 
to surrender, and Severus treated them with bis characiei- 
islic inhumanity. The armed men and the chief ciiii«M 
were put to death, the walls were raied. and the remaininK 
inhabitants were placed under the jurisdiciion of PierioAui 
Severus however relented afterwards, and, visiting Bycsn- 
tium, took pains to embellish the town ; he built ma)!iiifi<rent 
baths, porticoes round the Hippodrome and other huildirirv 
and gave it the name of Augusta Anlonina, in hunour ^I 
his son Antoninus Bassianus. [Caracalla]. TheBtun- 
tines having rebuilt their walls, and recovered their pri»Fc- 
rity, had next the misfortune of somehow displeasing Gulli- 
enus, a worse man than Severus, whocntered the town under 
a promise of amnesty, and bad moat of the inhabiuni* 
massacred. Trebellius PolUo says that in his time ibrra 
were no old families in Byiantium, except those who tiwl 
left the town before Gallienua entered iL The town buw- 
ever was restored, and it repelled an irruption of the Goth*. 
who had entered the Bosporus under Claudius II. Aft«r 
the defbat of licinius by Conatantine, Byaantium sunvn- 
deied to the latter, who was so struck with ita aituatiou 'h.t 
be determined to build a new city by the aide of old Btian- 
tium, which he called Nea Roma, and which be cb«»e after- 
wards for the capital of the empire. In Hay aj>. 3M. the 
new town, which had been commenced only three yekrs fa» 
fore, was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and the fcut* 
lasted 40 days. [Const Arm nofu.] 



86 



INDEX. 



"OL. UU 
Bubetf, 433 
Barbeyrac, Jeaa, 434 
Barbeiieoz, 436 
Bwbi^ri [Oucrcino] 
Blrbitooi 435 
Barbou, 435 
Barbour, John, 43S 
Barbfida, 436 
Barca, 496 
Barcarolle^ 437 
Baicellot, 437 
Barall6iia, 437 
Barceldna, 438 
Barclajj Aleianderi 440 
Barclar, Robert, 441 
Barc6chebaa, 443 
Bard, 443 
Bardftown, 445 
Bardiej, 446 
Bareilly (diatrict), 446 
BareUly (town), 447 
Bareith [Baireuth] 
*Baie line [Oeodoy] 
Bar4tti, Joaepb, 447 
BaHleur, 448 
Bargi^li, Scipi^OjO, 448 
Bargain, 448 
Barite [Godwitl 
Barge-Courie, 450 
Bin, Terra di, 450 
Bkri, 450 
Baridius, 451 
Barilla, 451 
Barif,45l 
BarftA,451 
B&rium, 452 
Barjola, 454 
Bark, 454 
Bark-Bed, 456 
Bark (in commerce), 456 
Bark, Peruvian, Medical Uiea 

of [Cinchonal 
Barkal, 458 
Barking, 459 
Barkway, 459 
Bailaam, 460 

BarWueiCaiptrYan Baerle|4G0 
Barl^ria, 461 
Bariata,461 
Barley, 461 



VOL. lit 
Barley, Pot, 466 
Barley, Pearl, 466 
Bartow, Joel, 468 
Barlowe, William, 469 
Barm [TeMt] 
Barmen, 469 
Barmouth, 469 
Bam, 470 
Bamabae, St, 472 
Barnacle [Bemide] 
Barnard, Sir John, 472' 
Barnard Caatle, 473 
Barnaul, 473 
Bamei, Joshua, 474 
Bamet, 474 
Barnereldt, 474 
Barney, Joihua, 477 
Baroafey,;478 
Barnstaple, 478 
Barnstaple, U.S., 479 
Baroach, 480 
Bai6da, 480 
Bar6meter, 481 
B&romets, 485 
Baron, Barony, 485 
Bironage, 4d9 
B&ronet, 490 
Bar6niu8, Cnsur, 491 
Barony [Baron] 
B&roftcope, 492 
Barouvse, 492 
Barozio [Vignola] 
Barquisimcto, 492 
Barr (in France). 492 
Barr, or Barra, 492 
Barra, or Barray, 492 
Barrack, 493 
Barramahal, 493 
Barr&s, Count de, 494 
Barrauz, 496 
Barrage, 496 
Barref, 496 
BarreUDrain [Drain] 
Barrelier, Jamen, 497 
Barren Flowers, 497 
Barren Land, 497 
Barri, Giraldus de, 501 
Barricade, 502 
Barrier, 5,02 
Barrier Island, 502 



VOL. in. 

Barrier, Treaty of the, 502 

Barring-out, 503 

Barrington, the Hon. Daines, 

BarrU, 503 [503 

Barrister, 503 

Barrister (in Scotland), 503 

Bar6ocio, Frederigo, 505 

Bamns, Le,'506 

Birros, Joao de, 506 

Banow [Tumulus] 

Barrow, l»aac, 507 

Barrow (rirer), 509 

Barrow Point, 509 

Barrow's StraiU, 510 

Bany, 510 

Barry, James, 510 

Bany,Cuuntefl8 de, 51 1 

Bars, or Barsh, 512 

Bart, Jean, 512 

Bartas, Guillaume de Salluste, 
Sieur du, 513 

Barter, 513 

Barter <in arithm.), 514 

Bartfeld, 514 

Barth, 514 

Barth^lemy, (Saint) de ChidiU- 
lianc, 514 

Barth^lemy, Jean Jeaques, 514 

Bartholfuus, Erasmus, 5 16 

Bartholioe, Thomas, 516 

Bart holine, or Bartholinns, Tho- 
mas, 516 

Bartholomew Massacre, the St., 
516 [519 

Bartholomew, St. (hospital), 

Bartholomew, St (island), 519 

Bartin, or Bartan (river) [Par- 
th^nius] 

B4rtoli,Oani61e, 520 

Bartolozsi. Francesco, 521 

Barton, Benjamin Smith, 521 

Barton, Elisabeth, 522 

Bartoo-upoD-Humber, 523 

Baruch, 523 

Bary'tes [Barium] 

Baryto-Calcite, 524 

BdrytOD, or Barytone, 524 

B&ryton (instrument), 524 

Bas, Isle of, 524 
I Bas-oha, 525 



VOL. III. 
BAMlt,525 
Baacine(,52S 

Base (in aichit) f CoIvhib] 
Base, or Baas 

Base-Clef [Clef] [Base] 

Base Continued [Coatu»oeC 
Base, Double [OouUe Bas«] 
Base, Figured [Figiued hmMr] 
BsM, Fundameotal [Funda- 
mental Base] 
Base, Gnmod [Grooad B*ee] 
Base Line [Qgodeey] 
Base, Thofough tTlMroiigli 
Base Voice, 526 [BaatJ 

Besides, 527 
Basel, Canton of, 527 
Basel (town), 527 
Basel, Council of [CottDciisJ 
Basement, 528 
Basha [Pasha] ■ 
Bashaa* 529 
BashtV Islands, 529 
Ba«hkirs, 529 
Basil [Ocymnm] 
Basil (Bishop), 530 
Ba>il, St., 530 
Basil, monks of St, 530 
Basilica, 531 
Btoilica (building), 531 
Basilic&ta, 535 
B4siU»k, 536. 

BasiUus, Basillus II., 537, :^35 
Bai»in, 538 
Basingktoke, 539 
Basiug, John, 540 
Baakerville, John, 540 
Basle [Basel] 
Basnage, 541 
Basques, Les, 543 
Basque Provinces^ 543 
Basque Lunguagi^, 545 
Basra, 546 
Boss, 546 
Bas»* StraiU, 547 
Basse, 547 
Boss&iio, 547 

BasitaQo,GiacomodaPbiktr. 54^ 
Baxsatio, Francesco da Pu'^*.^ 
548 



VOLUME IV. 



Bassantiu, 1 

Batsein, I 

Basseterre (St.Chri]i»tophvr\), 1 

Ba<«se<erre (Guadaloufw ), 2 

Basseterre (Marie Galaiiti:), 2 

Bosset-Hom, 2 

Bassevelde, 2 

Bassio, 2 

Bassigny, 3 

Baaso>EiUevo, 3 ^ 

Bassompierre, Francis de, 8 

Basiooo, 10 

Bassoon, Double, 10 

BMSorah [Basra] 

Bassui, 10 

Bast, FVedtfrie Jamca, 10 

Bastan fBastau] 

Bastard', 10 

Baidardy, 11 

BA»t«*niies, 12 

Bastia* 13 

Bastidr, La, 13 

Bastile, 13 

Bastimentos, 15 

Bastinido, 15 

Blstion, 15 

Bat [Cheiroptera] 

BaUra, 18 

Batitas, 19 

B4Uvi, 19 

Bat&Tia (dUtrict), 20 

Batif U (city), 20 

• Tbn Is sot la alphabetkal ar- 
taaisacat. la eonafoiivBce of lis 
bavtag base ■bprinisi Jert Xiee> .1 



Batavian Republic [Holland] 

Bath (city), 21 

Bath (U.S.), 23 

Bath, Knight of the, 23 

Bath, 24 

Bathgate, 3 1 

Buthi.i^', 32 

Batburst, Allen, Earl, 37 

Bathurst (Africa),*ad 

Bathurst (New South Wales), 

Bathurktlulet,38 [38 

Bathurst Inland, 3^ 

Batman, 38 

Batman (weight), 38 

Baln-vLHajar, 38 

Batoirtes, 39 

Batrachians [Fro^] 

Batrachomyomlchia, 39 

Batta, 39 

Battalion, 39 

Battardeau [Cofibrdam] 

Battas, 40 

Battens, 41 

Battering Ram [Artillery] 

Battersea, 42 

Battery (in law) [Assault] 

Battery, 42 

Battical6a, 43 

Battice, 43 

Battle (town), 43 

Battle-axe, 44 

Battle, Wager of [Appeal] 

Battlement, 45 

Baturin, 46 

B»ud, 47 



Baudour, 47 

Baug6, 47 

Bauhin, John, 47 

Bauhin, Gaspard, 47 

Bauhinia, 47 

Baamanshohle, 48 

Baume, 48 

Baumgarten, Alexander Gott- 

Bautxen,48 [Ueb,48 

Bararia (kingdom of)i 49 

Bavay, 58 

Bawtry, 59 

Baxter, William, 59 

Baxter, RichaiU, 59 

Baxterians, 62 

Bay, 62 

Bay Salt [Salt] 

Bay Tree [Launis] 

Bayadetr, 62 

Bayamo fSaUador, S.] 

Bayan KLara Mountains, 63 

Bayard, Pierre de Terrail, 63 

Bayasid I., II., 64. 65 

Bayasid ( town), 65 

Bayer, John, 65 

Bayer, Gottlieb Siegfried, 67 

Bayeux, 67 

Bayeux Tapestry, 68 

Bayle, Peter, 70 

Bayi^n, 72 

Bayne, Alexander, 72 

Bayonet [Arms] 

Bayonne, 73 

Bayswater, 74 

B4xa,74 



Bazaar, 74 

Bases, 76 

Basois, 76 

Bast&n, or Baitao, 76 

Bd61tium, 77 

Beachy Head, 77 

Beacon, 77 

Beaconsfield. 78 

Bead-Mouldiog [Mbuldincj 

Bead Tree [Meli* and Km 

Beadle, 78 [caf|M»T 

Beads (Rosary Beads), 7l» 

Beagle, 79 

BoaminUer, 79 

Beams f Materials, atretiglh trf* 

Beau fFaba, Kineeuitts, aW 
Dolicnos] 

Bean, 79 

Bean Goose, 8S 

Bear, Great and Lit^ ^Lraa 
Major and Minor* 

Bear (sooWy), 84 
Bearberry [Arct^st4phyloa* 
B».ar Lake, 95 
Bear's Foot [UeUebon^, 
Bear'H Whurtle-Bcny. ^ 
Beard, 96 
Bearing, 98 
B£arn, 98 
Beati6cation, 99 
Beaton, Cardinal, 99. 
Beats (in music), 101 
Beattie, James, 101 
Beaucaire, 102 
Bwufoitj 104. 



88 

VOL. IV, 
Bibliography, 379 
Scatter, 3S2 
B'nAire, 383 
Bich«t,M.F.X.,384 
Bictov, 385 
Bidasto, 385 
Biddle, John, 385 
Bideford, 387 
Bidloo,Gode&oid,386 
Bidpai, 388 
Bielefeld, 389 
Bieliti, 389 
Biella, 390 
Bienne, 3S0 
Bieaniidai 390 
Bieibosehy 390 
Bi^vre, 390 
Biga, 390 
Bigamy, 390 
BigeneHna,391 
Bigglegwade, 391 
Bignooiices, 391 
Bigorre, 391 
Bihar, 392 

Bija Oanita [Viga Oaiiita] 
Biianaghur, 392 
Bijnee, 393 • 
Bijore, 393 
Bilbio, 393 
Bilbeny rVaccinum] 
Bflbilii, 394 
BU6,394 

Biledulgorid [Beledl 
Bilimbi, 396 
BiUn, 396 

Bill in Chancery [Equity] 
BiU in Parliament, 396 
BillofSxchange,398 
Bill of Health [Quarantine] 
Bill of Lading, 404 
BiU of Rights, 404 
BiU of Sale, 405 
Billin^-Bgate, 405 
Baiiton, 406 
Billom, 407 
Billon, 407 

Bills of Mortality, 407 
BUma, 408 
BilocuUna, 408 
BilMton, 408 
Binch, 409 
Bindrabund, 409 
Bind Weed [Convolf oliit] 
Bingen, 409 



INDEX. 



I 



VOL. IV, 
•Bingliaiiii 409 
Bingley, 410 
Btnnade, 410 
Bin6cnlus, 410 
Binomial, 411 
Binomial Theoicmi 411 
Biography, 414 
Bion, 416 
BipapUUria. 417 
Bipes, 417 
Biquadratic^ 418 
Bir, 418 
Birbhoom, 418 
Bireh Tree [Betolal 
Birch, Thomas, 419 
Bird Cherry [Cerasns] 
Bird-Lime, 419 
Bird of Paradise, 419 
Birdpepper [Capsicum] 
Birds, 423 

Bird VEye View, 432 [pus] 
Bird's Foot Trefoil [Omtthu- 
Bird's Mouth [Moulding] 
Bird's Nest [Lathraa and 

Neottia] 
Biren [Anna Iwanowna] 
BIrgus, 432 
Birkenfeld, 434 
Birket-el-Keroun, 434 
Birket-el-Mariout, 434 
Birma, 434 
Birmingham, 443 
Biroslrfres, 448 
Birr, 449 

Bisciho [Lagostomys] 
Biscay, 450 
Biscay, Bay of, 451 
Bischwiller, 452 
Biscuit (bread), 452 
Biscuit (in pottery), 452 
Bishareeuy 453 
Bishop, 453 
Bishop's Castle, 456 
Bishop's Stortfoid, 457 
Bishop's Waltham, 458 [Und] 
Bishop Wearmonth [Sunder- 
Bisign&no, 458 
Bisley, 459 , 
Bismuth Ores, 459 
Bismuth, Medical nies of^ 461 
Bisnaghur [Bijanaghur] 
Bison, 461 

Biss&gos, the, 468 ' 

Biweztile, 468 



VOL. IV. 
BisioB,468 
Biitoit [Polygonum] 
Bistre, 468 
Bistrili, 468 
Bithy'nia, 469 
Biton, 470 
Bitouto, 470 
Bitter Principle, 470 
Bitterspar, 470 
Bitter Sweet [Sdamun] 
Bittem,471 
Bitters, 472 
Bitumen, 473 

Bitumens, Mediad Uses of^ 474 
Bivouac, 474 
Bixa,474 
Biysk, 475 
Bisari, Peter, 475 
Bhu:k [Cotours or light] 
Black Jack, 475 
Black Lead [Plumb&go] 
Black l^gments [Carl>on; 

Charcoal, Animal] 
Black, Joseph, 475 
Black Assise, 477 
Blackbirds, 477 
Black Bonnet [Bunting] 
Blackburn, 479 
Black-Cap, 480 
Black-capped Tom-Tit [Tit- 
Black- Cock, 48 1 [moose] 
Black-Forest [Schwanwald] 
Black or Dominican Friars, 484 
Blackfriara Bridge, 484 
Blackheaih, 486 
Blacklock, Rev. Thomas, 486 
Blackmore, Sir Richard, 487 
Blackness, 488 
Blackpool, 488 
Black-Rock, 488 
Blackiod, 488 
Black Sea, 489 
Blackstone, Sir WiUiam, 490 
Blackstone Canal, 493 
BlackwaU [London] 
Blackwater (Essex), 493 
Blackwaler (co. Cork), 493 
Blackwater (cq. Armagh), 494 
Blackwell, Thomas, 494 
Bladder, the, 494 
Bladder. Nut [StaphyleaJ 
Bladder-Senna [ColuteaJ 
Bladensburg [Washington] 
Blain, 497 



[ 



VOL. IV. 
BlaiiwAtbol [Atkol] 
Blair-Gowrie, 497 
Blair, Hugh, 497 
Blair, John, 498 
Blair, Robert, 498 
Blaisois, Le [Blois] 
Blake, Robert, 499 
Blanc, Le, 501 
Blancr Mount, 501 
Blaachard (af nmaot) [BaUoonl 
Bianeo, Cape, 501 
Blandford Forum, 502 
Blane, Gilbert, 503 
Blank Veise, 504 
Blankenburg, 5(M 
Blantyie, 506 

Blaps, 506 

Blasendorf, 506 

Blisphemy, 506 

Blast, Blasting rMimag] 

Blast-Fumace [Iron] 

Bl&ttida, 508 

Blavet, 508 

Blaye, 509 

Blaionry, 509 

Bleaching. 509 

Bleak [Lenciscus] 

Blechingley, 510 

BlMius, 511 

Bleeding, 511 

Bleiberg, 511 

Blemus, 511 

Blende, 511 

Blenheim, 511 

Blenheim Park, 511 

Blinnius, 512 

BUpharis (entomology^ & 1 3 

Blepharis (sootogy), 513 

Bl^pmas. 513 

Bltoif, Le [Btois] 

Blethisa, 513 

Bligh, Wiltiam, 513 

Blight, 515 

Blind, lostmction of the, 515 

Blindage, 528 

Blindness [Eye] 

Blind-Worm, 528 

Blister, 529 

Blister-Bectle [Cantharu] 

Block, 530 

Blockade, Law oi; 530 

Blockhouse, 534 

Blocking Course [Entahlalw; 

Bloemaart, Abrahaai, 534 



VOLUME V. 



Bloii, 1 

Blomefield, Francis, 2 

Bbmdel, 3 

Blood, 3 

Bk>od, Thomas, 6 

Bloodhound, 7 

Bloomfield, Robert^ 11 

Blow4npe, 11 

Blubber [Whale-risbervl 

Bliiehcr, Lebrecht von, 14 

Blue, 16 

Blue-Bird, 17 

Blue- Bottle, 17 

Blue-Breast, 17 

Blue-Mountains, 18 

Blue-Rid(|e [Appalachian 

Mountains] 
Blundell Museum, 19 
Binndrrbuss [Arms] 
Blytb. 19 
Boa, 19 
Boadic^ 28 
Boar [Hog] 
Beard, 28 
Buirmia, 28 
Boat [Liie-Boat] 
Boat-BiU, 28 
Boatswain, 29 
Bob«r (river), 29 
Boli-o-Unk, 29 
Bobruv, & 8., 30 
Boeage, 14,30 






Bocc&ccio, Giovanni, 31 

Boccage, Ma^me du, 32 

BoocaUni, Trajino, 32 

Boccanira, Simdne, 33 

Boocherfni, Luigi, 33 

Bochart, Samuel, 33 

Bochart, Mathieu, 34 

Bochnia, 34 

Bocholt-Aaham, 35 

Bocland, 35 

Bodensee [Constance, Lake of] 

Bodley, Sir Thomas, 36 [37 

Bodleyan or Bodleian Lifaraiy, 

Bodmer, Johann Jacob, 39 

Bodmin, 39 

Bod6ni, John Baptist, 40 

Boecc, or Bo^tius, Hector, 41 

Bce^ila, 42 

Buvrhaave, Hensam^ 45 

Biicthius, 47 

Bog, 48 

Bo,,'- Earth, 51 

Bog or Bug [Vistula] 

Bog (the Ily'panis). 51 

Bo^danovitch, H.T., 51 

Bogerman, 52 

Boglipore (district), 52 

Boglipors (town), 53 

Bog(»ti,54 

Bogw&ngola, 55 

Bohemia, 55 

BobteiA. F«ifit of, 99 



Bohemians [Gipnes] 
Bohemond, 60 
Bohme (Behmen), 61 
Btthmisch Leipa LLeipa] 
Bohodukboff, 63 
Bou, 63 
Boil, 64 

Boileau, Nicholas, 64 
BoUing of Fluids, 66 
Bois.le.Duc, 68 
Bojedor, Cape, 68 
Boiardo, Malt^o Maria, 69 
Bokhim (country), 70 
Bokh&ra (town), 72 
Bolbec, 73 
Bolb6cerua, 74 
Bolchow, 74 
Bole, 74 
Boletic Add, 74 
BoIet6bius, 75 
Boletus, 75 

Boiaus, Med. Ueeiof, 75 
Boleyn, Anne, 75 
Bolingbroke, Viscount, 77 
BoUt6pha^ua, 79 
Bolivar, Simon, 79 
Bolivia, 85 
Bollandufl, John, 89 
Boldgna, 90 

Bologna, Legaiione di, 92 
Bolognete School of Fainting, 
92 



Bolognian Fbotphorao [Pl»i*- 

phorus] 
Bolognian Stone [Barium] 
Bolor or Belur Tagh, 95 
BoMna, 95 
Bols^na, Lake of, 95 
B61sover, 96 
Bolt^nia, 96 
Bolthead, 97 
Bolton-Ie-Moon, 97 
Bomb, 100 
Bomb-prooi; 100 
Bomb-Vessel, 101 
BombicesB, 101 
Bombardier, 101 
Bombardment, 101 
Bombay, 102 

Bombay, PresidcMgr ol^ 10» 
Bombasine, 107 
Bombelli, Raphael, 107 
Bombic Add, 107 
B6mbus, 107 
Bomby'ddsB, 106 
BombydUa, 109 
Borobylida, 114 
Bona, 114 [P^*J 

Bonacd, Leonardo [Lemiatd «rf 
Bonapirte, NapoIe6ne, 1 14 
Bonaparte, Napoleon Fraannt« 
Bonisia, 143 O*-? 

Bonasdni, Giulio, 146 
BoniMtts [BinaJ 



90 



INDEX. 



VOL. V. 
Brief, 421 
Brieuc, Saint, 421 
Brig, Brigantiiw [Ship] 
Bfit^ade, 422 
Bri^^Entes, 422 
Briggt, Henry^ 422 
BrighthelmBtoDe, or Brighton, 
BrignoUet, 425 [423 

Brimstone [Sulphur] 
Brindisi, 425 
Brindley, Jamei» 425 
Brine Shrimp or Brine Worm 

fBranchiopoda] 
Bnonic I ties, 426 
Brioude, 426 
Brisg.m, The, 426 
Bris86n, Bamab6, 427 
Brisson, M. J., 427 
Brissot, J. P., 427 
Bristol, 428 

Bristol (CO.), U. S., 439 
Bristol (town), U.S., 439 
Bristol Channel [SevemJ 
Brisure, 439 

Britain, Great JGreat Britain] 
Britain, New [New Britain] 
Britannia, 439 
Britinnicus, 448 
Britany [Bretagne] 
British Americii, 449 
British Channel[£ng;lish Chan 
British Museum, 449 [nel] 
Brittun, 455 
Brive, 456 
Brixen, 456 
Brixham, 456 
Broach [Baroach] 
Broadstairs [Kent] 
Br6cchi, G. B., 456 
BrockenfHartl 
Brocklesby, Richard, 457 
Brocoli, 458 
Brody, 458 



Bufibn, Comte de, 3 

Bu£fbon. 5 

Buib [Frog] 

Bug. 5 

Bug (river) [Bog] 

Bupey, 5 

Budding Act [Brick, p. 410] 

BuiJth [Brecoii] 

Buitensorg [Java] 

B (llama [Busogos] 

Bulb [BudJ 

Bulbous Plants, 5 

Bulgaria I Rum-Ili.] 

Bulimia, 6 

BuKmulus, 7 

BuUnus, 7 

Bull fOx] 

Bull, George, 9 

Bull-Dog [Dog] 

BuU-FighU, 10 

BulKFrog [Frog] 

Bullace, 11 

Baiade, 1 1 

Bulletin, 13 

Bulleyn, Ann [Boleyn] 

Bullfinch, 13 

BulUard, Pierre, 16 

Bullion, 17 

Bullrush, 18 

Bulls, Papali 18 

Bulwer, John, 19 

Bundelcnnd, 19 

Bundev.Abbai [Gombroon] 

Bungay, 20 

Bunker*s HUl [Boston] 

Bunting [Kmberisa] 

Bunyan, John, 20 

Bunilau ( Prussian Sileiia), 20 

Bunalau (Bohemia), 20 

BuonafSde, Appi&no, 21 

Buonarotti. M. A. [Angelo 

Mtchacl] 
Buonaparte [Boiup«rteJ 
^▼1, 21 



VOL.V. 
Broek, 458 
Broken-wind, 458 
Broker, 459 
Bromberg, 459 
Brome-Grass, 460 
Bromeli&cen, 460 
Bromine, 460 
Bromley [Kent] 
Bromley St. Leonards, 461 
Bromsgrove, 461 
Bromwieh, West [West Brora- 
Bronchftis, 462 [wich] 

Bronchitis (in quadrupeds), 464 
Br6nchocele, 466 
Bronte, 466 
Bronie, 466 
Brooke, Henry, 469 
Brooklyn, 470 
Broom [Snartiiun] 
Br6scu8, 470 

Broseley, 470 

Br6simum, 470 

Br6smius, 470 

Brothers, Richard, 470 

Brotier, Gabriel, 471 

Br6tula, 471 

B rough [Westmoreland] 

Broughtoo Archipelago, 472 

Bruuncker, William, 472 

Brou8son6tia, 472 

Brouwcr [Brauwer] 

Brown, Charles Brockden, 472 

Brown, John, 472 

Brown, Thomas, 473 

Browne. Thomas), 475 

Browne, William Geo., 476 

Brownists, 477 

Bruce, Edward, 477 

Bruce, James, 478 

Bruce, Michael, 481 

Bruce, Robert, 482 

Bruchsal, 484 



VOL. V. 
Brdchot, 485 
BHicia, 485 
Brucker, James, 486 
Brueis, Admiral, 486 
Bruges, 486 
Brugm&nsia, 487 
Bruhl, Count von, 487 
Brumoy, Pierre, 487 
Bruu, Charles Le, 487 
Brunck, R. F. P., 488 
Brune, Marshal, 488 
Bruoehaut, 489 
Brunelleschi, Filippo, 489 
Br6ni, Leonardo, 490 
Bruniicem, 490 
Brunings, Christian, 490 
BrUun, 490 
Br6no, Giordino, 491 
Bruno, Saint, 492 

Brunswick, 492 

Brunswick, History of, 494 

Brunswick (town), 496 

Brunswick, U. S., 496 

Brunswick, New [New Brans- 

Bruntisland [Fife] [wick] 

Brussels, 49o 

Bruton [Somerset] 

Brutus, Lucius Junius, 498 

Brutus, Dccimus Junius, 499 

Brutus, Marcus Junius, 499 

Bruyere, La, Jean, 500 

Bruyn, Cornelius, 501 

Bryacea [Musci] 

Bryant, Jacob, 501 

Bryaxis, 502 

Bryonia, 502 

Bryophy'llum, 502 

Brzcse Litewskv [Grodno] 

BTibalus [Antelope, Ox] 

Bubo, 502 

Bubon [Galbanum] 

Buccaneers, 504 



VOLUME VI. 



B6palus, 21 

B6phaga, 21 

Bupr^htidsB, 22 

Bura, 23 

Burbage, Richard, 23 

Burckbardt, J. L., 23 

Burdwan, 24 

Burette, 25 

Btirford [Oxfordshire] 

Burg, 25 

Burgage, Tenure, 25 

Burgeon, 26 

Burger, G. A., 26 

Burgess [Boroughs of England 

and Wales] 
Bur^rh Caktle,26 
Burglary, 27 
Burgomaster, 27 
Burgos, 27 
Burgoync, John, 28 
Burgundians, 28 
Burgundy [Bourgognej 
Bunul [Interment] 
Buritttes, The, 29 
Burigny, J. L. de, 30 
Burin, [Graver] 
Burke, Kdmuod, 30 
Burlam&cchi, F., 36 
Burlamaqui, J. J., 36 
Burleigh, Lord [Cecil] 
Burlesque, 36 
Barletta, 36 

Burlington (New Jersey), 30 
Burlington (Vermont), 37 
Burlington, Earl of, 37 
Burlos [Egypt] [pire] 

Burmao Empire [Birmau Km- 
Burman (family), 37 
Burmanniices, 37 
Burn, Richard, 37 
Burnet, Gilbert, 38 
Burnet, Thomas, 39 
Burnett, James [Monboddo] 
Buriwtt, John, 40 



Bumey, Charles, 40 

Burning [Brand] 

Burning Glasses, 41 

Burnley, 42 

Bums and Scalds, 43 

Bums, Robert, 43 

Burnt Ear, 45 

Burrampooter [Brahmapootra] 

BurrowiogOwl [Owl] 

Bursa, or Brusa, 46 

Bursiria, 46 

Bursatella, 46 

Burser&cesB, 47 

Burslem, 47 

Burton, Robert, 47 [land] 

Burtou-in-Kendal [Westmore- 

Burton-upon-Trent, 48 

Burtscheid [Aix-la-Chapelle] 

Bury, 48 

Bury St. Edmunds, 50 

Busaco, 52 

Busbequius, 52 

Busby, Richard, 53 

Biisching, A. F., 54 

Bushel, 54 

Bushire [Aboushehr] 

Bushmen [Bo^esmans] 

Buskin, 54 

Bussoher, 54 

BuAsy d'Amboise, 55 

Bust, 55 

BuMtar, 55 

Bustard, 55 

Butcher- Bird [Laniadas] 

Bute, Kari of, 60 

Butea [Pterocarpus] 

Buteshire, 61 

Butler, Charles, 61 

Butler, James rOrmond,Dukeof] 
Butler, Jusepb, G2 
Butler, Samuel, 64 
Butomices, 64 
Butool, 65 



VOL. V. 
Biiccina, 506 

B6ccinum [Entomostomaiaj 
Bucco [Barbets] 
Bucentaur, 506 
Bucer, Alortio, 50/ 
B ucerut' [Hombill] 
Buch, 508 
Buchan, 508 
Buchanan, George, 508 
Buchanan, Rev. C., 509 
Buch&ria [Bokharal 
Buch aria. Little, 509 
Buchorest, 509 
Buckingham (town), 610 
Buckingham (title), 510 
Buckinghaim, Gm. Villicn 

Duke of, 510 
Buckingham, Geo. ViUien, se- 
cond Duke of, 512 
Buckingham, Duka of Shef- 
field), 51 3 

Buckinghamthirs, 514 

BuckVUorn [Rhus] 

Buckthorn [Bhamnua I 

Buck-Wheat,*523 

Buckowine [Galicln] 

Buc61ics, 524 

Bucu [Diosma] 

Bud, or Leaf-Bud, &24 

Buda, or Ofen, 525 

Buddha, Buddhism, 526 

Budding, 532 

Bud6, Guillaume, 533 

Budgell, Eustace, 53J 

Budissin [Bautzenl 

Budweis (circle), 5o3 

Budweis (tuwn), 533 

Buenos Ay res [La PUIa] 

Buenos Ayres (town), l^i-i 

Buffalo [Ox] 

Bufialo, U. S., 534 



Butrintd, 65 

Butter, 65 

Butter Trade, C8 

Butter [Diet] 

Butter Tree ^Basnift]^ 

Butter and Tallow Twt [P? 

tadesmis] 
Butterfly [Lepidoptera] 
Butterfly Plant [Oncidiun . 
Butterfly Orchid [PUni 

then] 
Buttermere, 68 
Butters, Vr^tablc, 06 
Butters (in pharmacy^, o^ 
Buttman, P. C, 68 
Buttneriicev, 69 
Button, 69 
Button, Thomas, 7e 
Buttress, 71 
Buty'ric Acid, 72 
Butyrine, 72 
Buxar, 72 
Buxina, 73 
Buxton, 73 
Buxton Waters, 74 
Buxton, Jcdediahy 74 
Buxtorf (family), 75 
Buxus, 75 

Buzsard [Fale6oid9] 
Bunard*s Bay, 75 
Byblus, 75 
Bylaw, 76 
Byng, Gtorge, 76 
Byng, John, 76 
Bynkershoek, C. ron, Tu 
Byron, Lord, 77 
Byron, John, 80 
Byssoarca, 80 
Byssomya, 80 
Byssus, 81 
Byssui,81 

Byiantioe HWtonaB^ 81 
Byiintiuflo^ 83 



c. 



C. This letter is derived firom the Ijitin alphabet, in which 
it first appears. But even in that alphabet it originally 
possessed the power of g, as pronounced in goose. Thus 
the Roman proper names Caius and Cneius, which re- 
tained this sound, are correctly represented in the Greek 
character by Gaios and Gnaios; and the Duilian inscription 
presents macestraius, leciones, pucnandod, ecfociont, in 
the place of the modern forms, magisiraius, legiones, pug- 
nandoj ecfugiunt. Indeed the poet Ausonius expressly 
states that C once performed the duty of 6 : Gamm€e vice 
fund a priua C. (See also Festus, w, Prodigia, Orcum.) 
This medial pronunciation corresponds with tlie power of the 
letters which occupy the third place in the Greek and 
Hebrew alphabets, gamma and gimel; and the identity of 
the letters is confirmed by the similarity of the forms. 
[Alphabet, p. 384, col. 2.] 

The letter c in English is pronounced as 8 before t, &, 
and k before a, o, u. This variety in the power of the letter 
seems difficult to account for ; but it may be obsened that 
i. e, belong to one end of the vowel series, a, o, u, to the 
other FAlphabbt, p. 379, col. 2]; and it is further to be 
nut iced that the vowels t and e, when they precede vowels, 
have a power approaching to that of y in youih, and that if 
in addition to tnis, c or g precede, there often results a 
sound hke that at tlie beginning of the words church and 
J'thn, and this sound of ch is not very different from a 
Mbilant. The vowels t and e produce a similar sound when 
I}ri'L*e<led by a </ or /, and followed as before by a vowel. 
Thus from ration the Italians have obtained ragione; and 
from radio, raggio; from Diana the rustics of Italy made 
.Jana. These considerations are perhaps supported by the 
employment of the little mark called cedilla in the French 

I an ;{uage, which is used to denote thatc is to be pronounced 
as uu s even before the other vowels, as pa ; for the mark 
appears to have been originally an t. The connexion of the 
bounds k and i will be again spoken of. 

The letter c, when pronounced as in caU belongs to the 
onler of guttural or throat letters, and among these it is 
di>tin^uished by that character which grammarians have 
denoted by the Latin word tenuis, * thin.* The correct dis- 
tinction of the letters called tenues, as opposed to those 
wliich bear the name of medials, is perhaps this, that iq 
tiie pronunciation of the ienues p, k, t, the organs employed 
in articulation have only a small portion of their surfaces 
brought into contact, and that but for a short time : while in 
ihe articulation of b, g, d, the surface in contact is more 
^tensive, and the effort less rapid. 

The letter c is liable to the following interchanges: — 
I. In the derivation of French words from the Latin, c 
before a is changed into aha or che ; ex., the Lat. camerctf 

vaulted chamber, castus, chaste, &c., carus, dear, coder e, 
ilU casOf cottage, appear in French under the forms, 
hambre, chaste, &c., cher, cheoir, chez, &c. In this way 
be English language has derived channel, chivalry, char' 
fi^ chattels^ through the French from the Latin canalis, 
ihallus, caro {camis), capitalia; and at the same time 
obsesses the words canal, cavalry, or cavalcade, carnival, 
it tie, derived from the same roots, but bv a different route. 
Q the patois prevailing in the N.£. of France, the sound 
f the R still remains in these words, chemin being pro- 
ounced hemin, chat as cat. 

2. The change of c into ch prepares us in some measure 
IT that of c into f, as Lat. faamus, we do, Fr. Jaisons ; 
at. placere, licere, Fr. plaisir, loisir, Eng. pleasure, 
rtture. This interchange of c and s is strongly exempli- 
id in the comparison of the western languages of Europe 
(.th those lying towards the east. Thus we have in 
atin, cams, dog ; conca, shell ; oenium, hundred ; decern, 
en ; cannabis, hemp; in Greek* kuon {kwhv), konche 
<v7X>i)t hekfUon iUarov), deka {dua), kannabis {nawafiiQ) ^ 

II Saiiscritt svan, sanca, sata, dasan, sana; and in Russian, 
be forms for calamus, cor, centum, cams, are soloma, 
<irdt^, solt, sobdka. It should be stated, however, that 
he tf io the Sanscrit alphabet, which is thus convertible with 
he k of the west, is a letter of a peculiar character, and iB 
narked by a distinct symbol. Even Herodotus has ob- 
•rred (ix. 30) that the commander of the Persian cavalry, 
(asislxw, was called by the Greeks Makistios, and the 



same interchange may occasionally be seen in the Teutonic 
languages, as in the German fatsst and fechten, Eng. fist 
diiid fight, words as certainly related as the Latin />ii^;2ar0 
and pugnus. The pronunciation of the Latin c as an « in 
such words as Cicero, Ccesar, is proved to be incorrect by 
the Greek equivalents Kikeron (Kurepcuv), Kaisar (Kaifrap), 
and no less so by the co-existence of such forms as acer, 
acris; and it would be trifling to defend the pronunciation 
by the accidental identity in form of the Roman c and one 
of the many symbols for the Greek sigma. [Alphabet, 
p. 383, columns 33 and 36.1 

3. C initial of the Latin language corresponds to A in the 
German. Compare collum, hcds, neck; celare, hehlen, 
hide; cutis, haul, hide; cannabis, hanf, hemp; canis, 
hund, hound ; comu, horn, horn ; calamus, ham, stalk ; 
caput, haupt, head ; cor (cord), herz, heart ; crates, horte, 
hurdle. Traces of the same change are visible witliin the 
Latin itself, as traho, traxi (trac-si) ; veho, vexi ivec-si) ; 
and the town of Apulia, called by Strabo Kerclonia, is called 
by Roman writers Herdona. So the Greeks had ossos 
{o(T9o^), an eye, while the Romans preferred oculus. 

4. C is convertible with v and w. This may be seen in 
the related forms Dacus, Davus ; focus, fovea; nix, nivis; 
conniveo, connixi; lacus, lavo; vivo, vixi; struo, struxi. 
Thus too the English ^ quick (the original meaning of which 
is seen in the phrases ' tne quick and the dead,* ' the auick 
of the nail,*) is identical with the Latin vivus\ ana we 
have another remarkable example in the derivation of our ^ 
words eleven and twelve from the Latin undecim, duode- 
dm, [See LJ 

5. C into g. The change already mentioned of the 
power of the Roman symbol C is a sufficient proof of this. 
We may add eager, meagre, derived through the French 
aigre, maigre, from the I^tin acer, macer. The old mean- 
ing of eager in Shakspeare is sharp, sour, as eager milk ; 
and indeed the word appears again in vinegar, vinaigre. 
So too aveugle, blind, must have come from a Latin word, 
aboculus. The same change appears in the Teutonic. To 
the Latin oculus corresponds the German auge; to duc-o, 
zog and zug ; while the Latin lacr-uma, or Greek dakr-uon, 
has in Gothic the form tagr, a tear. 

6. The interchange of c with p is most remarkable in the 
Greek and Latin languages, the former commonly pre- 
ferring the labial. Gr. pepo, Lat. coquo, cook ; Gr. leino, 
Lat. linquo, leave ; Gr. pipto (or rather />t-p«/-o), Lat caa-o, 
tail, &c. The same interchange appears within Italy itself* 
the pigeon in Rome was called columba, the pigeon out of 
Rome, that is the wild pigeon, was called palumba; so 
proximus, nearest, has supplanted propsimus, from prope, 
near. The Latin word quicquid was pronounced oy an 
Oscan as pitpit, and Augustus, we are told by Suetonius 
(Octav. 88), cashiered an officer for his ignorance in spelling 
ipse with an x.'^- This convertibility of the tenues extends 
to the letter t. Thus we find scimula and spatula both con- 
veying the notion of a blade. The Greek tetartos, fourth, 
its, who, te, and, appear in Latin as quartus, quis, que. The 
old name of the rock of Gibraltar assumes the various 
forms, Calpe, Carpe, Carte, Tarte, And in English we 
have nut, from Lat nuc, and, on the other hand, eork from 
cor t- ex. 

7. Latin words beginning with cu have often lost the 
guttural. Thus ubi occupies the place of cubi, an old dative 
of the relative (compare sicubi, alicubi, &c.) ; uter of cuter 
(compare the Greek koteroi), ttmquam of eumquam (com- 
pare together quis, cum, quisquam). This variety appears 
in our own tongue, where which, formerly whUk, was ones 
written quwhilk. 

8. C often disappears before / and n. This naturally 
arises from the difficulty of pronunciation, as in knee, Lat. 
genu ; know, Lat. gno-sco ; thus from the old Frank name 
Clodovick are derived Clevis, Louis, Ludovicus, Ludwig, 
Lovick. 

9. In the derivation of Italian and French words from 
the Latin, c disappears before a i, the preceding vowel being 

* In tome of the prDTinca of England ' wick' !■ nrnd in Um leBsc of quick. 
A thing Uiat i» alive is said to be ' wick.' 

•f In onr own language wo hate rock (Ft. fiKki), from fko Latin rvpcf, sam 
(Fr. icnmt) from rp«iiia. 

Nl 



CAB 



92 



CAB 



commonly •trengthenedt is Lat Actus, laid, It. dtiio, Fr. 
dti; Lat. coeiu*, cooked. It. eotto twhence terra cotld), 
Fr. euit (wheaoe bu-euitt twice baked). It also diiappears 
at timee before an r, as in Lat taeramentum, oatb, Fr. «tfr- 
ment ; Lat. lacrima^ a tear, Fr. larme. Lastly, the same 
fate awaits it when flanked on either side by vowels : com- 
pare the Latin locus, jocus, focus, paucum, trices, apicula, 
corbicula, oculus, nocere, &c., with the French lieu, Jeu, 
f€u,jm,fais, abdUe, corbsUU, oeil, nuire, &c 

C is the Latin svmbol for a hundred. Whether it is so 
used as being the first letter of centum, a hundred, may be 
doubted. [NuKXBALS.] 

C (in mustq), the first note of the diatonic scale, answer- 
ing to the do of the Italians, and the ut of the French. It 
gives a name to the natural major mode ; t. e. that mode or 
key, in which no sharps or flats are employed. It is also 
the mark of common, or four-crotchet, time ; and when a 
bar is perpendicularly drawn through it» aUa-breve time is 
indicated. ( Alla Brivb). This letter is likewise used as 
the abbreviation of Countertenor, or Qmtr^alio. 

CAAMA. [Antblopb, Species 62. See also Species 

630 

Cabal is often applied to a set of persons too insigni- 
ficant in point of number to form a party who endeavour 
to effect their purposes by underhand means. The ministers 
of Charles Il.t Cliflford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, 
and Lauderdale, the initials of whose names happen to 
form the word cabal, were appropriately called the ' Cabid 
Ministry.' The character of these ministers is fpven bv Hume 
in his ' History of England,* reien Charles II. The word 
' cabal* appears to come from the French cabale, a term 
employed to express a number of persons acting in concert ; 
ana it is generally understood in a bad sense. (Richelet) 
We are not aware that it was used in our language before 
the time of Dryden. 

CABANIS, PIERRE JEAN GEORGE, a distm* 

Siiished physician and philosopher, ihe son of Jean Baptiste 
abanis, an able agnculturist„ was bom at Conac in 1757. 
His natural disposition appears to have been somewhat vio- 
lent, and the earlier pericKl of his youth was passed in con- 
tinual struggles pgainst the severity of the- treatment which 
he seoms to have received both from his father and his 
teachers. During a short inters!, in which he was under 
the care of a kind and judicious instructor, he indicated a 
decided taste for classical literature ; but being soon removed 
from a teacher who saw and endeavoured to develop his 
latent talents, and being again subjected to harshness, he 
lapsed into such a sUte of idleness and obstinacy, that at 
the age of fourteen his father in absolute despair sent him 
alone to Paris, where, feeling he had no sort of influence 
over him. he abandoned him to his own course. The mo- 
ment he felt himself free, this youth, hitherto so indolent 
and intractable, became a diligent student, and for the 
space of two years devoted himself with an intensity which 
has been rarely exceeded to the study not only of the Greek, 
Latin, and French classics, but also of the works of the meta- 
physical writers both of England and France. His love of 
poetry was ardent, and he soon acquired no inconsiderable 
celebritT for some poetical piecev<of his own ; but seeing no- 
thing cheering in the prospect of the pursuit of literature as 
a profession, he chose the study o« medicine chiefly, as he 
himself states, on 'account of the varied sciences to which 
it obliged him to direct his attention. Under the guidance 
of a friend, an able physician, he applied himself for six 
Tears to the study of medicine with so much intensity that 
his health began to fail him, and being on this account 
oblised to leave Paris, he went to reside at Auteuil, where 
he beeame aeouaintad with the widow of Helvetius. This 
acquaintance determined the character of his future life. 
At the bouse of this lady, who in a manner adopted him as 
her son, he beeame intimate with the most celebrated men of 
that aBe,Turgot,D*Holbach, Franklin, Jefierson.Condillac, 
and Thomas. Here too he lived familiarly for many years 
with Diderot and D*Alembert, and occasbnally saw Vol- 
taire. He appears to have formed a strong attachment to 
Mirabeau, for which he was exposed to no little obloquy ; 
he was HkM chosen friend of Condorc«t, and he had the gra- 
tification of being able to sooth the last moments of both 
thdM remarkable men. He married Charlotte Grouchy, 
sister of General Grouchy and of Madame Condorcet, with 
whom be lived happily until his death, which happened 
ionawhat middenly on the dth of May, 1808, in the 52nd 
""V 9i)o$ age, Efe had borne no inconsiderable part in the 



events of the Revolation ; was one of the Cooaeil of Five 
Hundred, and afterwards a member of the Senate. He was 
Uie author of several works of great celebrity in his dai . 
but that which has given to his name a permanent di*tanf- 
tion is his treatise on the relation between the physical an'l 
moral nature of man. This work, entitled * Rapports «iu 
Phvsique et du Moral de I'Homme/ is putly metaph^ i^ical 
and partly physiological, and displays no ordinary power of 
observation and analysis. It is remarkable too as being the 
first attempt to treat, in a systematic fimn, the tnterestjn;; 
but difficult subject which it investigates. This work mi) 
still be read with interest and instruotion by the pbyaicuxi, 
the metaphysician, and the practical edneator. 

CABASSOU, or KABASSOU. [AftMAonxo, Sec- 
tion IV.] 

CABBAGE. There are several speeies of the genu« 
brassica, or cabbage, which comprehends the turnip, xhi 
rape, the cole, and the common culinary cabbage, or brm- 
siea oleracea. The innumereble varieties arise from dif- 
ference of soil and cultivation ; and as all the eabbage tiihc 
form hybrids, new varieties are oontinuslly produced. TUi« 
is effected by the bees, when different sorts are in flower 
at the same thne. The pollen adheres to their body as tbi*} 
seek honey in the flowers, and being deposited on Uie pi^ttlV 
of other sorts, impregnates the germen. Henoe only one 
variety of cabbage should be in flower at the same time in 
any garden or field, when we wish to keep the sort unadul- 
terated; particularly if some sorts have expanded leaTt-k. 
and others close heads. It is thus only that the exoellcot 
small miniature cabbage, which grows on the stem of lUc 
Brussels' sprout, can be kept in perfection. The diflferrst 
sorts of cabbages most prized for the garden are cfairfi> 
divided into the close-hearting and the spreading. Of tb^ 
first, the York and the Savoys are the moat eommon ; of tltc 
latter, the cole-worts and Scotch kale. 

In order to have a regular succession of cabbages the seed 
should be sown at diflerent times, from the iMginninj^ of 
spring to the autumn. The eariy sown will run to seed t!i- 
same year ; the later sown will increase more, produee lor;^' 
and firmer heads, and will not go to seed till the next sea^ti 
Some sorts, it. is said, will continue to produce leaves ti r 
several years, if they are regularly taken off, and if the «etd- 
stem is prevented from shooting by cutting it down as » •• ■ 
as it bmns to appear. Thus a perennial cabba g e- tr e^ .* 
produce^ which yields abundance of food for sheep ai 1 
cattle. 

Cabbage plants are generally raised first in a seed-bed 
when they are intended for early produce they are »nv* 
before winter, and protected by shelter, or under ^h** 
frames. In this manner strong plants may be had eaH- 
in spring, which planted out in April will produce tl. 
cabbages by July or August Those which sre raisetl or 
large scale are gcnerelly sown in Mareh, and planted whr. 
they are to remain in June or July. When tney have be>/ 
pricked out from the seed-bed very young, and allowed - 
get to a good size in a piece of ground prepared for ti.- 
purpose before bein^ finally transplanted in tbe field, t^? 
success is more certam, and it will well repay the adduionai 
trouble. These come to perfection in autumn, and ma^ be 
taken off the ground as they are wanted. Some kinds' aro 
so hardy that they will bear the severest frosts, and rcau**. 
covered with snow for a considerable time without dam£;!T' 
Such are the green curly-leaved cabbages, or Scotch kak>, 
which form no close head, but consist of spreading lea«e%. 
The great portion of nutritive matter in the leaves uiti 
stems of cabbages has made them an important object id 
cultivation wherever much cattle is kept» and where ti^ 
land is favourable to their growth. 

The cultivation of cabbages is the same in the field a> 
in the garden, except that on a large scale less attentioii i% 
paid to each plant, and the spa& is superseded by thr 
plough, end other instruments. A good and ratbcr -Ait! 
loam is best adapted to cabbages. They require acecistd«r« 
able portion of manure if the land is not naturally hr'n, ut 
if they are cultivated as a part of a regulsr rotation. Tberv 
is no vegetable which produces so large a portion of fM%i 
for cattle on the same space as the cabbage, provided thr 
soil suiU iU growth. Though it irapoxerides the gteutti. 
this should not prevent its being extensively culta«aieii« 
provided the nourishment it produces compensates fbr tbr 
additional manure required. The groat advanta^se m tb? 
cultivation of the> cabbage is, that a great portioa of its 
substance is restored to the ground in all well-regulai^eii 



CAB 



93 



CAB 



farming attabliahments, in the sbtpe of the dung^ and 
urine of the cattle fed upon tbem. It is asserted by 
ezperienoed agrioulturists uuit in this respect it is su- 
perior to the common turnip. The cultivation of the cab- 
bage on a large scale is by no means so general on the 
soils well adapted to them as might be wished. This is pro- 
bably owing to the trouble of transplanting, and the occa- 
sional &ilure of the plants in very dry weather. But the 
trouble and expense may be greatly diminished by attention 
and method. The plante may be raised in such abundance, 
by hi^Tinff a regular garden for the purpose, that they may 
be transj^antea at various times, and the plants placed so 
thick as to all3W for failures, whilst those which are super- 
fluous may be hoed out The cause of failure is generally 
in the careless manner of planting. Holes are usu^ly made 
in the ground with some blunt instrument, the plants are put 
in without ite beinff noticed whether the roots are doubled up 
or straight, whether the earth is pressed close to the roots, 
or vacancies are left between them and the soil, in which 
rase they cannot take root properly. The ground having 
been well prepared, atid being in good heart and tilth, the 
plough should open a deep and narrow fbmw. The plants 
having been carefully token up without breaking the fibres 
of the root, the tops should be cut off to about six inches 
from the crown, women and children should then go along 
the furrow with baskets in which the plante are carefully 
laid, and place them, at the distence of eighteen inches or 
two feet from each other, against the earth which has been 
J list turned over by the plough, so that the bottom of the roote 
»hall lie along the newly- made ridge, and the crown of the 
plant be on a level with the surface of the ^und ; a slight 
push will make it adhere to the fresh soil. If some rich 
xnould is mixed with drainings of the dung-hill or ditch 
%vater to the consistency of soft mud, and the root of each 
plant is dipped in a pail of this mixture immediately before 
planting, the plante will seldom fail. The plough in re- 
turning covers all these roote with the earth of the next 
furrow ; and a man follows and presses his foot obliouely 
against the fiimw slice at the place where the head of Uie 
plant appears. The plough then takes two shallower and 
broader ftirrows, or leaves a space of two feet between the 
last-made farrow, and forms another in which plante are 
again placed and covered up as before. The rows will thus 
be three feet wide. If the cabbages are of a large sort every 
allemato plant may afterwards be cut out, either as soon 
as they are fairly rooted, or when they have acquired a 
modente size ; in which case they will afford excellent food 
for cows and pigs, although not sufficient to stall cattle 
upon. The repeated use of the plough and horse-hoe be- 
tween the lows is necessary for the srowth of the cabbages, 
as well as highly useful to clean the land. By this mode 
of cultivation much labour is saved, the risk of the failure 
of the plan to is greatly diminished, and if the ground has 
been well prepared and sufficiently manured, an astonish- 
ing weight of solid food for cattle is obtained. The best 
sort to plant in the field is the large red, or the Scotch 
drum-head cabbage. Should the ground be of great fer- 
tility, and at the same time compact, the large Stras- 
burg cabbage, which grows to the weight of 60 and even 
SO lbs., will produce an enormous weight of food. This 
cabbage is common in Germany. 

When given to cattle or sheep, cabbages should be sliced 
in the same manner as turnips or beet-root When milch 
eows are fed with them, all the decayed leaves should be 
cskrefully token off and given to store cattle or nigs; for 
tbese are the chief cause of the bad taste wnich the 
milk and butter acquire from this food. [Butter.] For 
bullocks cabbages and oil-cake are excellent fooci, and 
increase their flesh rapidly. For sheep they should be 
sliced and given to them in troughs in the field where 
tbe cabbages grow, or on grass-land which requires to 
be manur^ In England the sorts which have a close 
bead are preferred ; but where labour is abundant and forage 
ycaroe, as in F^rance, the branching sorts are thought more 
profitable, because the leaves may be taken off repeatedly 
and will grow again. The thousand-headed cabbage, and 
the large cabbage of Poitou, as well as the tall cabbage, 
called chou cavaUer, which grows with a stem six feet high, 
and ffives large broad leaves without any close head, are 
Ip^atiy preferred in France to the sorts which bear close 
beads. 

Cabbages are subject to a peculiar disease when re- 
peaiadiy planted in the same ground : the bottom of the 



stem enlarges, and the plant becomes sickly. This disease 
is called clubinng, and is occasioned by an insect, which 
deposito its eggs in the substence of the stem where it 
joins the root : the organisation of the plant is deranged, 
and the cabbages never come' to perfection. The only 
remedy for this disease is to change the cultivation, and flir 
a time to plant no cabbages on the ground, which produces 
clubbed plants, but to trench it up well, and expose it to the 
winter's frost in ridges * quick-lime should be put on it, but 
no manure ; and other vegetebles of a different class should 
be sown for two or three years. After this it may be consi- 
dered as purified, and cabbages may safely be planted there 
again. In the fields, where cabbages do not return so fre- 
quently on the same ground, this disease is seldom found. 
The depredations of caterpillars and slugs are sometimes 
very great ; the only means of prevention is to pick them 
off as soon as they appear : ducks and fowls in this case 
are excellent helps, the former especially, fbr clearing the 
ground of slugs. 

In Germany there is an immense consumption of the 
large white cabbage in the form of the national mess, called 
saur kraut. This is prepared in the following manner : — 
the cabbages are sliced thin by hand, or by a machine like 
a tumip-slicer, of the same kind as that by which French 
beans are sliced in Holland. [Bean, p. 83.] The bottom 
of a cask, of which the head has been taken out, is covered 
with salt, and a layer of thin-sliced cabbage six inches 
thick is laid over it; on this a quantity of salt is spread, 
and another layer of cabbage mixed with some juniper- 
berries and whole pepper; and thus salt and cabbage 
altomatoly until the cask is filled. A round board is then 
put into the cask so as nearly to fit it; and on this a heavy 
weight of stone or metel is laid. As the cabbage fermente 
and sinks, the cask is filled up with fresh salt and cabbage. 
After some time the expressed juice is poured off, some 
water with salt dissolved in it is poured over, and changed 
until it ceases to rise with a scum and foetid smell; the 
cabbage is then in a fit state to be kept. A cloth is laid 
over iC and over this the round board and weighte. When 
any portion is taken out for use, a sufficient portion of brine 
is allowed to remain over the mass to exclude the air ; and 
the cloth, board, and weights, are replaced as long as any 
cabbage remains. This saur kraut, when washed with soft 
water and stewed with bacon or salted meat, is a very whole- 
some dish, and much relished by those who have been 
early accustomed to it. In long voyages it has been found 
to be an admirable preservative against the sea-scurvy. 

CABBAGE PALM. [Arkca.] 

CA'BBALA. • The Jewish Cabbala,* says Dr. Henry 
More in the preface to his ' Coi^jectura Cabbalistica,* ' is con- 
ceived to be a traditional doctrine or exposition of the Pen- 
tateuch, which Moses received from the mouth of God 
while he was on the mount with him. And this sense, or in- 
terpretation, of the law or Pentateuch, as it is a doctrine 
received by Moses first, and then from him by Joshua, and 
from Joshua by the seventy elders, and so on, was called 

Cabbala from ^^p, kibbel, to receive. But, as it was deli- 

vered as well as received, it was called Mdsora, which sig- 
nifies a Tradition; though this latter more properly re- 
specU that critical and grammatical skill of the learned 
among the Jews, and therefore was profitable for the ex- 
plaining the literal sense, as well as that more mysterious 
meaning of the text where it was intended.* In a wider 
sense, however, the Cabbala is used for the whole secret or 
esoteric philosophy of the Jewish doctors— a subject of 
great extent and intricacy, upon which voluminous works 
have been produced both bv Rabbinical and Christian 
writers. The most celebratea collection of the Rabbinical 
writings on the Cabbala is the work entitled ' Kabbala 
Denudata, sen Doctrina HebraK>rum Transcendentalis,* &c., 
3 vols. 4to. Sulzbach, 1677, and Frankfort, 1684. Tbe 
editor of this work, which is a very rare book, the third 
volume in particular, is believed to be Christianus Knorrius 
d Rosenroth. Liste of the Rabbinical treatises on the Cab- 
bala may be found in Wolfs ' Bibliotheca Hebraea,' and 
in the 'Bibliotheca' Magna 'Rabbinica' of Bartoloccius 
and Imbonatus. Of the Christian writers on tbe Cabbala, 
the most famous are Picus of Mirandola, the younger Van 
Helmont, and his friend Dr. Henry More, the learned and 
eloquent English Platonist. Dr. More, under the title of 
• Conjectura Uabbalistica,* published what he calls • A con- 
jectural Essay of interpreting the mind of Moses in the 



CAB 



94 



CAB 



three irat ehaptert of GeneeiB, eocording to a threefold Cah- 
bala, ▼».: literal, philosophical, mystical, or dlTinely 
moral/ This work, which, with the defences, appendices, 
&c., in the edition of 1713, fills ahout 250 folio pages, is a 
very remarkable performance. So highly does the pious 
writer estimate the secret philosophy which he thinks may 
be extracted fh>m the Mosaic records, and so essential does 
he deem it to the right understanding of scripture, that, in 
his dedication to Dr. Cudworth, he does not hesitate to 
affirm that if the atheist could have fully granted to him 
' that there is no knowledge of God but what Moses his text 
set on foot in the world, or what is traditional, he cannot but 
think that religion in this dress is so empty, exceptionable, 
and contemptible, that it is but just, with as many as are 
not mere fools, to look upon it as some melancholic conceit, 
or cunning fiction, brought into the world to awe the simple 
sort, but behind the hangings to be freely laughed at and 
derided by those that are more wise, and that it were 
an easy thing in a short time to raze the memory of it out 
of the minds of men, it having so little root in the human 
faculties.' There is a valuable article on the Cabbala, bv 
the Abb6 Mallet, in the great French ' Encyclop^die.* A 
short popular account of this philosophy is given by the Mar- 
quis Le Gendre in the 7th chapter of the third book of his 
* Trait6 de TOpioion.* The celebrated work of the Abb6 do 
Villars, entitled ' Le Comte de Gabalis,* from which Pope 
avows that he took the machinery of Sylphs and Gnomes in his 
' Rape of the Lock,* is a satire upon the mystical absurdities 
of the Jewish Cabbala. Bayle has noticed that the sub- 
stance of this work is contained in the first two of ten 
letters attributed to the charlatan Joseph Francis Borri, 
and published at Geneva in 1681, under the title of his 
' Chiave del G^binetto' (Key of the Cabinet) (Art Borri, 
note G.) Although the letters in (question are dated at 
Copenhagen in 1666, there can be little doubt that they 
were stolen from the work of the Abb£ de Villars, which 
was first printed in 1670. 

CABELLO. [PuBRTO Cabbllo.] 

CABES, GULF OF, the Syrtis Minor of the antients, 
lies between the W. coast of the regency of Tripoli and the 
B. coast of that of Tunis. It takes its name from the town 
of Cabes or Ghabs, situated at the bottom of the gulf, and 
near the border of the two states. The fine island of (^rbi, 
with 30,000 inh., is in the £. part of the Gulf of Cabes on 
the Tripoli coast though dependent on Tunis, and the town 
and port of 8 fax in the Tunisian mainland is on the oppo- 
site or N.W. coast. The Gulf of Cabes is bounded to the 
N. bv the Cape Capoudia and the Kerkeni islands or rocks, 
whicn divide it from tho Gulf of Hammamet, which extends 
northwards towards Cape Bon. 

CABIAT. [Capyhara.] 

CABIN, a term in naval architecture* applied to those 
portiops of a ship allotted to the vorious officers. In large 
VtfHurls tho admlrars and captain's cabins extend across the 
ship nrnr her stern, and they are usually divided into two, 
tfiruiml Iho fitro and (\ftfr cabins; the latter are considered 
nmro stni'tly iirivuto, while tho former are used for dinner, 
for llio rm'iipllon of Htrunj^orH, and other purposes. Those 
f»«l<Mi^ltig to tiio junior rommlHMionod and warrant officers 
iif« riiiiK"d iihmg the side of tho ship, having an area of 
from llvo to SIX frot in width, and from six to seven feet in 

Ih ffunif«i« ihn rniitriln's cnhin is on the main deck, and 
flirt |/Mfi loom, Of shor purtof tho lower deck, is given to 
fl.i* .;«)'»•»•; hut In two^li'frkcMl line-of battle ships, the 
t .tpfMiM hi Kfi fhft nihin undi'r tho p(K;p, and the officers the 
If,. .1 f ^Imm hu Iho iipp'jr Ktin-dcrk. Vihxch is called the 
0mt'\ f.'ffH, n$,'\ Ml /fpi/ th*i n.'U-n of whi^h is a row of private 
f ,1, tfM h ./ ii /or»«.#M.o.(f • p"rt, ond tlic-rcfore a gun); while 
I Mfff*f*\ -j»f *« »• J* fi t»h'li\j«l«;d i'tr a mc>!»-place. In 
M./^' ')'f0*f* I" .« !•'/" ftji.iitriJMit IS appropriated to the 
^, ., . ,1 m, /) *i.*i *.ih'» r« iiikt^ ih<! rorrvuponding one on the 
, . if ., *,*' < 't h*' part.fioiin by whirh all these cabins 
,,, .,./') ntt, f »../'J bulk hmdM, and are composed of 

,\ f, ,- .»», »;. ' ii Afo instantly removable when 

1,^, , ', . ,./ ',. ,*'tt) to '^ <'l*iif»»d for Oct ion* 

/ A .'. r /••"•• • o'h i» »'xtiii*ivrly employed in the 

M^^ / ./' I. .»»••• r/ji*'h tiioro limited signification 

' . , ,f t.V,, '», *ij fcj.irtfiK'nt in which men of 

,,..,,•■'# ^» .> *fl...r» aind barrinters receive 

., ,4 ,.:.'., • I lit'X.rv ihf application of 

,„,,,>,./ ' '^t/ '. S.y y !./• Uj ailvifce with them 

v./'* '^ y.'^ #.!•.#• */»'l i/i direct tlic higher 



tf 



I '' 



bnnchea of the administration. The membeii of tha «<•• 
cutive government in England who uv res|Mmatblo for 
public measures are, as a body, termed the Cabinett and as 
mdividuals, Members of the Cabinet 

C AB'IRl {Tafiilpm), antient Pelasgian divinitiea, beloviz- 
ing to a system of elementary religion, which, in the later 
ages of Greece, was connected with the celebration of ro> »ic- 
rious 'rites in the island of Samothrace. According t • 
Strabb (p. 478), who quotes Stesimbrotus, they derived tii< ir 
name from Mount Cabeirus in Berecynthia. They wrrv 
apparently the same as the Cory ban tes, &c. (Strabo, p. 4t t. 
472 ; Sehol. on Aristoph. Pae, 277), and their worahin ««..> 
most cultivated in Samothrace, Lemnoe» Imbros« and ct:r> 
tain towns of Troas. (Strabo, p. 473.) Their names were 
mystical, and are given by Mnaseas. {SchoL AjiolL Kb. i.. 
917.) Camilus, Uumilus or Cadmilus, was the son t.i 
HephflDStus and Cabeira, and his children were the thrfo 
Cabeiri, from whom came the nymphs Cabeirades (Acu«i- 
laus, ap. Strab., p. 472). Camilus is stated to have Wtn 
the same as Hermes, and the three Cabeiri mentioned b> 
Mnaseas, Axicres, Axiocersa and Aiiocersus, are said to 
correspond to Ceres, Proserpine and Pluto respeetively. It 
seems more probable, however, that Camilus representttl 
the generative principle (Herod, ii. 51,) and that the thrve 
Cabeiri were personifications of Love, the male and tiie 
female, the first part of each name being the epithet oii.; 
(worthy) which is very frequently applied to gods, and t).c 
remaining parts, Eros, Kersos and Kersa* having the sijzn;- 
fications wliich we have assigned to them. (fflpv^Ct yu^'C. 
Hesyoh.) The reader who is desirous of investigalini; i..> 
antient religion may consult Creuzer*s Symbolik <a. p. 
318.); Muller's Orchom, (p. 450.); Welckers Tnioffie , 
Lobeck*s Aglaoph, (lib. iii. c. 6), and Schelling's Trf.i:'.' 
on the Samothracian Myateries. The imagea of the C^a .;. 
were pygmy statues, of wliich there are specimens arour. j 
the terra-cot tas of the British Museum (Combe, no. 42). Ai 
the son of Vulcan, Cabeirus or Cadmilus is represented «.'.:. 
a hammer in his hand. (Winckelmann, iL p. 507.) 

CABLE. [RoPB.1 

CABLE, CHAIN. [CnAiif Cable.] 

CABOT, SEBASTIAN. The accounts of this grvst 
navigator have till recently been clouded by tho fn^atcU 
obscurity. A Memoir of Cabot, published in London in 
1831. has at last put the facts of his life in a clearer hktht, 
and removed much of the uncertainty. After a carelii] con* 
sideration of the arguments in this memoir* we have adopttti 
nearly all its conclusions. 

Sebastian Cabot was the son of John Cabot or Gabotto 
a native of Venice, who resided occasionally in England, an j 
of whom little more is known than that he was a vealtl-\. 
intelligent merchant, and fbnd of maritime discover v 
Sebastian was bom at Bristol about 1477, and was 
early instructed in geography, navigation, and mathe- 
matics. When only 19 years of age, he was included « i:o 
his two brothers in a patent, dated 5th of March, N'.r.. 
granted by Henry VII. to John Cabot his fiither. for iiie 
discovery and conquest of unknown lands. About a %«^ 
after the date of the patent, Sebastian Cabot sailed (appa- 
rently with his father) in a ship equipped at Bristol, naoted 
the Matthew, and on the 24th of June he first saw Nort'i 
America, probably the coast of Labrador, about laL 5f.-. 
It has generally been stated that this first-discovered laiid 
was Newfoundland, and that it was named by Cabot Pnoia 
Vista; but it appears that the cause of the error «as a 
mistranslation by Hakluyt of a document in Latin appeDdt>i 
to a map of America drawn by Cabot himself. The dt- 
scription given in that document cannot possibly refer to 
Newfoundland, but may apply verv well to the ivavt of 
Labrador. We have no account of this voyage fUrtber than 
the discovery itself, but it appears probable that C\&b.<( 
returned to England immediately; an opinion whtrh re- 
ceives some support from an entry in llie privv purnr ex- 
penses of Henry VII.,—* lOth August 1497 To h)m thu 
fi}und the new Isle 10/.' This is still Airther conftrroed be 
the recent discovery of an original patent of 3rd of Febnarv. 
1498, granting to John Kabotto permission to take six »hif« 
in any haven of the realm, of the burden of 200 too* .ird 
under, ' to convey and lede to the Londe and lales of late 
founde by the seid John in oure name and by our r \tn- 
maundemente,' &c. The date of this la&t patent and i:t 
general purport have been long known, but it lias be«Q 
usually supposed to be simply intended to further tbeob^ert 
of the first patent, in consequence of difflcultiet expencnt^ 



CAB 



95 



CAB 



in fitting out ships ; and' an error in date has been sus- 
pected in order to make it tally with the supposition. It is 
difficult to assign to each of the Cabots (a father and three 
sons) his exact nart in these discoveries, hut Sebastian 
seems always to have been considered the most scientific 
navigator of the family. Another voyage was made by 
Cabot, aoconling to the terms of this patent, but we have 
no details as to its result ; and a third voyage appears to 
have been made to the Gulf of Mexico in 1499. About 
this time it is supposed that John Cabot died, but there is 
no record of his death, nor is anything whatever known of 
Sebastian Cabot for the next twelve years. Soon after the 
death of Henry VII. Cabot was sent for by Ferdinand king 
of Spain, in which country he arrived in September, 1512, 
and immediately received the title of Captain, with a liberal 
salary. It appears from Spanish authorities, that Cabot 
was disgusted with the want of consideration shown him in 
England. No specific duties appearr to have been at first 
assigned to Cabot in Spain ; but we find him in 1515 con- 
nected with a general revision of maps and charts, and 
holding the dignified station of member of the council of the 
Indies. He was also appointed to conduct an important 
expedition for making new discoveries towards the west ; 
but the death of Ferdinand, in the beginning of 1516, pre- 
vented the accomplishment of the plan. The new king of 
Spain, Charles v., was occupied elsewhere, and did not 
reach Spain for some time, during which the court was 
a scene of shameless intrigue. Fonseca, the enemy of 
Columbus, was in authority, and the Flights he and his 
creatures put upon Cabot caused his return to England. 
In 1517 he was employed by Henry VIII., in connexion 
with Sir Thomas Perte, to make another attempt at a north- 
west passage. It appears that on this voyage he reached 
lat. 67^°, and it must have been on this occasion that he 
entered Hudson's Bay, * and gave English names to sundry 
places therein.* But of this, like all the rest of Cabots 
di&coveries, no details have been preserved, and even the 
whole voyage has been referred to the south instead of the 
north. It is only known that the mahce or timidity of Sir 
Thomas Perte, and the mutinous conduct of his crew, com- 
pelled him to return. After this voyage Cabot again visited 
Spain, where be was named by Charles V. Pilot Major of 
the kingdom, and intrusted with the duty of critically ex- 
amining all projects of voyages of discovery. At this time 
the views of adventurers were chiefly directed to the south, 
and the Molucca Islands were pointed out as a valuable 
tie Id for enterprise. Portugal having earnestly represented 
that the limits assigned to her by the pope in his division 
of the New World would include the Moluccas, it was re- 
».ilved that a solemn conference should take place, in which 
all parties should state their claims, and experienced men 
sliould attend for tbe purpose of reference. Uabot is at the 
head of this list, in which we also find Ferdinand Columbus, 
sou of the great Columbus. The conference was held at 
Badajoz, in April, 1524, and by the end of May sentence 
was pronounced that the Moluccas were within the Spanish 
division of the world. The Portuguese retired in disgust, 
talking of preparing an expedition to destroy any Spanish 
or other vessel which should venture to trade within the 
disputed territory. Immediately after the decision, a com- 

Sany was formed at Seville to prosecute the trade to the 
lolucoas, and Cabot was solicited to take the command. 
By an unfortunate selection, the persons who were put in 
command immediately under Cabot were personally hostile 
to htm. The expedition sailed in April, 1526, and proceeded 
to cross the Atlantic. On the Bra2ilian coast a daring 
mutiny, excited by his officers, compelled him to resort to 
the extremity of putting on shore the three ringleaders, 
who were actually the persons named to succeed him in 
command in ease of his death. Cabot explored the river 
La Plata and some of its tributaries, erected forts in the 
moat favourable positions, and endeavoured to colonize the 
country. He dispatched persons to Spain to solicit the 
permission of the Emperor Charles, and a supply of ammu- 
nition* provisions, &c. ; and as the merchants declined to 
oo- operate in the new undertaking, Charles took the whole 
t-xpense upon himself. 

About 1527 Diego Garcia, commander of a rival expedi- 
tion, arrived in the Plata, ascended the Parana, and had an 
interview with Cabot Garcia claimed the discovery of the 
Plata river as being under orders from Charles V. ; and 
Cabot, who would not struggle for a doubtfiil right, de- 
eded tht xher with him. Garcia soon after quitted the 



country, but left behind him some of his followers, wh^ 
were guilty of acts which roused the fierce resentment of 
the Guaranis, but in which it is expressly declared by 
Herrera that Cabot took no part. The vengeance of the 
natives knew no distinctions ; the whole nation burst with 
fury on the feeble colony, and Cabot was compelled to put 
to sea. He returned to Spain in 1531, where he resumed 
his old office, and is known to have made several voyages. 
In 1548 he resolved to return to his native country. 

Edward VI. was then on the throne of England, and 
being very solicitous about maritime affairs, he appears to 
have conversed with Cabot, and to have received from him 
some explanation about the variation of the compass, first 
noticed, or at least first particularly attended to, by Sebas* 
tian Cabot In the beginning of 1549 Edward granted him 
a pension of 250 marks per annum (166l. 13*. 4d.). Cabot 
remained high in the king's favour, and was consulted in 
all affairs relating to trade and navigation. The advice and 
influence of Cabot in directing an expedition to the north, 
opened to England the valuable trade with Russia: he was 
made governor of the company of merchant adventurers by 
whom the expedition was fitted out ; and the instructions 
delivered by him to the commander. Sir Hugh Willoughby, 
reflect the greatest credit on his good sense, knowledge, 
and humanity. 

After the Russia trade was established, the exertions of 
Cabot were continued : the journal of Stephen Burroughs, 
who was dispatched as commander of a vessel in 1556, 
shows the character of Cabot in a favourable light. Speak- 
ing of a visit to the vessel at Gravesend, previous to her 
departure, he says, ' the good olde gentleman. Master Ca- 
bota, gave to the poore most liberall almes, wishing them 
to prav for the good fortune and prosperous succcsse of the 
Serchthrift, our Pinnesse :' and at an entertainment after- 
wards,—* for very joy that he had to see the towardness of 
our intended discovery, he entered into the dance himselfe 
amongst the rest of the voung and lusty company.* 

The death of Edward VI. and the succession of Mary 
put an end to the enterprise of Cabot. His pension was 
qontinued until Ma^, 1557, when it was renewed, not to him 
exclusively, but jomtly with one William Worthington, of 
whom litde Is known. To this pei-son all the maps and 
documents of Cabot were deliver^, and it has been sup- 
posed that by his means they were either destroyed or put 
into the possession of Philip of Spain, the husband of Mary ; 
certain it is that they are no longer to be found. 

It is not known when or where Cabot died ; although his 
friend Eden, in his dedication to the translation of ' Tais- 
nierus* Treatise on Navigation,* gives an account of his 
death. He says, speaking of a mode of finding the longi- 
tude, ' Cabot, on his death-bed, tolde me that he had the 
knowledge thereof, by divine revelation, yet so that he might 
not teache any man.' Eden thought ' the good old man 
in that extreme age somewhat dot^, and had not yet, even 
in the article of death, utterly shaken off all worldlye vaine 
glorye.' {Memmr, p. 223; see also Hakluyt* Purchas, 
Cooley, and Anderson's Hittory of Commerce.) 

CABRAL. - [Brazil, vol. v., p. 369.] 

CABRE'RA (the antient Capriria), a small island of 
the Balearic group, S. of Majorca, and about 10 miles from 
its southernmost point. Cape Salinas. It is about 4 miles 
long and 3 broad, is rocky and barren, and only frequented 
by fishermen. During the war of the Spaniards against 
Napoleon, Cabrera was the place of confinement of several 
thousand French prisoners who were taken by the Spaniards 
in Catalonia and other parts of Eastern Spain. It was an 
abode wretched enough, though in some respects preferable 
to a walled prison or a hulk. The prisoners were left to 
themselves, without any guards, and had the whole range 
of the island, from which they could not escape. Aji allow- 
ance of bread was sent to them in a vessel from Majorca, 
but at times, in consequence of bad weather, the prisoners 
were in danger of being starved. Some lived in dry cisterns 
or caves, others in bivouacks or huts made of loose stones, 
as there appears to have been no building of any sort on the 
island. French ingenuity contrived to make the best of the 
matter. The prisoners formed little gardens, and esta- 
blished schools for mathematics, drawing, music, dancing, 
and fencing; they even estabUshed a theatre in a largo 
cistern. During several years they received no clothing, 
and consequently were almost naked. They had but one 
axe and one saw among them idl : the Spaniards left them ' 
one d<»ikey for their use, Jho aoooimt of their mode of 



C A C 



96 



C AC 





Im ported. 


1831 


3.483,118 lbs. 


1832 


2,971,019 


1833 


4.608,718 


1834 


2,984.894 


1835 


2,088,952 



Consumed. 
502,806 lbs. 
1.150,193 
1,268,287 
1,173.795 
1.085,980 



living forms a yerv interesting picture. (Adventuret of a 

French Serjeant, London, 1826.) 
CABUL, or CAUBUL. [Afoanistan, vol. i. p. 169.] 
CABUL, or CABULISTAN. [Bbloochistan, vol. if. 

p. 198.1 

CACAO, or, as it b commonly called. Cocoa, is the 
bruised seeds of the theobroma cacao, a tree belonging 
to the natural order Sterculiaoee. The seeds are oval, 
about as large as an olive, obtuse at each end, compressed, 
and covered with a violet or ash-grey skin, which encloses 
two irregularly-cut and plaited cotyledons, of a fetty nature, 
and of a brownish -black or violet-colour. The properties of 
these seeds are owing to the presence of a fixed concrete 
oil and an agreeable aromatic principle. Simply bruised 
they constitute the cocoa of the shops ; reduced to a paste, 
mixed with sugar and flavoured with vanilla, they become 
chocolate. They are imported from several of the W^t 
India islands, from Caracas, from Guayaquil, from Brazil, 
in all which places the tree grows wild, or is cultivated for 
the sake of its seeds. It has been estimated by Humboldt 
that the consumption of cacao in Europe was. in 1806, 
23,000,000 lbs. For a description of the tree and its mode 
of culture see Thbobroma. 

The quantities of cacao imported into, re-exported from, 
and consumed in this country in each of the five years from 

1831 to 1835, were — 

Re-«xpoTUMl. 
1,531,131 lbs. 
1,798.264 
2.351.877 
2.205,316 
2,481,133 
The great increase in the consumption between 1831 and 

1832 was occasioned by the reduction of the duty in the 
latter vear from sixpence to twopence per pound. 

CAx!ERES (Castra Ceecilia. Castrum Cessans, and Casa 
Cereris), a town of the Yectones or Vettoncs, in antient Lusi- 
tania, was till lately the capital of the district (partido), and 
IS now that of the province of its name in Estremadura. It 
is reduced to 10.000 inhabitants (half the number it had 
before the dismemberment of Portugal), and to some 30 fine 
houses ; but it has still many more large houses, besides a 
new court of justice (audieucia), an hotel de ville, a public 
seminary, an asylum for invalids and orphans, and a few 
manufactories. It possesses numerous inscriptions and other 
Roman antiquities, mentioned by Ponz ( Viage de EsDoHat) 
and by Laborde {Voyage Pitioresque d'Kspagne, vol. ii.); 
and moreover interesting ruins had been discovered about 
300 yards from the town, and also at Aldehuela and the 
hermitage of St. Otalla. It enjoys the best climate of 
Estremadura, with abundant and excellent springs, united 
to a rich soil, chiefly appropriated to pasture for oxen and 
sheep. Cacercs is noted for its fine Merino wool. 

Caceres is in 39"^ 25' N. lat., 6^ 15' W. long., and 146 
miles W. S. W. of Madrid. 

CACH AR, a province in the N.E. quarter of Hindustan, 
bounded on the N. b^' the Brahmapootra river and Asam ; 
on the E. by Munipoore and the Burmese territory ; on the S. 
by Silhet and Tiperah ; and on the W. by the principality 
of Gentiah. This province is situated between 24° and 27^ 
N. lat., and between 92^ and 94° £. long. : its length from 
N. to S. is about 140 English miles, and its breadth from 
£. to W. about 100 miles. 

The antient name of Cachar was Hainimbo. The ppo- 
vlnce comprehends two divisions, Cachar Proper and 
Dharmapore; the first occupying the S. and the second 
the N. part of the province. The country in general is 
mountainous; to the N. i» a branch of the Garrow moun- 
tains; in the S. and S.E. is a continuation of the hills of 
Tiporali, which stretch to the N. as far as Cospore, the 
capital of the province, where they turn abruptly to the 'W. 
to meet the Brahmapootra. The height of these hills varies 
f^m GOO to lOUO feet; the west slope is very rapid, and 
even precipitous. The Bhavani mountains are about 40 
miles S.E. of Cos))ore. The greater part of the mountains 
arc covered with forest trees, oamboos, and jungle, which 
frequently render them inaccessible ; the passes over them 
are not practicable at all seasons, and these natural diffi- 
culties have not been removed by the construction of roads. 

A great number of small streams have their sources in 
the high lands of Cachar. Those in the eastern mountains 
unite and form the rivers Capili and Barak, both of which 
join the Megoa or. Brahmapootra; the Barak at the point 



(lat. 24^ long. 91°) where that river takflf the naiM of th* 
Megna. At certain seasons of the year the Barak can be 
navigated ; in the dry season it is foraable, and the channel 
is obstructed by rocks ; but soon after the ndny leaeoa has 
set in, the river has a depth of from 30 to 40 wet of water. 
From June until November, considerable traeta an inun- 
dated, and the difficulty of traveUing ia eonaeqnently 
increased. 

The jungle fever, a disease often fatal to Earopeene, is 
common in Cachar, owing doubtless to the undeaiw) state 
of the country and the frequent occurrence of atagnant 
water. This disease, however, does not appear to be hiutf ul 
to the natives, who are described as being strong and healthy 
in appearance. The Cacharies are of fairer complexion than 
the Bengalese, and more resemble Chinese in their caat of 
countenance. The country is thinly inhabited. The entire 
population has been estimated at 80,000 famiUea or about 
360,000 individuals, but this estimate is thought to be in 
excess. The best peopled districts are those nearest to the 
S.W., and a level tract in the N. near to the Capili nver 
and adjacent to the town of Dharmapore. 

Cospore, the modem capital, is 20 miles 8. of Oroberge, 
the antient capiul of Hainimbo, in 24° 45' N. lat^ and 
92° 45' E. long., and on the banks of a small stream called 
theMadhura. The rajah of Cachar having, in 1811, n- 
moved his residence to DoodpuUee, a small town about 1 ^ 
miles farther N., Cospore has since gone much to decav. 
The town of Dharmapore, in the northern division of the 
province, and about 60 miles from Cospore, was formerly a 
place of some strength, and enjoyed a considerable trade, 
but the fort has now fallen into decay, the trade haa in a 
great measure left the place, and its population baa de- 
creased. In the time of its prosperity the revenue derived 
from this town was greater tl^ that from all the remaimn? 
parts of the province. 

Cachar was invaded by the Burmese in 1774, but the 
force first sent was destroyed by the jungle fever. A aeoood 
expedition reduced the rajah to submission, and forced htm 
to become a tributary of the king of Ava. The rajah c( 
Cachar was summoned to Ava in 1810, hut he refused to 
go, and the Burmese monarch sent a force against him. 
Finding himself unable to resist, the rajah placed his tem- 
tory under British protection, but having immediitely af^cr 
been deposed, his successor refused to abide by the treaty 
that had been drawn up. This usurper having been in h.4 
turn displaced, a British detachment entered Caehmr and 
expelled the Burmese, whom they forced to renounce all 
pretensions to sovereignty in the province. In letum iv: 
the protection thus given, the rajah agreed to pay to the 
English government an annual tribute of 10,000 rupees. 

(Hamilton's East India Gazetteer; Report of Ci/m* 
mi t tee qfHou9e of Common$ on the Affaire of India, I aj'i ) 
CACHET, LETTRES DE, were letters prooeedin^ 
from and signed by the kings of France, and counteraif^nt^i 
by a secretary of state. They were called also * lettr%-« 
closes,* or 'sealed letters,* to distinguish them from the 
Mettres patentes* sealed by the great seaL Lattres tit 
cachet were rarely empbyed to deprive men of their per- 
sonal liberty before the seventeenth century. They wte-* 
previously made use of occasionally as a means of dela% in^ 
the course of justice; but during the reign of Louis Xi\ . 
they were obtained by any person who had sufficient in- 
fluence with the king or his ministers, andpenons ve.-v 
imprisoned for life, or for a long period, on the most frirol.'C* 
pretexts, for the gratification of private pioue or iwentrtr. 
The terms of a lettre de cachet were as foUowa : — * M. Iv 
Marquis de Launay, je vous fais eette lettre pour vona din* 
de recevoir dans mon chdteau de la Bastille le Sieur , 

et de I'y retenir jusqu'& nouvel ordre de ma part Snr rr, 
je prie Dieu qu*il vous ait, M. le Marquis de Launay, en »a 
sainte garde.* These letters, giving power over penon«) 
liberty, were openly sold in the reign of Louis XV. by lh« 
mistress of one of the ministers. The lettrea de cachet 
were also ^nted by the king for the purpose of shield m? 
his favourites or their friends from the eonsequences rf 
their crimes ; and thus were as pernicious in their operatic^ 
as the protection afforded by the church to criminala in a 
former age. Their necessity was strongly maintained bv 
the great families, as they were by them enabled to remove 
such of their connexions as had acted in a deroKator* 
manner. During the contentions of the Mirabean fam:^«. 
59 lettres de cachet were issued on the demand of one .-t 
other of its members. The independent memben of the 



C A C ! 

{NttliuBents and oT the magiBtnicr wen pnMcribed and 
punubed by meauB of these wamnti. This mmittrous evil 
WW swept iwaj at the Revolution, &fter Louia XVI. had in 
THn endeivoured to reined]' it. 

(Mtrabean, Dei Letire* de Caektt, 1782; and Tratala' 
Hon, poblished at London, in two vDlume«, in I7B7.) 

CACHICAME. [Armadillo, Section I.] 

CACIQUE, a HexicBD word which (igniQes 'lord* or 
master.' It was ^nerallf adopted by Spanish writen to 
signiry the chiefs, gevemora, or principal perHonages of those 
Amerioon tribes with whom the Spaniard! became ac< 
quAinted by tbeic conquests in the New World, (Solia, 
HUt. d« Num. Bip. iii. 3 ; Diccionario por la Real Aeadem. 
£™.) 

CACTCS, the oM name of a group of plants, once consi- 
dered to form a single genus, but now, in consequence of 
modem disooreries, elevated to the tank of a natural order 
eslled cactaeate or eactea. 

The Aructi&cation of these plants consists of a calyx ad- 
hering to the ovary, with a border divided into an uncertain 
numt^ of segments, which are arranged in several rows, 
the one overlapping the other, and the innermost gradually 
ceasing to be green and leafy, but acquiring the delicacy 
and e<Mour of petals. The latter usually pass into sepals 
by insensible ^wlations, are very numerous, and often bril- 
liantly coloured. The stamens originate in the oriBce of 
the tube formed by the combination of the petals and sepals, 
are wry nunnerons, and consist of delicate thread-shaped 
Blaments terminated by small roundish anthers. The 
ovary, which, in consequence of its adhesion to the sepals, 
seems to Dceupy the place of the stalk of the flower, consists 
of 8 single c^, lined with parietal placentB covered over 
with minnte ovules ; its style is slender ; the stigma is star- 
shaped and divided into as many narrow lobes as the ovary 
coDtains placentte. The fruit is a succulent berry, marked 
Bt tiie end by a broad scar formed by the separation of the 
limb of the calyx r it contains a great q^uantity of seeds, 
which consist of nothing but a skin containing a succulent 
embryo slightly two-lobed at the upper end. 

In natural affinity these plants have been considered 
allied to the gooseberry tribe (Orossulacbjs) on account of 
the great similarity in tbe structure of their fruit, and in 
the general production of spines upon their branches. But 
in the opinion of others (Lindtey's Nat. Sytt., ed. 2., 54) this 
is not the mott correct mode of considering their relation- 
lihip, which is pmbably far greater with Ficoidete or Mesem- 
bryaeen, and toe other epigynous orders of polypetalous di- 
cotvledona. 

Tbe habit of caotacete is remarkable. Tliey hare a 
very succulent stem, in which the woody system is deve- 
loped in but a small proporcion compared to the whole mass. 
XJsually the stem is angular or deeply channelled, occasion- 
ally it is destitute of both angles ana channels, but in that 
rase is mostly either much compressed as in the opuntis 
tribe, or leafy aa in the epiphylla. Someliraes it is conti- 
nuous from tbe base to the apex, but in many instances it 
i« divided off into regular joints, each of which has asimilar 
Torm varying with the species ; in these instances however it 
la worthy of remark that as tbe stems advance in age the 
aagtes fill up or the articulations disappear in consequence 
of the slow growth of tbe woody axis and the snidual 
development of the cellular substance ; sothat'sttoe end 
of a number of years, which vary according to the species, 
bU the branches of cactacete, however angular or com- 
preaaed they originally may have been, become trunks that 
arv either perfectly cylindrical or which have scarcely any 
Tuible angles. This metamorphosis is one. of the causes 
which render it so difficult to identify species that have 
been described in their native localities from fiiU-grownspe- 
citnens, with such as are cultivated in the gardens o1 
Europe.' The greater part of the species have stem i which 
«re more otless elongated, but in some they are spherical, 
SB in the whole genera melocacius and echinocactus : what- 
ever may be tbe form of the stem, they usually bear upon 
their surface little tubercles which at an early age lose 
tbe leaves. Those organs however rapidly fall away, and 
su-« succeeded by tufts of hairs or spines hooked backviird 
ax toe ends, and then the cacti have tbe appearance of 
being perfectly leafless. 

All the species are believed to be natives of Ameri 
vbence however some of the opuotias have been so long 
tinduaed to the old world that Ihey hare here and there 
taken poasesnoti of the soil, and appear like aboriginal - 



lKcIockIi 



bU.] 



habitants. Such is the case on the volcanic soilofiCtna, 
and in various pUces on the shores of the Mediterranean ; 
and this has led to the erroneous idea entertained by Spren- 
gel and others that the opuntia of Theophrastus was the 
opuntia vulgaris of modern botanists. Cacti are chiefly 
found in the tropical parts of America, a few species only 
escaping from ttiose countries ; as for example, to the 
southern states of North America, and to tbe bigblands of 
Chili and Mendoza. They principally occur on hot dry 
rocks or plains where the commoner tonne of vegetation 
could not exist, and may be considered one of the means 
hich nature has provided for the support of man m regions 
where neither food nor water can be procured. Their 
stems are filled with an abundant insipid wholesome fluid, 
and their fruit is succulent and in many cases superior to 
that of European gooseberries. In the fevers of their 
native countries they are freely administered as a cooling 
drink ; and being bruised they are esteemed a valuable 
means of curing ulcers. For the sake of suoh their uses, 
because of their rapid growth, and especially on account of 
the numerous spines with which they are s^med, tbe opnn- 
tias, or tunas, as the Spanish Americans call them, are 
much planted round houses as fences, which neither man 
nor animals can easily break through. They are not un- 
frequent in the dry forest lands of Brazil, but are taid never 
to occur in tbe damper parts of the country. In stature 
they vary greatly, many of them having amall creeping 
stems which seem to rtawl upon the ground among the 
dead branches of the surrounding trees, with whose grey 
colour their deep green shoots form a singular contrast. 
Others rise like candelabra, with many angular ascendins 
arms, while a few elevate their tall and deeply channellM 
lealiess trunks fkr above the stunted vegetation of the sterile 
regions they inhabit, reaching sometimes the height of 
thirty or forty feet. 

To enable them to endure the excessive drought to wUdi 
they are naturally exposed they are furnished with an un- 
usually tough akin, the evaporating pores or stomates of 
which are few m number, and very often to all appearanoa 
merely rudimentary. This contrivance prevents their losing 
the scanty moisture which they collect from tbe burning soil, 
and enables them to sustain the full ardour of the brightest 
equinoctial sun without ineonvenience, in this respect i«- 



Mo. 351. 



[THB PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



V0I.TI.-O 



C A C 



9S 



CAD 



sembling the succulent fraits of Europe, such as the plum, 
the grape, the peach, &c., which by the absence of stomates 
from their tough skin are equally enabled to bear the 
powerful action of the bright sun that is necessary for their 
maturation. 

These facts teach us what the points are that it is most 
necessary to attend to in the cultivation of the numerous 
species which now abound in our gardens. Their skin is 
so formed that perspiration takes place very slowly through 
it, unless under the influence of powerful stimulants, and 
when in a young state. It is therefore obvious that they 
should be sparingly watered or not watered at all during a 
considerable period of the year. Dry as the places usually 
are in which cacti naturally grow, they are periodically 
visited by heavy rains, which, combined with a bright light 
and a high temperature, force into activity even the sluggish 
vital powers of such plants as those under consideration. 
At such a time the annual growth of a cactus takes place, 
secretions which enable the species subsequently to form 
its flowers are deposited, and a general impulse is given to 
all the torpid energies of its constitution. But by degi'ees 
the rains moderate and finally cease, the young cuticle, 
which at its first formation perspired freely, becomes thicker 
and tougher and impermeable to moisture ; what food has 
been obtained during the short period of growth is securely 
enclosed within the recesses of the stem, and when the air 
and earth become dry the plant is provided with the means 
of enduring another long period of fasting and inactivity. 
With the fall of rain the heat moderates, but the light to 
which the cacti are exposed is but little, if at all, diminished, 
so that the assimilation and alteration of the food contained 
within the stem keeps continually going on, however slowly. 
It is bv following this natural course of events that gar- 
deners have succeeded in bringing their cacti to that extra- 
ordinary state of beauty for which they are now conspicuous ; 
it is by attending practically to such points in the habits of 
the species that we obtain the myriads of large, brilliant, 
red, or blush or snow-white blossoms that form the glory 
of our greenhouses in the soring. A cactus is placed in a 
damp stove, exposed to all the light that can be collected 
without being concentrated, and it begins to grow : it is 
then watered, at first gently, afterwards copiously with 
water holding a quantity of organizable matter (manure) 
in solution ; this practice is continued for three months, 
when the quantity of moisture is diminished, and the tempe- 
rature is lowered, but exposure to light is still attended to, 
till at last the plant sinks to rest. In this state it is kept 
till the season for again forcing it into growth shall have 
returned, when it is subjected to a repetition of the same 
treatment as before. 

If cacti are to be propagated, their branches or joints, if 
they have any, are cut off, a little dried, and then placed in 
a hot and damp place, when they strike root immediately. 
Among the practical consequences, De CandoUe observes, 
that result from the facility with which they ai-e thus mul- 
tiplied, is one which deserves to be noticed on account of its 
importance ; viz., the manner in which the opuntia is em- 
ployed to fertilize the old lavas at the foot of iEtna. As 
soon as a fissure is perceived a branch or joint of an opuntia 
is stuck in : the latter pushes out roots, which are nourished 
by the rain that colleets round them, or by whatever dust 
or remains of organic matter may have collected into a little 
soil : these roots, once developed, insinuate themselves into 
the most minute crevices, expand, and finally break up the 
lava into mere Augments. Opuntias treated in this manner 
produce a great deal of fruit, which is sold as a refreshing 
ibod throughout all the towns of Sicily. 

Wiiere however the species have neither branches nor 
jo.nts, as is the case with some of the melocacti and echino- 
cacti, a different mode of propagation is had recourse to : it 
is then necessary to compel them to branch by artificial 
means. Each of the numerous tufts of spines that occupy 
the rid^ of their stems is a bud, and is capable of being 
forced into a branch, if by any means the general tendency 
to grow at the upper extremity only is checked. This is 
effected either by burning the apex of the plant with a 
broad flat iron, or by cutting the plant across below the top, 
in either of which cases several or the spiny buds will gra- 
dually swell and develop themselves as little branches, 
which, being' broken off, will strike root and become new 
plants. 

The interest that attaches to the cultivation of these 
ctirious objects has led ua to go into more than our usual 



details concerning tnem. and the^ is still a variety of topics 
not adverted to. We have only however room for »t>nic 
observations upon the employment of certain species uf 
tpuntia fer the feeding of tne cochineal insect, upon ti^u 
subject we have availed ourselves of the information con- 
tained in Professor De Candolle*s important memoir up^n 
the family of Cacti. It is probable that the cochisie^I 
insect feeds upon several species of opuntia. The \e^*i 
spiny kinds are usually employed, because it is most ca^y 
to collect the species from them; but this circum^tat'>c 
does not appear to influence the choice of the insect ul}t':i 
left to itself. The latter seems, according to the accounts <f 
travellers, to prefer the sorts with red flowers, and to net:- 
lect those whose blossoms are yellow ; at least such is the 
case with the three species most extensively cultivated, \ ix.. 
Opuntia Tuna, whicn seems the most employed in Peru. 
0. Hemandezii, which is the most celebrated in Mexi< 'i. 
and 0. cochenilli/era, the native province of which is f«un:c- 
what doubtful. 

Opuntia Thina has been figured in Dillenius*8 ' H<^rtu> 
Elthamensis,* tab. 380, and is the original of what Lin nee -j^ 
called Cactus Tuna : it has been since called Cactus Bon()* 
landii by Mr. Kunth. It differs from the two followin;; :n 
the long whitish spines that arm it, in its verr broad owl 
joints, its fully-expanded flower, which resembles that of 
O. Hernandez ii, except that it is larger. This is th& »-.rt 
which in the Paris garden nourishes the wild cochineal : it 
was brought from Peru by Dombey, and according to Uum- 
boldt is in much esteem in that country as the food of a 
valuable sort of cochineal. 

Opuntia Hernandezii has been pretty well figured f^r 
his n.-xy by Hernandez, under the vulgar Mexican name of 
Nopalnochetzli. Subsequently Thierry de Menonville. uj 
his ' Journey to Guaxaca,* published a figure and de^np- 
tioTi of it under the name of Nopal Sylvestre. It is chied} 
cultivated in the temperate parts of New Spain bordcnr^ir 
on the Pacific. It is clearly distinguished from the fall iv- 
ing by its expanded flower, and its stamens shorter th^n 
either the petals or the style. The joints of its stem m>. re- 
over are smaller, shorter, thicker, and more regularly ovat. 

Opuntia Cochenilli/era is known by the figure of DC 
lenius in tlie 'Hortus Elthamensis,* t. 297, f. 3S3: it bis 
also been well represented by Sir William Hooker, in li < 
'Botanical Magazine,* tt. 2741 and 2742. Nevertheless, l* i- 
withstanding its name, it is the species about which ihctt .» 
the most doubt with regard to its feeding the cochineal. It 
is possible indeed that it may be the sort which Thierry 
de Menonville calls the Castilian Nopal, which bo foacii 
in the highest estimation as food for the insect; but this i> 
very mucii matter of conjecture. 

UADE, JOHN, an Irishman, who pretended, and wi» 
believed by some, to be a bastard relation of the duL 
of York, and hence assumed the name of Mortimer 
Shakspeare has made him familiarly known to us as * J&#'v 
Cade.* The insurrection which he headed broke oux lu 
Kent in the beginning of June, during Whitsuntide wccl. 
in the year 1450, and had its origin in the wide-spread d.- 
satisfaction occasioned by the conduct of the duke • i 
Suffolk, the favourite and chief minister of the king. A 
list of their grievances was published by the insurant*, 
entitled * The Complaint of the Commons of Kent.' Amf*r.^ 
other complaints alleged by the insurgents were the fi .* 
lowing:— 'That people paid not for stuff and purveianti 
taken for the kings use; that the king*s lands inFrari-.- 
are aliened and put away fro the crown ; that the pe^-^plc 
Kent are not suffered to have free elections of knights of t^ •. 
shire.* In addition. Cade sent a memorial to the kin;*. *, v- 
pressiyo of great loyalty, entitled • The Requests b} i' 
Captain of the great Assembly in Kent,* praying him * : 
take about his person his true lords, and to avoid all i. .* 
false progeny and affinity of Suffolk,* and affirming \h .: 
* the realm of France, the duchies of Normandy, Gascoi.v . 
Guienne, Anjou, and Maine, were delivered and lo6t a, 
means of the said traitors.* This last circumstance es. «- 
cially irritated the nation ; and to these causes of disconv : & 
were added the hardships caused bv the statute of Ubou^. ? ^ 
and extortionate proceedings which vexed and irritat«-d u. 
commonalty. On the 1 7th of June, Cade and his foU^ . - • 
were encamped at Blackheath. The king. who«-a»^.i^ 
the parliament at Leicester, hastily collected Ills forces .: 
London, and prepared to march upon the rebels. Uu-. :: ^ 
this inter^'al, Cacle sent to the king the memorials «h>*ii 
nave been mentioned. Cade had been encamped abg^&t a 



CAD 

SxampU* 



100 



CAD 




The term Cadence is also used to signify the addition 
made by the performer at the close of an air or oonoerto, 
and supposed to be an extemporaneous effusion, for the pur- 
pose of displayinff such taste, skill, and power as the compo- 
sition itself affords no means of exhibiting. The Cadenza, 
however, if introduced at all, should always be in good keep- 
ing witli the air, &c., to which it is appended ; it ought to 
E reserve the same general character, and should invariably 
e brief, in the instance of vocal music especially. Formerly 
the Cadenza was, by Italian as well as English singers, con- 
sidered indispensable, and many were the incongruous flights 
of ill-regulated fancy that audiences had to endure. The 
French never admitted it ; the Italians have now wisely dis- 
carded it ; the English alone retain what most sensible and 
reflecting people view as an absurdity, and what in a few 
years will, even in this country, be known only historically, 
for reason is beginning to have some sway over our per- 
formers: though they follow slowly in the march of intellect, 
they do not remain quite stationary, and already symptoms 
of an improved mode of thinking is manifest in some whose 
example will be influential. 

The Cadenza is so called, says Rousseau, because intro- 
duced generally on the first note of the final Cadence. 

CADER IDRIS is one of the highest mountains in 
North Wales. Though this name properly belongs to one 
peak* it has been extended to tho whole western portion of 
the Berwyn mountains, which stretches from the peak to the 
sea-coast. This ridge begins near 52° 35' N. lat. and 4*" 5' 
W. long., on the shores of Cardigan Bay, or rather in the 
bay itself; for the Sam y Bwch, a ridge of huge stones 
which runs out into the bay and is bare at low wat^r, may 
oe considered as its commencement. The W, extremity of 
the Cader Idris mountains is about a mile N. of the small 
town of Towyn. Hence it proceeds with a gradual but 
almost constant ascent, first N. for about three miles, and 
then for about ten miles farther it runs E.N.E. till it joins 
the peak itself. Its breadth bears but a small proportion to 
its length; for a line passing across its base and inter- 
secting its summits would scarcely be four and a half miles. 
In some parts it is a mere ridge, whose base hardly ever 
exceeds one mile in breadth. Its slopes are very steep and 
craggy on each side, more especially so on the S. slope : near 
TaWTlyn lake the rocks rise nearly perpendicularly. 

The peak, which stands at its £. extremity, rises to the 
elevation of 29 1 4 feet above the sea, and in height is the third 
mountain of Wales. It consists of an immense rocky mass, 
of rather difficult ascent, on the summit of which is a small 
plain, with two rocky heads of equal height, one looking to 
the N. and the other to the S. The view from its summit 
is very extensive : the mountain rises so far above all the 
hills which lie farther £., that the Wrekin in the plain 
of Shropshire is visible from it Its sides, though mostly 
destitute of vegetation, present some variety, from having 
several small alpine lakes imbedded in the depressions of 
the rock. The rocks themselves are of primitive formation, 
consisting chiefly of different kinds of porphyry. (A. Aikin's 
Journal of a Tour through North Wales ; and Davies's 
Agricultural View.) 

CADI, or, according to the Persian pronunciation of the 
word. C<1rt, sometimes written Kazee or Kauxee, is an Ara- 
bic word and the designation of ail officer who was originally 
the supreme civil judge in all Mohammedan countries. In 
the Mohammedan states in India the cddi continues to be 
the chief judge; but in Turkey he is subject to the Mufti, 
and in Persia he stands under the Sheikh-ul-IsUm or su- 
preme judge (literally 'the elder or chief of the faith*), in 
all the principal cities where an officer of that rank resides, 
and the latter ftinctionary has in general the ftirther sratui- 
tous aid of the council of MullSs (Moollahs) or learned men. 
There is also in Persian courts of justice an officer, who lias 
Ihe title of MQiti» but without possessing the high authority 



of the office thus dewnated in Turkey : he miat be a man 
ot learning, whom the dtdi consults for his advice upon 
sulijecti oftntrieaey, and who expounds and applies the law 
to cases, leaving the ofidi to give it operation and efl\-«t. 
The total number of dtdts in the Turkish empire at t^ o 
time of Muradgea d* Ohsson was 465 : their rank was pru- 
portiontfte to the importance of the towns in which tbcy 
resided. The cfldi of the Turkish capital had alvrays bet n 
considered as the first of the Ulemas, or Jurisconsults of 
the empire: Murad I. (a.d. 1421—1451) conferred U|m:u 
that oflSoer the title of Cddi-askar, i . e, 'judge of the army.* 
His successor, Mohammed II., (1451 — 1481) appointed two 
functionaries of that rank at ConsUntinople ; and Sulei- 
man I. (1519 — 1566) made them both subordinate to tha 
mufti or chancellor of the empire. 

The law of all Mohammedan nations, which is aflmtnts- 
tered by the cAdis, is (bunded partly on the Koran, and partly 
on the Sunnah or tradition; but in Persia, since the 
establishment of the faith of the Shiitea as the national rcli. 
gion of the country, jurists have rejected all tradition^ 
coming from the three first caliphs Abu Beer, Omar, and 
Osman, or from other persons who opposed the right of Alt 
to the succession of Monammed. 

It is insisted upon as one of the prineipal duties of a M«»- 
hammedan sovereign to appoint fit persons to the office of 
cildi. The prophet is recorded to have said, ' Whoever ap- 
points a person to the discharge of any office, whflat there 
IS another amongst his subjects more qualified for the same 
than the person so appointed, does surely commit an injury* 
with respect to the rights of Cvod, the prophet, and the Mus- 
sulmans.* The appointment must not oe solicited or coveted ; 
for the prophet has said, ' Whosoever seeks the appointmcDt 
of c&di shall be left to himself; but to him who aecepts it 
on compulsion, an angel shall descend and give directions.' 
A cftdi, to make his appointment valid, must possess the 
qualifications of a witness, t. e. he must be f^, sane, adult, 
a Mussulman, and unconvicted of slander. With reference 
to other qualifications required in a cddi, conaiderable 
diversity of opinion seems to exist among the different schoL.'.s 
of Mohammedan jurists. According to the Hanefite scboul 
acfidi does not forfeit his office if, at the time of bis appoint- 
ment, he be a just man, and afterwards, by taking bribef, 
prove himself unjust ; neither does that school consider the 
appointment of an ignorant man to the office of c&di as in> 
valid, inasmuch as he may render to every subject bis just 
rights by passing decrees according to the opinions of oilier^ 
But the followers of Shdfei maintain, that an unjust man li 
as incompetent to the office of cSdi as to give evidence ; aii I 
that the appointment of an ignorant man is not valid, l« 
cause it supposes a capability of issuing decrees, and of r?c 
eiding between right and wron?, which acts cannot be pe: • 
formed without knowledge. The cddi should admini^t.^r 
justice in some public place : the Hanefites recommend thu 

Srincipal mosque of the town, because they consider tl «- 
uty of the clldi to be of a pious nature, and because t* '^ 
prophet has said 'Mosques are intended for the prais« c 
Goa and the passing of decrees;* but to this tiie oh&ftito- 
object, as the place of worship would, in their opinion. l«e 
profaned by the approach of polytheista and other impure 
persons who attend the court of the judge. It is not law f;.I 
ibr a cftdi to receive presents, exoept fbom near relation* 
(within the degrees prohibited for mtermairiage). or oM 
and intimate friends ; neither must he accept invitations t 
any feast or entertainment, unless it be a general one. anJ 
not given to him in particular. In his conduct to the pir- 
ties in a suit the cfidi should observe strict impartiality, be* 
having to both with an equal degree of attention ; and like- 
wise in his conduct towaras witnesses in court be should be 
guided by the greatest caution, in order not to give the onc- 
a confidence above the other. He is moreover directed r , t 
to give judgment when he is hungry or thirsty, or at a time 
when his mind is not perfectlv clear and unbiassed. A caU. 
is not permitted to appoint a deputy, unless by the authontv 
of the imAm or spiritual superior ; but the decrees of a depute 
whom he may have appointed without such authorttv. it 
passed in his presence or with his approbation, are rait 'J 
and if he appomt a deputy by authority of the imtm, be cau 
not afterward dismiss him, as the agent so appointed l^^- 
comes the deputy of the sovereign himself. (Tne Hed*h, ;. 
or Guide; a Commentary on the Muemimtm Lmtt, trar.>- 
lated by Charles Hamilton, vol. ii., p. 612, Sic; Malcolm » 
History of Persia, vol. iiw, p. 445, 4to. edit. ; Marad jr« 
d Ohsson, Tableau de FMn^re Ottoman, U h^ P^ M9-5ri » 



CAD 



102 



CAD 



the exception of the small proportion required by the in- 
habitants, about 1600 in number, nearly the whole im- 
portations of Gibraltar find their way into Spain in defiance 
of, or in connivance with, the revenue officers of that king- 
dom. The total exports of British produce and manufac- 
tures 'shipped to Spain from the United Kingdom in 1834, 
amounted in value to 356,593/., including cotton manufac- 
tures to the amount of 32,993/. In the same year the ship- 
ments to Gibraltar amounted in value to 460,719/., of which 
321,727/. consisted of cotton manufactures, the duties upon 
which at the custom-houses of Spain are exorbitantly high. 
This however forms but a small part of the contraband trade 
of that kiogdom. In addition to the produce which finds its 
way dixvctly from British colonies or through this country 
to Gibraltar, and which amounts to a considerable sum, the 
shipments from the United States, consisting of fish, maize, 
rice, salt provisions, flour, cotton, staves, tea, and tobacco, 
are estimated at three times the amount of the English 
trade. France sends to the same depdt every article of her 
manufacture in which she can undersell this country ; and 
from the north of Europe are sent large quantities of salt- 
fish, stock-fish, provisions of all kinds, spirits, iron, steel, 
and spars. 

In 1829 Cadiz was made a free port, at which goods 
might be landed and stored without payment of duties. The 
effect of this measure was, to render the city the grand focus 
of the contraband trade above described, and the privilege 
was withdrawn at the end of 1832. 

The coasting trade carried on at Cadiz is of considerable 
amount ; the vessels employed in it are from five to 60 tons 
burthen, and, including their repeated voyages, from 2000 
to 3000 vessels annually enter the port, llie goods thus 
brought to the town consist principally of provisions from 
the other maritime provinces, wine, brandy, grain, fruit, 
charcoal, and oil : the return cargoes are chiefly of colonial 
produce, silk, linen, and woollen goods. 

The manufactures carried on in the city consist of soap, 
glass- ware, coarse woollen cloths, cotton and silk fabrics, 
the materials for which are spun by the hand, and hats : 
there are likewise some sugar refineries and tanneries. The 
Society of Friends of the Country has recently introduced 
the cultivation of the cochineal plant and the production of 
the cochineal insect. Both thrive well, and through the 
exertions of the society this branch of industry has been 
adopted to some extent in the neighbouring district 

Cadiz was founded by the Phoenicians many centuries 
before the Christian sera, but there is no historical evidence 
as to the time of the settlement. Its Phoonician name was 
Gadir or Gadeira, which was changed into Gades by the 
Romans, under whom it became a municipium, called 
Augusta Urbs, Julia Gaditana. The city stood at the west 
end of the small island, which was then separated from the 
mainland by a channel about 600 feet wide : at this part 
was the Temple of Hercules. The earthquake which nearly 
demolished Lisbon in 1755 caused the sea to rise and over- 
flow the country about Cadiz to a great extent, on which oc- 
casion the ruins of several antient buildings were brought up 
by the shock, and left behind on the receding of the water. 
Under the Romans Gades was one of the richest provincial 
towns in the empire, and a place of great trade. 

The city was carried by assault and pillaged and burnt in 
1596 by an English expedition under Lord Eflingham, who 
obtained an immense booty on that occasion. It was again 
attacked in 1 702, but not with eaual success, by an expe- 
dition under the duke of Ormond and Sir George Rooke 
in coi^unction with the Dutch. At the breaking out of the 
resistance offered by the Spanish nation to the usurpation 
of Joseph Bonaparte in 1808, the harbour of Cadiz con- 
tained a large naval force under the national flag, and a 
French fleet consisting of five line of battle ships and a 
frigate. The Marquis de Solano, governor of Cadiz, a man 
in the interest of France, was on that occasion seized and 
killed by the inhabitants, who gained possession of their own 
ships, and proceeded to attack from the batteries those of 
France, which being prevented from attempting an escape 
by the English fleet under Lord Collingwood, were forced to 
surrender to the patriots. 

The fint assembling of the national cortes when con- 
voked by the central junta in 1810 took place in Cadiz, 
which in the same year was invested by the French forces 
under Manhal Victor* The siege proceeded but slowly, 
and in fact was little more than a blockade, against which 
the gvriflon» being open to receive provisions and reinforce- 



ments by sea, were enabled to hold out, untfl on the 12th of 
August, 1812, the siege was raised, iu consequence of the 
successive advantages gained by the English troops under 
Lord Wellington. 

The king, Ferdmand VII., who, during the progresa oi 
the war from 1 808, had been detained a prisoner in rrancv, 
returned to his kingdom at the general peace in 1814, and 
immediately abrogated the constitution of 1812 decreed b> 
the cortes, and di^ared that body dissolved. The dissatis- 
faction that was thus occasioned was rendered apparent from 
time to time by the breaking out of conspiracies, one ^/f 
which, in 1820, was so far successful, that the constitution 
of 1812 was again proclaimed, and the king was made u 
swear to support it The jealousy with which these nio^«- 
ments were viewed by the Frencn government gave occa- 
sion to Uie assembling on the frontier of a large French 
army, to which the name of ' cordon sanitaire * waa applied, 
under Uie absurd pretence of preserving France fktmi tL<» 
visit of a malignant fever then prevalent in Snain. Ha%u « 
reason to mistrust the sincerity of the king, the cortes, vIj^i 
had been assembled at Seville, obliged him, in June, lb. 'J, 
to proceed to Cadiz, upon which the French troops advaiK-cl 
and invested that city. The Duke d*Angoul§me arrived om 
the 10th of August at Port St. Mary, and placed him^e'.f st 
the head of 30,000 men. On the last day of that month be 
succeeded in gaining possession of the Trocadero, a po%;Liuo 
which commands all tne approaches to the city, and opvcel 
a communication with Fermnand, who, on the ist October, 
proceeded to the head-quarters of the French, whence be 
issued an order for the delivering up of the city to the \k' 
siegere, who accordingly took possession on the second day 
after. The French troops retained possession unul iije 
summer of 1828. (Strabo, iii. p. 168, &c, Casaub. ; F.m., 
Nat, Hitt. iv. 22, &c. ; Lahorde*8 View of &)ain ; M/:* 
ham's Naval Gazetteer; Townsend's Travele in S/«otA, 
&c.) 

CA'DMIUH, a peculiar metal discovered in 1818 : it was 
found in some ores of zinc, and especially in the Sileii^n. 
On account of the effect which was produced by the artk>3 
of sulphuretted hydrogen upon some prepantioDs of xiz.%\ 
the presence of arsenic was suspected, but the aj^peftraoi* 
was found to be owixig to this new metal. The firat notice of 
its existence was by Hermann, but Stromeyer more particu- 
larly examined and detailed its prop«rties, and gm\e it ti.« 
name of cadmium, from cadmiafoesiliSf a name by wbu-:. 
the common ore of zinc was formerly known. 

In order to separate cadmium from the mineral contai3- 
ing it, it is to be dissolved in sulphuric acid, and tbe sul^- 
tion, which should have excess of acid, is to be diluted u »u 
water, and to have a current of sulphuretted hydrogen ct 
passed into it, until a yellow precipitate ceases to be forme:. 
This precipitate is sulphuret of cadmium, whicb is to S- 
dissolved in concentrated muriatic acid, and the exci-»t %. ' 
acid being expelled by evaporation, the residual sale t> - j 
be dissolved in water, and precipitated by carbonate of am- 
monia, an excess of which dissolves any oxide of zinc cr 
copper that may have been thrown down by the sulpburvtu . 
hvdrogen with the sulphuret of cadmium. The carbons* r 
of cadmium thus obtamed is to be heated to rednesa, tU-^ 
mixed with lamp-black, and heated to dull redness iii a 
glass or porcelain retort : it is thus reduced, and the ine'.Ai 
distilled. The impmre Silesian oxide of zinc is stated t^ 
contain from 1^ to 11 per cent^f this new metaL 

Cadmium has the colour of tin, is brilhant, and suscvf^ 
tible of a fine polish. Its fracture is fibrous, and it cryA^l- 
lizes readily in regular octahedrons ; while solid ifyiug. its 
surface is covered with arborations like fern leaves^* it .» 
soft, easily bent, filed, and cut ; it stains substances cp :. 
which it is rubbed, like lead. When bent it gives a pccu^^^r 
crackling noise, like tin. It is very ductile, easily dra« c 
into wire and beaten into thin leaves. Its specific' erax \% 
after fusion is 8'604, but when beaten 8*694. CaSmiuik 
melts below a red heat ; and at a temperature a little abc« & 
that of boiling mercury, it boils and distils in drQ|is« T.:t 
vapour of cadmium has no particular odour, Lik* tts^ it « 
slowly acted upon by the air, but is eventually t&nuȣ.-^ 
by it. 

Oxygen and Cadmiwn readily unite to form ODe ^\,,U 
It may be procured either by burning the metal, or dctx r:- • 
posing a solution of the metd with an alkali, and vm»\... c 
and calcining the precipitate. The colour of oxide of cl.<;* 
mium depends uoon its state of aggregation : it i^ eub« ; 
deep reddish yellow, bright brown, deep brown, or «%«a 



CAD 



101 



C A E 



gmall quantities in the minerals in wbieh it has been de- | 
tected, that it may rather he considered as au accidental 
impuri^«y than an essential constituent part« It is thus 
usually hund associated with the ores of zinc» the greatest 
proportion being found by Stromeyer to be about 5 ner cent 
in the radiated zinc-blendes of Bohemia. It has also been 
found by Dr. Clark in the oxides of zinc both of Freiberg 
and Derbyshire; and its presence may also be generally 
detected in the common zinc of commerce, and may usually 
be obtained in considerable quantity mixed with the soot 
from the crucibles in which the oxides of zinc are reduced by 
being heated with coal, portions of this substance from the 
zinc works of Bristol being found to contain from 12 to 20 
per cent, of cadmium. 

CADMUS, tbe name of several persons in Greek history. 
The most famous was the legendary founder of Thebes, 
who was the son of Agenor, king of the Phoenicians, and 
was sent in search of his sister Europe, who had been carried 
off, according to the old fable, by Jupiter under the form of 
a bull. Cadmus touched at There, where he left Mem- 
blianis and some of his followers (Herod., iv. 147), and 
thence proceeded to Boeotia, where, in obedience to the 
oracle, he formed a settlement on a spot pointed out by a 
heifer which be had followed, and which lay down by the 
streams of Dirce. He had, however, in the first place, to 
kill a fierce dragon who guarded the place, and on sowing 
the monster's teeth as he was directed to do, a host of armed 
men sprung from the ground, and fought with one another 
till all but seven were slain. These seven joined Cadmus 
in founding Cadmeia, subseauently the citadel of Thebes : 
hence tbe Thebans were called Sparti (sown-men). All. 
these legends are given successively in a chorus of Euri- 
pides iPnceniia, 641 — 660, and Scholiast.), and various at- 
tempts haye been made to explain them. Some contend 
with Herodotus for the Phoenician origin of the traditions, 
others refer them to Egypt, and one modern scholar has 
endeavoured to prove Siat Cadmus was the leader of a 
Cretan colony. We have given in a former article 
[B<eotia] some reasons for believing with Miiller that 
Uadnius was an old Pelasgian god. Indeed, positive evi- 
dence has been given that he was identical with Cadmilus, 
the father of the Cabiri, and that his wife Harmonia was also 
connected with the Samothradan rites. (Muller*s Orcho- 
meno9t p. 461.) The legend goes on to relate that he and 
his wife were changed into serpents, and that he retired to 
Illyria (Pausan. ix. 583), from whence he led a host of bar- 
barians into Greece and sacked Delphi (Herod, v. 61, ix. 
43 ; Eurip. Baeeha, 1333; Niebuhr, HuL Rom,t i. p. 50). 
To Cadmus is attributed the invention of 17 letters of the 
Greek alphabet; the remaining 8 having been added by 
Palamedes and Simonides. (Plin., Hist. Nat,, t vii. c. 56.) 

CADMUS, of Miletus, was the first Greek prose writer. 
He lived towards the end of the seventh or the beginning of 
the sixth century b.c, and wrote a history, in four books, oC 
the foundation of his native city and the colonization of 
Ionia, which was epitomized by Bion of Prooonnesus. 
(Clem. Al. Strom., vi. p. 629 ; Plin., Hist. Nat., vii. 56, v. 29 ; 
Isoorates, wipl ^ Avrii^ntic.) 

CADSAND, or KADZAND. [ZsBLANr.] 

CADU'CEUS, a staff of laurel or olive, wiUi a represen- 
tation of two snakes twisted about it. The caduoeua was 
the symbol of Mercury, to whom, according to the fable, it 
was given by Apollo, m return for the lyre which Mercury 
had presented to him. It was also the badge of the heraldls 
of antient Greece ; and the name, which is also written 
Caduoeum, is apparently only a corruption of the Greek 
cifpvKtter (kerukeion), herald*s sta£ In its oldest form it 
was merely a bough, like the Greek uariipiov (hiket^rion), 
and the Roman mpplieia, twined about with white wool. 
Afterwards a white or gilded staff, with imitations of foliage 
and ribands, was substituted for the old rude symbol. 
These were probably not turned into snakes till a much later 
age, when that reptile had acquired a mystic character. 
Many explanations of the caduceus have been attempted by 
modem scholars ; the most plausible is that of Bottiger, who 
supposes that it was a representation of a peculiar luiot (the 
no Jus Herculis, Macrob. I., Saturn., c. 19) used by the 
PhoBnioians in cording up their packages, and thence 
adopted by them as a means of signifving to the inhabitants 
of the countries on which they landed their wbh to be upon 
a friendly footing with them ; and as the Phoenicians were, 
generally speaking, the first strangers with whom any people 
of Greece had intereoune, their symbol of amity would pro- 



bably be used for the tame puipose wheneter an e^cMiea 
offered. (Bottiger. Vasengemaidet part ii«, p. 97,AmoI- 
thea, vel. i., p. 104—116.) 

Ci£CI'LIUS, 8T^g:iUS, a Gaul, originally a slate. 
He received the name- ,€eeUius when he liMamefree. He 
died about one year after his friend Ennius, that is, b.c. 1 r>8. 
C^iecilius wrote thirty comedies in the Latin language, uf 
which only fragments remain in the vnitings of (Accid, 
Aulus GelUus, and the grammarians. His merit baa been 
variously estimated by the antients : Cicero (jad Attic,^ « u. 3 1 
condemns his style as bad, and Quintilian (x. i.) does not 
assent to the praises which had been bestowed <m him hj 
others. Horace (Epist, ii. i. 59, de Art. Pest, 54), oa the 
contrary, praises him as in some points auperior to Plaotn^ 
and Terence ; and Vulgatius Sedigitus (in Aul. Gell. xr. U) 
gives him the highest rank in comedy. Many of bis pUu 
were. imitations of Menander; and Aulus Gellitw (ii. S3) 
says that when he read them separately they appeererl 
rather pleasing and lively, but that when compared with 
the Greek originals they were perfectly disgusting. In the 
same very valuable chapter Aulus (vellius gives » acebe 
from the rlocium iir\6iaov, necklace) of Ccsciliua with tbe 
scene of Menander from which it is copied. They differ at 
much in brightness, he says, as the arms of Dioraed sod 
Glaucus. (See Terence, Hec. ProL 5.) 

CAEDMON, the father of English song, or the fint 
person of whom we possess any metrical composition in our 
vernacular language. This composition is a kind of ed- 
consisting of no more than eighteen lines, celebrating the 
praises of the Creator. It is preserved in Alfred's tr«n»)2- 
tion of Bede. Bede gives the following account of tbe pc«- 
duction of it, and of the author. Caedmon was in muik 
kind of connexion with the monks of Whitby : he seem» t<i 
have had the care of their cattle. So far from bsvinit the 
gift of song» when he was present at any convivial meeUnc. 
and the harp passed round among the guests (it appeannr 
to have been the custom of our Saxon forefathers to mmut^ 
themselves with improvisatore descants accompanied by thi* 
instrument, as is still practised at meetings of tbe A\*eUl 
bards), when it was approaching him he shrunk swsy, air! 
would leave the assembly and retire to his own house. One 
day he had thus departed from a house of mirtb, and ii 
night he laid himself down and slept. In bis sleep Mm* 
one seemed to say to him, ' Caedmon, sing me somethjcir 
he replied, ' I cannot sing ;' ' Yet thou must sin^ to ok.* 
said the voice; * What shall I sing?' said he; *Sins; os 
the origin of things.' The subject thus given him, be rum- 
posed the short ode in question. When he awoke, the wori^ 
were fast in his mind. 

This need not be set down at once as a legendary tij£, 
there being nothing of extreme improbabiUty itk it. 7i 
effect was that Ca^hnon became admitted by tbe Abbw 
Hilda into the company of the holy men whom she I* 
collected round her in her monastery at Whitby. He at 
tinned to receive poetic inspiration, and he composed nunx^ 
reus poems on sacred subjects, which were auDfi: id tr^ 
abbey for the edification of its inhabitants. Sacred sub}c:t« 
were his delight, and to them he confined himself. H-. 
continued in the monastery for the remainder of bis liSc 
and there he died, as is conjectured, in the year a.i>. cgf^. 

The authenticity of the little poem above mentioned t* 
perhaps unquestionable. But besides this, a very long Sar>c 
poem, which is a metrical paraphrase on parts of tbe Scr?- 
tures, is attributed to Caedmon. An edition of it «x« 
printed at Amsterdam in 1655, under the care d Jontki 
Hickes expresses doubts whether this poem can be axtr 
buted to 80 early a period as the time of Caedaon, H-. 
thinks he perceives qertain Dano-Saxonisms in it whu . 
would lead him to refer it to a much hiter period. It k ** 
been again printed by Mr. Thorpe as a publieatum by t^' 
Society of Antiquaries, London, 8vo. 1832. Mr. Tborfv i^ 
of opinion that it is substantially the work of CasdaMn, bet 
with some sophistications of a later ptfiod. At all e^^^r « 
the poem seems to have been popular, and to bav« be«>r 
much used in later times by the makm of Uw tny%icr> « 
which furnished so much of the amusement of oor' nnce* 
tors. An attempt has been made to show that tbe f<j^.* 
respecting the creation and our first parents bad l»i. 
studied by Milton. 

The works to which those persons will havw reomtre* v . 
desire to enter at large into this subject, are the two e^it.*.^. 
of the poem by Junius and Thorpe; Warton s * Hi«t.«^ - • 
EngUsh Poetry ;' Cony heare's • lUustratioos of 



C A E 



106 



A E 



which arose in France : it was plundered by the CalvinistSt 
into whose hands it fell ; and much of what was saved from 
their violence was taken by the Catholics, under the pretext 
of putting it in a place of security. 

Caen is situated in a level tract, almost wholly consisting 
of unenclosed fields of buck-wheat and other com, extend- 
ing with monotonous continuity as far as the eye can reach. 
The appearance of the town from a distance is grand, both 
from its extent and the number of towers and spires that 
rise from it The streets are wide and the houses are built 
of stone. It is intersected in various directions by the 
branches, natural and artificial, of the Odon, the banks of 
which are in many places formed into walks, and adorned 
by avenues of noble trees. The grand court is almost as 
fine a promenade as the grand court of Rouen. There are 
some antient houses with the gable to the street, and pre- 
senting on the front elaborate carvings of wood. They re- 
semble in their general character the older houses in the 
city of Chester and elsewhere. The town has few foun- 
tains, the want of which is supplied by wells. The Place 
Royale is a large and regular square, and the public edifices 
are numerous and striking. Thero have been considerable 
improvements of late years in the outskirts of the town, 
which are facilitated by the circumstance of stone being 
quarried in the immediate neighbourhood. There are but 
•light remains of the antient walls and towers by which the 
town was defended. 

The public buildings of Caen are interesting as the relics 
of former ages. The castle, said to have been built by 
William the Conqueror, enlarged by Henry I. of England, 
and much altered at a subsequent date by the French kings, 
still claims to be ranked as a place of defence, though it 
retains few of its original features. The towers which 
flanked the ramparts have been brought down to the level 
of the platform, and the donjon tower has been destroyed ; 
but though the castle has suffered these mutilations, the 
extent of its site, the thickness of its walls, and the width of 
its ditches, testify its original importance. Another castel- 
lated building called the Chiteau de Calix,at the extremity 
of the suburb of Calix, is adorned with several medallion- 
bosts in low relief carved in stone on the walls : there are 
also on the battlements two stone figures of such doubtful 
character, that while Mr. Dawson Turner supposes them to 
be Neptune or some other sea- god and Hercules, the com- 
mon people regard them as gent darmes mounting guard 
on the castle, which is often called from them the Chdteau 
de Oendarmerie. This building is probably not older than 
the beginning of the 16th century. 

Among the chief ornaments of the town are the two 
royal abbeys. The monastic buildings of the abbey of St 
Etienne are now appropriated to the use of the college or 
high school. The church is magnificent : the eastern end, 
with its wide semicircular sweep and slender tnrrets, ap- 
proaches to the character of an oriental mosque ; the western 
front is divided by buttresses into three parts, the outer two 
of which rise into towers, and are surmounted with lofty 
octagon spires. The central tower of this church was un- 
dermined and much injured by the Huguenots : it is sur- 
mounted by a short conical spire or roof. The tomb and 
coffin of William the Conqueror were broken open by the 
Huguenots in 1562, and the bones dispersed and lost except 
one, which also was afterwards removed. An antient 
building, now in ruins, in the precincts of the abbey, is 
called the palace of William the Conqueror, though of a 
later date than his time; and it maybe questioned if it 
was ever a royal palace at all. The monastic buildings of 
the abbey of the Holy Trinity (for nuns) are modern : the 
church, now used as an hospital or workhouse for the de- 
partment of Calvados*, is one of the noblest specimens ex- 
tant of the solid grandeur of Norman architecture ; the 
west front, though deprived of the lofty spires with which 
its towers were surmounted, far exceeds that of the rival 
abbey of St Etienne. This abbey in the middlo ages 
united the seemin;:ly incongruous cliaracters of a nunnery 
and a fortress. Of the parish churches, that of St, Elienne 
ie Vieil has on the wall of its choir an equestrian figure of 
very disputable date, supposed to be part of a groupe repre- 
senting the entry of William the Conqueror into Caen : the 
church of St. Pierre is remarkable for a light elegant, and 
symmetrical tower and spire erected in 1308, and hardly 

• ^* •*»*• thb on th« authority of Mr. Davma Turn«r. in 1818; 1m 
QMilioat that li was «xpMlo4 Moa lo NTW t to it* oiiflaal d««tia»tk>a of a 
vUMoTptthlMwofahip. -. 



inferior in elevation to those of Salisbury cstbedril. The 
church of St Nicholas, built by William tha Conqueror 
about A.O. 1 U60. is now used as a stable. 

The popuUtion of Caen bv the census of 1832 was 37,01 9 
for the town or 39,140 for the whole commune. The town 
is the centre of a rich agriculture and a considenble inland 
trade : it is a manjafacturing town and a port The union 
of the Odon with the Ome forms a stream capable of bear- 
ing at high tides vessels of SOO tons, but ordinarily it admits 
only much smaller ones. Many plans have been suggested 
for the improvement of the port ; and Napoleon, following 
a suggestion made long since by Vauban, desired lo make 
it a naval station. The ramifications of the Odon offer 
great advantages for mills and manufactories. Hosiery* 
cotton yam, calico, and other woven goods are manufae- 
tured here; there is a considerable sugar-refining houv, 
and many oil-mills ; and paper-hangings are made. But 
the chief article of manufacture is lace; the streets are 
lined almost uninterruptedly with women and boys engaged 
in this branch of industry, and it is calculated that ?0.ooO 
persons in and about Caen are engaged in the prodoction 
of this article, which is in high estimation Ibr its beauty 
and quality, and is exported in considerable quantity. 

Caen has an Academie or University, the first establish* 
ment of which is due to the English. Henry VI. of E nor- 
land, or rather John Duke of Bedford (then regent of Nor- 
mandie) in his name, founded a college in 1431, which ^sas 
subsequently enlarged in its plan and sanctioned by X\\e 
bulls of Pope Eugenius IV. Upon the conquest of the 
province by the French this university was dtssol\«i| 
(A.D. 1450) with a view to the founding of a new one by the 
French king ; but the old one was re-established aiicl re- 
placed on its original footing in 1452. In the estimatt n 
of the inhabitants the university of Caen now holds the 
third place in France, those of Paris and Stnisbure being 
the only ones allowed to surpass it. Tliere are a college or 
high school, a school of medicine, one of drawing and arrln- 
tecture, and one of navigation, geometry, and merhdn.«^ 
applied to the arts. The Academy of Arts, Sciences, ar.rl 
Belles Lettres, the Society of the Antiquaries of Nornianii;<r, 
the Linnean Society, and the Central Society of Ainicultun-, 
present the elements of a Provincial Institute, the for.i.a- 
tion of which is suggested by M. Dupin. There are a :;«.sv! 
public library of 40.000 volumes, a museum of naturai*l:i4< 
tory, a botanic garden, a collection of paintings. Tlie to^u 
has produced several men of literary eminence ; am<>u;; 
them are Malherbe, Segrais, and Huct bishop of Avranchc** 

The chief charitable establishments of Caen are the h -»- 
pital of the abbey of the Holy Trinity (or. as it is (renerAlW 
called, the Abbey aux Dames), remarkable for the t.pj-4 
allowed to every patient the exquisite neatness of (r« 
several departments, and the general excellenre of .:» 
arrangements ; and the establishment of Le Bon Saw^ .r, 
comprehending a lunatic asylum for both sexes, a dts^icn' 
sary, a deaf and dumb school, a free-school for 120 poor gir^, 
and other establishments. 

Caen is the capital of the department, and the scat of a 
Cour Royale or assize court. The arrondissemenl of Cavn 
had in 1832 a population of 135,502. 

CAERLAVEROCH. [DumfriksshireJ 

CAERLEON, now an inconsiderable town in the parUh if 
Llangattoch, with a population in 1831 amountins to oi.W 
1071. is stated to have once been the capital of Wales. U 
stands on the river U^k in Monmouthshire, and wa« t .* 
Isca Silurum, one of the oldest Roman stations in BntAr.:. 
A description of the place by Giraldus Cambren^is. in i..« 
twelfth century, gives a lively picture of iu former iiaf» r:- 
ance. It was the seat of an archbishop soon after the ini:.- 
duction of Christianity into Great Britain. The rt>mani« .f 
its former importance are extremely scanty, and ihe c! * 
part of the site of the antient city is now co\eted w»ih f.*:..» 
and orchards. A space of ground, which it is believed w ^% 
a Roman amphitheatre, is commonly called Arthur*s R..uc*i 
Table. There was formerly an abbey of Cl$ten^ian m- nk* 
at Caerleon. The parish is within the diocese of Llan^Uf 
and the living and rectory of the gn>ss annual value of 3 v .. 
The population of the whole parish is 1362. There i* aa 
endowed free school at Caerleon, founded by C Will;*.?:*, 
Esq., in which fifty boys and girls are instrucie<L In ti • 
tiine of the Romans smelting works were carried on in v ^ 
neighbourhood, and there are at present both iron aAu t a 
works, but the population does not appear to have increa»e<L 

CAERMARTHEN,or,in Welsh, CAER FVRDDYN, 



C AK 



108 



CAB 



tnirtbeoi the Towy receives the watert of the Gothy or 
Oothy, the moat important of it« feeders, and the waters of 
several other streams. From Cacrmarthen the river flows 
southward into the bay of Caermarthen, its estuary being 
cotnbitied with those of the Gvendraeth Vawr and the 
Tave. The whole course of the Towy is about 60 miles, of 
vhich about 50 miles are in the county of Caermarthen. 
The navigable part, which does not appear to extend above 
Caermartnen town, is about ei(;ht or nine miles. This river 
abounds with fish, especially salmon, sewin. trout, and eels; 
also lampreys and lamuems in the months of June and 
July. It affords great aivcriiity and beauty of scenery. Its 
banks are in many places well wooded. The Cothy rises 
on the border of the county towards Cardiganshire, and has 
a S.W. course of about 25 wiles before its junction with the 
Towy. 

The Tdve rises in Pembrokeshire, east of Precelly Moun- 
tain, but has only a small part of its course in that oounty. 
It flows first to the S.W.. then to the S., and then to the 
S.E. The valley throu<:h which it flows is well wooded. It 
docs not receive any considerable feeders until it reaches 
the village of St. Clears, at or below which it receives the 
Cathgenny and the Cowin or Cowen, which rise in the hills 
in the north of Caermarthen shire, and flow due south. The 
Tavc becomes navigable at St Clears, and flows into Caer- 
marthen Bay just below the town of Laugharne its whole 
course is about 26 or 2d miles. 

The Gwendraeth Vawr (or Great Gwendraeth) rises in 
the hills which occupy the S.E. part of the oounty towards 
Glamorganshire, and flows S.W. into Caermarthen Bay. 
The mouth is much obstructed by the sand, which has, by 
its accumulation, formed a dangerous bar, much to the injury 
of the trade of Kidwelly. Its course is only about 15 miles. 

The Lloughor rises in the Mynydd Dil^ or Black Moun- 
tains, and flowing S.W. forms, during the greater part of 
its coarse, the boundary between Caermarthenshire and 
Glamorganshire. It is a very copious stream from its 
source, near which it has a fall of eighteen feet ; and it re- 
ceives several tributaries. Its soituary ha» the name of the 
river Burry. It is navi^ble to above Lloughor, which is 
on tbe Glamorganshire side. Its length, from its source to 
the place where the SDStuary opens into Caermarthen bay, is 
about 28 miles. It has been supposed that the Lloughor 
really issues from a lake near the Caermarthenshire Vann ; 
and the supposition was confirmed by the circumstance 
that some husks of corn thrown into the lake reappeared 
six hours afterwards at the apparent source of this river. 
The Teify divides this county from Cardiganshire. 

There are no lakes of any extent in Caermarthenshire. 
One on Mynydd Mawr (the great mountain) which over* 
looks the valley of the Towy is of circular form, about half 
a mile across, and abounds in fine perch and other fish. 
Another lake of very limpid water hes at the foot of the 
steep declivity of the Caermarthenshire Vann : it is remark- 
able fbr the beauty of the sceneiy by which it is surrounded. 
Its greatest depth is sixteen fiUhoms, and its greatest dia- 
meter about a mile : it abounds with fine perch and eels of 
extraordinary size. It is the source of the Sawddy, a 
feeder of the Towy. 

There are properly only two navigable rivers in the 
county, the Towy and the Tave : the navigation of the 
Lloughor and the Gwendraeth Vawr is confined in reality 
to their ostuaries. There is one short canal, from Kidwelly 
to Llanelly, with a cut to Pembrey Harbour; one (the 
Caermarthenshire) railway, sixteen miles long from the 
limestone quarries of Cas'tell y Garreg to Llanelly. where 
is a small dock for shipping ; and another (the Llanelly) 
railway, little more than two miles long, with a dock or 
basin at its termination at Machynis pool near Llanelly. 
These railroads are chiefly designed for conveying the 
mineral produce of the country to the sea. 

Caermarthenshire is intersected in almost every direction 
by turnpike-roads. Two mail-roads, both leading to Haver- 
fordwest and Milford, cross the county : one passes through 
Oxford, Gloucester, and Brecon, enters Caermarthenshire 
between Trecastle and Llandovery, and runs by Llandovery 
mnd LJandilovawr to Caermarthen ; tbe other through Bath, 
Bristol, Cowbridge, and Neath, enters Caermarthenshire 
near Pootarddylais, and runt to Caermarthen. This road 
is the chief communication between Swansea and Caermar- 
then. From Caermarthen, where these two roads unite, 
they mn by St. Clears and Tavemspite into Pembroke- 
shire* Fma Caermftithen • tnrapike-road runs N.W. to 



New Castle Emlyn and Cardigan ; and another N.K. to 
Lampeter. There are roads from Llandilovawr and from 
Llandovery to Lampeter ; from Llandovery to Buflth and 
New Kadnor ; from Llandilovawr, by Llangadoek, to Tre» 
castle, and from Llandilovawr southward to Bettws, and 
from thence to various parts of Glamorganshire. 

Qeologieal character. The southern part of the count? 
bordering upon Glamorganshire and the sea forms part of 
tbe great coal-field of South Wales, the most extensive of 
the coal-fields of Great Britain, though yet eompttrAtivrly 
little worked. The coal is chiefly what is called stone coal': 
the large coal of this quality is used for drying hops and 
malt; the small coal, called culm, for burning limestone. 
Tow:.rds the coast the coal is more bituminous. Calm con- 
stitutes the principal fuel of the district * it is mixed with 
clay till it acquires the consistence of mortar, and is then 
fbrmed into balls of a moderate size, which are piled in the 
grate and give out a strong heat. Iron-stone is procured 
from the coal-measures near Llanelly, where are eonaiderwble 
iron-works. The coal-field of South Wales lies in a basin 
of mountain or earboniferous limestone, and the northern 
outcrop of this limestone crosses Caermarthenshire in a 
waving line £. and W. It forms the eoast just at the 
northern part of Caermarthen bay, which divides tbe eoal. 
field into two parts, separating that which is in Pemtvoke- 
shire from that in Caermarthen and Glamorgan shtreiL 
From this l)elt of limestone the farmers of this county obtain 
their lime for manure. Some marble of a blue colour 
slightly veined with white, which bears an excellent polish. 
is quarried in it: it is wrought into chimney-pieces and 
sent to Bristol. The tombstones in all the neighbourhood 
are made of it. 

The old red sandstone, which rises from beneath th« 
mountain limestone, occupies in the county only n compa- 
ratively narrow strip of the surface bounding the coal-field 
and the limestone district to the north. It widens indeed 
as it approaches Brecknockshire, where it spreads out ao aa 
to occupy the chief part of that oounty. The Towy abore 
Caermarthen flows near the boundary of the Sandstone belt. 
Clay slate and grauwack6 slate underlie the sandstone, 
and rising from beneath it occupy the rest of this oounty, 
and also those of Cardigan, Montjgomery, Radnor, and part 
of Salop. (Conybeare and Phillips's Qeoiogy of England 
and Wales ; Beauties of England and Wales ; Gfoenough a 
Geological Map ; Walker's do.) 

Divisions, Towns^ ^. Gough, in his additions to Cam- 
den, says that Caermarthenshire oontains six hundreds: 
but this is not correct. There are altogether eight hun- 
dreds, via., Cathinog and Cayo in the N., Perfedd in the B., 
Iskennen in the S.E., Camwallon and Kidwelly in the S., 
Derllys in the W. and S.W., and Elvet in the N.W. The 
three hundreds of Iskennen, Camwallon, and Kidwelly 
form a district distinct from the rest of the county, having 
a coroner of its own. 

There are in this county one borough, Caennarthcn 
(population 9955), with its oontributary trough Llanellv , 
six market- towns, besides the two already mentioned ; K.'d- 
welly, Laugharne, Llandilo-vawr, Llandovery, Llangadoek* 
and Newcastle Emlyn. 

Llanelly is situated upon the river Burry, tbe testuary of the 
Lloughor ; it is little more than ten miles from Swansea br 
Lloughor Ferry. It is irregulariy built, but some of the 
houses are tolerably good. The church, dedicated to Sc 
EUiw, is an irregular edifice with two steeples, one termi- 
nated by a spire, the other by an embattled turret 

The population of the principal hamlet (Borough) is 4 1 73 ; 
the town and the parish churoh are in this : the other four 
hamlets of Berwick, Glyn, Hengoed. and Westfa or Westoac, 
swell the population of the whde parish to 7646. LlanelU- 
is mentionea as a borough town in the reign of Edwud If. 
It is flourishing, and has an increasing trade. Tbe 
collieries employ 500 persons ; the cosl, which is of fine 
quality, is exported to France and to the Mediterranean f^v- 
steam-boats. There are some copper works : tbe ore b im- 
ported, and the copper cakes and sheathing exported. Tbc?v 
are two iron foundries, but neither of them of mtieh import- 
ance. There are three docks for shipning, and a fburth in 
course of construction. A canal and tram road enable 
Llanelly to communicate with Kidwelly. 

There was before the Reformation a chapel in eadi of the 
five hamlets. There are now several dissenting meetaig- 
houses, and several free-schools. Near the town is 
antient camp supposed to be British. 



C A E 



109 



CAB 



Kidwelly or Cydwelt» m borough* is upon the Gwendrnetli 
Vechan or loaaec Gwendraetb, near its junction with the 
Gwendraeth Vawr. It is divided into two townships. New 
Kidwelly, on the eastern or left bank of the river, and Old 
Kidwelly on the western bank. Old Kidwelly was once 
surrounded with walls, and had three gates ; one of these 
gates is yet standing . this township has decayed, the situa- 
tion of New Kidwelly being found more convenient. The 
trade however of the whole has declined, owing to the sand 
obstructing the navigation of tlie river. The church, dedi- 
cated to the Virgin Mary, is in the new town, and is an 
antient structure, very plain, containing an aisle and two 
ruined transepts : there is a tower at the western end sur- 
mounted by a spire 166 feet in height. There is a good 
stooe bridge over the Gwendraeth Veohan. The antient 
castle occupies a rocky eminence on the western side of the 
Gwendraeth Vechan : its external appearance is grand and 
impoeing ; it is on the whole in good preservation, several 
of the apartments being entire, with their arched roofs yet 
unimpaired, and some of the staircases being in tolerable 
condition. The magnificent gateway toward the west, which 
formeil the principal entrance, is also yet standing. The 
ground plan of this castle was nearly square, with a large 
tower at each corner, and several other towers of smaller 
dimensions This fortress is said to have been built about 
the clo^ of the eleventh century by a Norman knight who 
bad assisted in the conquest of Glamorganshire. There is a 
fircG- school, the master of which has a small salary from the 
corporation. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the king. 
Leland mentions a cell of black monks of Sherburne as 
being here in his time ; there are some slight remains of 
this or some other religious house. Kidwelly has several 
diiiseating meeting-houses. 

Laughame is on the right or S.W.bank of the mstuary of 
the Tave. It is about three miles to the left of the road 
from London to Milford (turning off at St. Clear*s bridge), 
l'2i miles from Caermarthen. The town is built on the 
cil^e of a marsh, open to the sea, and backed by high 
grounds : it is of small extent, but contains a considerable 
proportion of respectable houses. The parish church, 
(letlicated to St. Martin, is large and handsome, and 
uidi the church-yard (which is on a declivity, affording a 
rwU view from the upper part) adds greatly to the beauty 
of this sequestered place. The castle of Laugharne is a 
ver>' picturesque and noble ruin. When Mr. Malkin 
vibited it in 1803 the proprietor had laid out the inner court 
na a garden, and filled one of the towers with evergreens 
and tloweriog shrubs. It was probably built by some of 
the Nonnan lords who invaded this coast soon after the 
conquest : it was an object of frequent hostility in the wars 
between the Welsh and the English, and was atrain con- 
tested in the war between Charles I. and the parliament. 
There are also Uie remains of a building called Roche's 
Ca&tle, but supposed to have been really a monastery. 
Laughame is well supplied with provisions. So late as 
the commencement of the present centurv it was divided 
into two parts, inhabited respectively by the English and 
Welsh, who neither mixed together nor even understood 
each other *s language. In 1831 the population of the town 
was 1423; of the whole parish, 2020. The antient name 
of this place was Aber Coran (t. e.. Oiran-mouth), from the 
Coran or Cowin, which joins the Tave just above it : after- 
trards it was called Llacharn (or TSl Llacharn, t. e., ' above 
the great lake* ) from which the present name has been by 
corruption derived. The town of Laughame is incorporated. 
The trade of the place, which consists chiefly of the export 
of butter and corn, is inconsiderable. There are several 
rhssenting places of worship, and some small endowments 
for education and other charitable purposes. This town 
was the birthplace of an eminent political and theological 
vriter. Dean Tucker, who died in 1799, aged 87. 

Llandilo-vawr, or, as it is usually called, Uandilo, is on 
(h± right or N. bank of the Towy, and on the high road 
through Brecon to Caermarthen and Milford; 15 miles 
trova Caermarthen. The town is delightfully situated, 
hut haa little attraction in itself, though considerable 
iniprovenaents have been made : the houses, except those 
of modern erection, are generally mean, the streets ir- 
irregtilar, and the bridge, though not of antient date, in- 
conveniently narrow. The church, in the centre of the 
t j-rn, js dedicated to St. Teilo, from whom the town gets its 
name ( Llan-deiio-vawr or fawr, the church of Teilo the 
creat) - it consists of two aisles. The market of this town 



is eonsiderable ; > is held on Saturday: there are eight 
annual fairs. The quarter sessions are held here once in 
the year. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the bishop 
of St. David's: the parish, whidi is very extensive, 16 miles 
from N. to S. and eight from B. to W., is subdivided into 
the town and liberty m Llandilo-vawr (population 1268), and 
the hamlets or chapelries of Bryn-y-beirad (pop. 379) ; Cly- 
nammon (pop. 227); Cwmcawrlwyd (pop. 179); ManeV- 
fabon (pop. 402) ; Upper Manordilo (pop. 323) ; Lower 
Manordilo (pop. 352 ; rentre-cwm (pop. 206); Tachlovan 
and Rhiewlas (pop.) 221); Taliaris (pop. 207) ; Treca^lle 
(pop. 377) ; Tregib (pop. 372) ; and Tyr-escob and Rhos- 
maen (pop. 636) : pop. of the whole parish 5149. There 
are several dissenting places of worship in the parish, and 
a small endowed school. Leather ana some woollens for 
home consumption are made in the parish. 

Within a snort distance of this town on an eminence 
overlooking the Towy stands the antient castle of Dynevor 
or Dinas-fawr*, celebrated as the residence of the antient 
princes of South Wales : the remains consist chiefly of two 
towers, one round, the other square, and the walls surround- 
ing an irregular area. Newton House, the present mansion 
of Lord Dynevor, is at some distance fh>m the castle in a 
secluded part of the grounds. Four miles S.E. of the town 
are the remains of Craig Cenen or Carreg Cennen Castell, 
on the river Cennen or Kennen. This ruin is considerable, 
consisting of several towers and the remains of several 
apartments : the date of its origin has been much disputed. 
Not fkv from this is Llanduvaen, a spring once much re- 
sorted to on aeoount of its supposed medicinal qualities. 

Before the passing of the Reform Act Llandilo-vawr was 
the place of election for the county members : it is now 
only a polling place. 

The borough Llandovery is on the Braen, a feeder of the 
Towy, near the junction of the two, as well as to the junc- 
tion of the Gwthrig or Gwydderig with the Braen. It is on 
the road from London to Caermiwien, 27 miles fVom Caer- 
marthen. The town is pleasantly situated, and has consi- 
derably improved of late years. It is in the parish of 
Llandingad, or Llandingat, the church of which stands in 
the middle of the town : the name Llandovery is a cor- 
ruption of the Welsh designation Llan-ym Ddyfri or Ddy- 
froed, the church among the waters, an allusion to the situ- 
ation of this church near the three rivers mentioned above. 
The church has no architectural beauty. There are two 
bridges over the Towy near the town ; one a stone bridge 
of one arch, the other, began in 1 832, a suspension-bridge. 
There are several dissenting meeting-houses in the towu : 
that of the Independents is very large. There are a na- 
tional school, an infant school, and several Sunday schools. 
The population of Llandovery in 1831 was 1706: that of 
the whole parish of Llandingat 2465. The market on Sa- 
turday is well attended. There are six annual fairsJ 
Llandovery was formerly a contributary borough to Caer- 
marthen. 

The living of Llandingat is a vicaraj^, with the chapelry 
of Llan Pair y Brynn annexed ; and is in the gift of the 
bishop of St David's. This living was held above two hun- 
dred years since by the Rev. Rees Prichard, known as the 
vicar of Llandovery, and author of a very popular collectioa 
of religious poems, called * Canwyll y Cymry' (' the Welsh- 
man's Candle'), but more generally known as * Llyfr y 
Ficer* (* the Vicar's Book') : it is the companion to the Bible 
in almost every Welsh cottage. An endowment left by Mr. 
Prichard for tne maintenance of a free -school has been by 
some means lost, and the property has reverted to his de* 
scendants. 

There is supposed to have been a Roman station in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Llandovery, at Llan Fair y 
Brynn ; and the supposition has been confirmed by the 
discovery of several Roman antiquities : but the rise of the 
town of Llandovecy is rather to be ascribed to the erection 
of its castle, which it is likely was built by some of the 
Norman barons who invaded the country soon after the 
conquest The eastle was ruined during the civil wars of 
the 17th century. There are some remains of it on a hill 
on the west side of the Bran, consisting of part of the keep 
and some outworks. 

Llangadock, or Llan Cradog Fawr, is in the vale of Towy, 
near the junction of the Sawddy with that river. It is just 
to the right of a branch-road leading from Trecastle to 

* The oatUi of DyneTor, and •rra a |»art of tb* town LUndUfkrairr ar« 
in the p«xMh of LUndtveyton : popvlatioo S30. ' 



cxn 



lid 



e Afi 



LtMiflilo-TEwr, ab<mt'8l mtlei fttmi Llatidilo-Tawr. It is in 
a delif^htful situation, and has a very respectable appear- 
ance, several of the houses beinf^ good buildings. The 
church is an old and substantial edifice. There is a modem 
brid^^e of five arches over the Towy. There are several 
dissffntinji^ meeting-houses. There was once a baronial 
castle here, but no part of it now exists, llie population 
of the parish in 1831 was 247<i. Coal and limestone are 
worked in the neighbourhood. The coal is tent partly by 
canal to Swaniea, and exported from thence. The living is 
a vicarage in the gift of the bishop of 8t. David's. The 
church is dedicated to St. Cadog, whence the name of the 
town is derived. 

Newcastle Emiyn is so united with the borough of Ad par 
in Cardiganshire, that they are usually considered as one 
town, and both are commonlv included under the name of 
Newcastle. They stand on the banks of the Teify or Teivi ; 
Newcastle on the left or south bank, and Adpar on the right 
or north bank, and form an irregular street nearly a mile 
long. The houses are in general well built There is no 
particular trade carried on in the place; but it forms a 
centre for the sale of cattle for the English market ; and in 
the spring the sea-side barley of Cardiganshire, which is in 
high repute, is sold here for seed. Stone coal and culm 
are brought by land from the southern part of the county 
of Caermarthen, and bituminous coal from Cardigan, to 
which it is brought by sea. There are eleven cattle- fairs 
in the year. {Boundary Reports,) 

Newcastle is 229 miles from London, through Llandovery 
and Lampeter. It is in the parish of Kennarth, which had, 
in 1831, 1935 inhabitants, of whom it is likely nearly one- 
half are in the hamlet of Emlyn, which includes the town. 
The chapel at Newcastle is a neat modern building. There 
are some dissenting places of worship. 

Tbe hamlet of Emlyn, in which Newcastle is, was in- 
cluded by the Reform Act in the borough of Adpar, as 
contributory to Cardi^^an. Newcastle was antiently called 
Dinas Emlyn (city of Emlyn), and took its name of New- 
castle from its fortress being rebuilt by Sir Rhys ap Thomas, 
in the reign of Henry VIL The situation of this castle, on 
a sort of peninsula formed by a bend of the Teivi, is very 
picturesque ; the arched gateway, supported by two octagon 
towors, which faces the town, is a striking objeet. The 
greater part of the building has disappeared. There is a 
aalmon-leap on the Teifi, a short distance below Newcastle. 

The village of St. Clear's, nine miles from C<iermarthen 
towards Milford, exports a considerable quantity of corn, 
butter, and other agricultural produce. The parish had 
in 1831 a population of 1083. There are some remains of 
an alien priory of Cluniac monks formerly existing here, 
a cell to St. Martin de Campis at Paris. St. Clear's had 
once a strong castle, the site of which is indicated by an 
artificial mound of earth. 

Divisions for Ecclesiastical and Legal purposes. — ^This 
county is in the diocese of St. Da\id's, and for the most part 
in the archdeaconry of Caermarthen ; a very small part is 
in the archdeaconry of Cardigan. The number of parishes, 
according to the population returns, is 76; but in the 
' Beauties of England and Wales* this statement is charged 
as incorrect, and the number of parishes is given at 78, 
with 12 chapelries in addition. The county is in the South 
Wales circuit ; the assizes are held at Caermarthen, also 
the Epiphany, Easter, and Michaelmas sessions ; the mid- 
summer sessions are held at Llandilo-vawr. 

Caermarthen shire returns two members to parliament ; 
before the Reform Act it returned only one. Caermarthen 
with Llanelly returns one member ; and Newcastle is united 
with Adpar (Cardiganthire) as a contributory borough to 
Cardigan. Caermarthen is the chief place of county elec- 
tion ; the polling stations are Caermarthen, Llandilo-vawr, 
Llandovery, Newcastle-Emlyn, St, Clear's, Llanelly, Llan- 
lawcl. 

History, Antiquities, <Jt?.— In the most anlient period to 
which the authentic history of this country reaches, it was 
inhabited by a British tribe, to whom the geographer Ptolemy 
gives tlie name of Demetse {Afifitirai), among whose towns 
he mentions Maridunum (Mapi^owov), or Caer-marthen. 
The Uemetn were subdued, it is likely, by Julius Fronti- 
nus, the subjugator of the warlike Silures, the neighbours 
of the DemetSD. To this Roman general are ascribed two 
Roman road», the Via Julia Maritima, and the Via Julia 
Montana^ which cross this county, the first near the coast, 
nrobably through Neath and Ix>ttghor (Glamorganshire), 



and Caermarthen \ tbe second, more inland, by Uangmdoek 
and Llandilo-vawr. These roads seem to have united at 
Maridunum (Caermarthen), and thence to have been eon* 
tinued to the neighbourhood of Menapia (St. David's), po- 
bably in a direction nearly due west Other Roman roads 
have been traced. Near Llanboidy, west of Caennarthrn. 
are the remains of a British or Roman camp, at the entrance 
of which, in I6*J2, were found 200 Roman silver coin k of 
early date, buried in two leaden boxes just under the surface 
of the ground. 

Besides Maridunum there seems to have been another 
Roman station at Llanfair y Brynn, near Llandovery ( -r^ 
above) : this station has been ascertained by tbe numbf r 
of roads meeting here, and by various Roman antiquiiif-> 
dug up ; but its name is not known, though it is aupposrd 
to have been of some importance. 

After the departure of the Romans this district was in* 
eluded in the principality of>Cercdigion (Cardigan) ; but in 
the 9th century it was subject to Rhodri Mawr, or Rodcr ck 
the Great, who united the whole of Wales into one kincrdom. 
Upon the division of his territories among his three M»n«. 
Ceredigion, including Caermarthenshire and nearly all the 
rest of South Wales, fell to the lot of Cadell, the seat of 
whose government was at Dinas Fawr, or Djnevor, wbcrv 
Rhodri had built a palace. 

The division of Wales among the sons of Rhodri wa* a 
fatal step ; dissensions broke out among the brothers ; Cz- 
dell conquered Powis (a district between tbe Wye and r. t* 
Severn), the heritage of his brother Merfyn. He wa)» hiti 
self subsequently attacked by his other brother Anara»L, 
king of Gwynedd, or North Wales ; and in this war Ca^'r- 
marthcnshire was ravaged by Anarawd with a povicrfut 
force supported by some Saxon auxiliaries. CadeU v )« 
succeeded in 907 by his son Hywel, who aubsvqtirnttv 
united the whole of Wales under bis sceptre ; and Wram-. 
under the name of Hywel Dda (or Howell the Gv<*i), 
celebrated as the legislator of his kingdom. A fresh di^:- 
sion of the kingdom after HyweVa death brought i.< v 
troubles ; the occasional re-unions which resulted from ni« . • 
force were not permanent; and to the misery of the^e ct- 
broils were added the ravages of Danish invaders. 1-. 
these contests Caermarthenshire had its share; and t«< 
remarkable engagements were fought within its boFdcr» 
one in 1020, at Abergwili, near Caermarthen, in i»l.. a 
Llewelyn, at that time sovereign of the whole of Wa.00.. 
defeated and slew a Scottish adventurer, Run, who. p«.r* 
sonating one of the Welsh princes, had raised a force aim*, j 
the disaffected chieftains ; another in 1021, in which Llv 
welyn defeated two native princes, who were supp^^r.^.: 
against him by the Irish and Scots, but fell himself iu iLe 
action through treachery. This battle was fought near 
Caermaithen. Throughout these contests IXnevor cvo- 
tinued to be the seat of government for South Wales. 

Some years after the conauest of England by tbe Nor- 
mans, the great feudal lords, whose possessions bonUn^ 
upon Wales, began a series of encroachments upon il.*. 
principality of South Wales, by which it waa f^raduj i\ 
reduced to the counties of Caermarthen and Cardi^a:/. 
even these were for some time in the possession of Heur> 1* 
of England. During this possession it is likely tiiat s«% rr il 
of the castles built bv the Norman barons had their onc^n : 
some of them may havo been erected during earlier er.- 
croachmcnts on the territory. A considerable part of ii.c 
principality of Dynevor was given up by Henry I. to x 
V|relsh prince who laid claim to it, and whom Henry Uhiv 1 
himself unable to subdue. This prince appears howewr : 
have l>een a feudal subject of the crown of England. Hr 
was subsequently again involved in hostilities with tiit 
English. The castles of the Norman lords were severm! of 
them taken and partially demolished ; some of them wcr-.* 
afterwards recovered by the Normans and repaired. Gr& 
dually tbe princes of Wales sunk into the character ttf 
subjects of England, and their hostilities with each otb'r 
and with the neighbouring Norman lords assume mor« i* 1 
character of the struggles between a powerful and re»tle&% n.^ 
bilily for territory or pre-eminence than of tbe re»t^tai>cv . t 
one nation to the aggression of another. In the wars betv «-r n 
Llewelyn, prince of North Wales, and Henry IIL, Catr- 
martbenshire became the scene of contest; and in a *^\^j^ 
action, the English, who were besieging Dynevor cr&^ttr. 
were entirely defeated by the troops of Lleweiyn« aid<^ i-x 
some chieftains of South Wales. In the final contest U' • 
tween Llewelyn and Edward L the Welsh weteaatirxW 



C A E 



112 



C A E 



parish composition was 7118/., and the annual expenditure 

6146/. 

The county expenditure for various purposes, exclusive 
of the relief of the poor, was 2480/. Of. 1 IK in 1833. The 
sum levied for county rate, gi 1833, was 4500/. 

The numher of persons ckmrged with criminal offences in 
CaermarthenAhire, in the three septennial periods ending 
with 1820, 1827, and 1834, were 164, 147. and 263 respec- 
tively, being an average of 23 annually in the first period, 
of 21 in the second, and of 38 in the third period. The 
numbera of persons tried at quarter-sessions in 1831, 1832, 
and 1833, were 23, 33, and 11 respectively. Of these the 
number who had committed 





1831. 


1899. 


1833. 


Felonies were • • 


17 


18 


6 


Misdemeanora 


6 


15 


5 


Of whom were convicted 


11 


23 


4 


Acquitted • 


12 


10 


7 



The total number of persons charged with crimes at the 
assizes and sessions, in 1835, was 38; of these 4 were 
offences against the person, 8 against property committed 
with violence, and 26 offences airainst property committed 
without violence ; of which 1 9 were cases of simple lareeny, 
1 of arson, 6 of robbery and housebreaking : there were 
3 cases of murder. Of the persons charged with offences 
only 3 were females. 

Of these, 14 could read and write, 5 could read only, and 
16 could neither read nor write, in which latter number all 
the females are included ; the degree of instruction of the 
remaining 3 could not be ascertained. The proportion of 
the offenders to the population in 1835 was 1 in 2651. 

There is one savings-bank in the county ; the number of 
depositors and amount of deposits on the 20th November, 
18J2, 1833, and 1834, were respectively, — 

1838. 1833. 1934. 

Number of depositors . • 281 259 278 
Amount of deposits • • £8535 7653 7902 

Educaiion,—Tht following abstract of the number of 
schools, &c., in Caermarthenshire, is taken from parlia- 
mentary returns on the subject given in 1835 : — 

Sellout. SclwUn T«ul. 

Infant Schools • d 

Number of infants at such schools, ages 
from 2 to 7 years, sex not specified • 130 

Daily Schools 161 

Number of children at such schools, ages 
from 4 to 14 years:— 

Males 1924 

Females .... 1182 

Sex not specified . 2769 

5875 

Schools .... 166 ■ 

Total of children under daily instruction 6005 

Sunday Schools 207 

Number of children and others at such 

•choolf :— 

Males 3771 

Females « • . • 3101 

Sex not specified • 1 1,544 

18,416 

ThoM children who are both in the Sunday schools and 
the day schools an entered twice in the foregoing abstract. 

Maintenance of SchooU. 



D»Mil|«i— >f 


Byffirf««m«it. 


«... -1 By pajmmli 


inrni from acliolani 


Schb. 


tan. 


SchU. 


8ch*. 
Un. 


Srhb. 


Sch*- 
Un. 


Bchla. 


HchoUn. 


Infant Schools 
Daity Schools 
SowUy Schools 


SO 
3 


7« 

316 


1 

13 

IW 


40, 4 

R\S' 188 

17j648, 6 


90 

3984 

364 

4439 


"5 
1 


308 
88 


TotU... 


88 


1061 1 818 18538 131 


7 


396 



Schools established by Dissenters included in the above. 

Schools. SchoUrt. 

Infant sehoola — — 

Daily schools 11 400 

Sunday schools 138 12.739 

Two boarding schools are included among the 161 daily 
schools. 

The schools established since 1818 are- 
Infant and other daily schools 65, containing 2945 scholan. 
Sunday sehoola • • • 178» , 16,66$ 



ft 



Lending libraries of books are attached to four schools is 
the county. 

CAERNARVON or CAER-YU-ARFON (the t^iwu 
or fortress in Arfon), a town in North Wales, upon the 
Mcnai Strait, the capital of the county to which it givc» 
name, 233 miles from London, by Shrewsbury and Bali. 
It is in 53® 9' N. lat. and 4® 14' W. long. 

The remains of the Roman station Segontium {I tin. 
Anion.), known by the name of Caer-seiont, are intcrMvird 
by the road leading to the chureh of Llanbeblig. in vhub 
parish Caernarvon stands. They are about a mile from tb« 
town, and consist of some fragments of the wall. Tlie m- 
closure was of an oblong form, and comprehended about >a 
or seven acres, on the summit of a small elevation on tbe 
east or right bank of the river Seiont. A Roman rood u 
still traceable leading to Dinas Dinorddwig, a Roman &ta< 
tion a few miles to the £. On the west bank of the Seiont 
is a Roman fort still nearly entire. The walls are Bl>out 
11 or 12 feet high and 6 feet thick, with three parallel rows 
of cireular holes about three inches in diameter running sU 
round the walls. Where the facings are dilapidated thr 
peculiarity of Roman masonry is easily discoverable. Nisir 
one comer of the work is a heap of stones which once furme4 
a cireular tower, and the foundations of similar towen are 
visible at the other comers. 

The present town of Caernarvon is probably the repre- 
sentative of the native town, which was adiacent to tbe R>> 
man station. The situation appeared to Edward I. a fav^^r- 
able one for erecting a fortress to curb his newly conquer»l 
subjects, the Welsh. In 1282 he commenced the butMin;:; 
of Caernarvon castle, and it has been said, notwithstand*n* 
its extent, to have been built within a year ; a more autbe&K 
record, however, speaks of its building as having occupied 
twelve years, and the revenues of the arehbishopnc cf 
York (which was kept vacant for a time to ser^*e thi*ft tu;u« 
were appropriated to defray the cost : the walls of Segoo* 
tium furnished a part of the materials ; limestone vm 
brought from Anglesey, and other materials from Vaenol. 
between Caernarvon and Bangor. John de Havering v^ 
appointed the first governor, and was to keep up a ear* 
rison of SO men. In this castle, in 1284, the first En<:'iv«.i 
* Prince of W^ales,* afterwards the unhappy Edward II., vai 
born. 

ITpon arising of the Welsh in 1294, under Madoc, %:> 
130 } illcjiitimate son of Llewelyn, prince of Wales, Cacm*ncr 
C'lstte and town were taken by the insurgents, the En^I ^b 
inhabitants massacred, and the place burnt In the in^t:*^- 
rection of Owain Glyndwr it was defended for the k.i..« 
Henry IV. by two Welsh captains, to whom it had been .n 
trusted. In the civil war of Charles I. and the |>arlian'.e^ i 
the castle, which was in the hands of the royali)»ts, was t r«i "s 
by captain Swanley, a parliamentArian, with 400 pria^arr* 
and a quantity of arms, ammunition, and other l>oot>. It 
was soon however retaken by the royalists. In 164 G it «•• 
again besieged by the parliamenta^ forces under Keuei-a.* 
Mytton and Laugharoo ; and Lord Bjrron, the governor, wat 
reduced to surrender, though upon honourable terms. I . 
1648 General Mytton was besieged here by a force unl«' 
Sir John Owen, but the approach of a superior force oblv^v ' 
Sir John to raise the sie^, and his defeat shortly after* ar«l« 
led to the entire submission of North Wales to tbe ptr 
Uament. 

Caernarvon occupies a peninsula formed by the Mcni' 
strait on the north and west sides, and the Seiont on tl • • 
south. The town is walled : the walls are defended bjr rotm i 
towers, and had originally only two gates: other open it z^ 
have been subsequently made to form a communication « . . i 
the suburbs on the east, which have so far increased a» c- 
make a new town. The town walls unite with tbe ca>tW. 
which is on the south side of the town on the hanks of xt^ 
Seiont ; the streets are narrow but regularly laid out, crcw«- 
ing at right angles, and are well paved and lighted* Tl.r 
quay is on the south side of the castle, extending alonis tS. 
Seiont, and there is a terrace outside the town wall an I 
along the shore of the Menai, extending from the quay to i* -» 
north side of the town. There is also a pier pitjecting^ ir.u, 
the Seiont. 

The town-hall is over one of the antient gates of tbe lorn-. 
The county hall, in which the assizes are held, is a corciu •<» 
dious building inside; the county prison is smalL TLm 
are a new market- house and acorn-market, formerly u*c I 
as the general market-house and shambles. Tlie rha{Hrl • 
ease for Caernarvon is in the parUh of Llaobcbl^, ^ll, 



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tre//, lying immediately below us* One of the eompftny had 
the curiosity to descend a very bad way to a jutting rock 
that impended over the monstrous precipice, ana he seemed 
like Mercury ready to fake his llight from the summit of 
Atlas. The waters of Ffynnon LUs from this height ap- 
peared black and unfathomable* and the edges quite green. 
From thence is a succession of bottoms surrounded by the 
most lofty and rugged hills, the greatest part of whose sides 
are quite mural, and form the most magnificent amphi- 
theatre in nature. The Wtfd4fa is on one side; Cnb y 
Distill, with its serrated tops, on another; Crib Coch, a 
ridge of flery redness, appears beneath the preceding ; and 
opposite to it is the boundary called Llitoedd, Another 
very singular support to this mountain is V clawdd Cock^ 
lifting into a sharp ridge, so nanow as not te afford breadth 
even for a path. 

' The view from this exalted scene is unbounded, tn a 
former tour I saw from it the county of Chester, the high 
bills of Yorkshire, part of the north of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland ; a plain view of the Isle of Nian ; and that of 
Anglesey lay extended like a map beneath us, with every 
lill visible. I took much pains te see this prospect te ad- 
vantage ; sat up at a farm on the west till about twelve, 
and walked up the whole way. The night was remarkably 
fine and starry ) towards morn the stars faded away, and 
left a short interval of darkne^is, which was soon disperseil 
by the dawn of day. The body of the sun appeared most 
distinct, with the rotundity of the moon, before it rose high 
enough to render its beams too brilliant for our si^ht. The 
aea, which bounded the western part, was gilt by its beams, 
first in slender streaks, at length glowed with redness. 
The prospect was disclosed to us like the gradual drawing 
up of a curtain in an amphitheatre. We saw more and 
more, till the heat became so powerful as to attract the 
mists from the various lakes, which in a slight degree 
obscured the prospect. The shadow of the mountain was 
flung many miles, and showed its bioapitated form ; the 
Wyodfa making one. Crib y Distill the other. I counted 
this time between twenty and thirty lakes, either in this 
county or Meirionydd (Merioneth) shire. Tlie day proved 
80 excessively hot, that ray journey cost me the skin of the 
lower part of my face before I reached the resting-place, 
alter the fatigue of the morning. 

* On this day the sky was obscured very soon after I got 
up. A vast mist enveloped the whole circuit of the moun- 
tain. ' The prospect down was horrible. It gave the idea of 
a number of abys^es^ concealed by a thick smoke, furiously 
circulating around us. Very often a gust of wind formed 
an opening in the clouds, which gave a fine and distinct 
visto of lake and valley. Sometimes they opened only in 
one place; at others in many at once, exhibiting a most 
strange and perplexing sight of water, fields, rocks or 
chasms in fifty different places. They then closed at once, 
and left us involved in darkness ; in a small space they 
would separate again, and fly in wild eddies round the 
middle of the mountains, and expose, in parts, beth tops 
and bases clear to our view.* 

The name of Snowdon is the Saxon translation (8nap- 
bune, Snow-mountain) of the antient Welsh name Creigie 
'r £ira, according to l^ennant. 

From the small size and peninsular form of this county, 
and the consequent nearness of the mountains to the sea, 
the rivers are small though very numerous. Many of them 
rise from or expand into lakes, which bear the general 
native name of Llyn, lake or pool. 

The Conwy or Cyn-wy, i,e, 'chief water' (the Toisobius 
of Ptolemy), rises in that part of the county which lies 
between Merioneth and Denbighshire. Llyn Conwy, from 
which it flows, is one of the largest sheets of water in 
the county, being about a mile long and three-quarters 
of a mile broad, surrounded with deep bogs and masses 
of rock, and producing a sort of char or red trout From 
the south corner of this lake the river tlows with great ra- 
pidity, and making a circuit runs first north-east and then 
northwest, being swelled by many small streams from the 
neighbouring hills,— the Serw fi^m Llyn Serw, theClettwr, 
and the Avon Hwch, on the right ; the Machno, and the 
Ledau or Lleder, on the left. The fall of the Macbno forms 
one of the finest though not the largest cataracts in 
Wales: close to the junction of this stream there are 
two falls of the Conwy, one above the junction, and one 
below. There are rapids in the Lleder just above ita june- 
tUNk Fromihe junotion of the Ll«der the Conwy lonit 



to the north, which continuee to be its general dtveet'toii 
till its outfall. It receives on the left the Llugwy, whic U 
rises in Ffynnon Llugwy, under the mountain Cam^dd 
Dafydd, and receives the water of two small lakes near 
Capol Curig. This Llugwy forms several very picture^ ue 
falls a few miles below Capel Curig. Below the junctinn of 
the Llugwy the Conwy passes the town of Llanrwst (Den- 
bighshire), where the navigation commences, and reccuv« 
on the left several streams which flow from the llyns vt 
lakes of Caernarvonshire, and render it naviaabU to ve««^ls 
of above 100 tons, with freights of timber aaa slates, ^vat 
its outfall the river widens into an ssstuary, and flows undrr 
the walls of Conwy Castle into the Irish Sea. Its length u 
about 28 or 30 miles, for 12 or 13 of which it is navigable. 

The Glas Llyn rises from the Ffynnon Lias, and flows f<»r 
the most part to the south-west into Cardigan bay, b^'twet'o 
Cricceith (Caern.) and Harlech (Merioneth.). Near iti 
source it fbrras a cascade of about 390 feet, and Is altogether 
one of the most romantic rivers of Wales. It passes through 
Llyn Gwynan and Llyn y Dinas, two lakes in a mo«t beau- 
tiful valley. The sands at the mouth of this river were v^- 
extensive, forming awash called Traeth Mawr, which mat 
dangerous to passengers. In 1625 a design was forn»e«l for 
an embankment, which should shutout the sea and gain thi4 
extent of surface for agricultural purposes. The design wst 
not carried into effect then, but has been since executed b} 
a private individual, W. A. Madocks, Esq. The wh<»Ie 
course of the Glas Llyn is about 16 or 17 miW It is n:i>i- 
gable to Pont Aberglasllyn. 

The Gwrfai rises on the west side of Snowdon. end flow 
north-west through Llyn Cywellyn into the Menat, south- 
west of Caernarvon. The Seiont, rising from the same 
mountain, flows in a similar direction through tlie two lakt*s 
of Llanberris into the Menai at Caernarvon : the Llyfni. which 
has its source also in Snowdon, flows west through lait 
Llynnieu-Nanlle into Caernarvon bay: and the Oir^cn 
rises in Mount Trovaen, and flows through Llyn Ounreo 
into the Menai near Bangor. The Seiont, which baa pro- 
bably the longest course, hardly exceeds IS miles in tengiU. 

'The quantity of water,* says Mr. Pennant. * which lln-n 
from the lakes of Snowdonia is very con&iderahle ; ao Biu«*k, 
that I doubt not but collectively they would excee<S il«e 
waters of the Thames, before it meets the flux of the ore.in/ 

There are no canals in Caemarvenshireb A rail-it/a! 
connects the Penrhyn slate quarries with Port Peniiiyn. ne t 
Bangor ; and another connects the slate quarries of tlie ^ si? 
of N anile with Caernarvon. The parliamentary road iK^ct 
London through Shrewsbury to Holyhead eroasca t*-: 
county in a north-west direction from the river Coifvr. 
near Bettws y Coed, to the suspension-bridge e^er thr 
Menai near Bangor. From this road there is a branch o« 
the right from Bettws to Llanrwst and Conwy, an4 anot^vr 
branch on the left from Capel Curig to CaerBHurthen. The 
mail road from Chester to Holyhead enters thia count) a 
Conwy, where it crosses the river by a new «ufpen»»>ti. 
bridge, and runs along the side of Pemaaea^-ttawf «o Ban- 
gor, with a branch from Bangor to Oaernarvon. TKe rm4 
from London through Bala to Caernarvon rans N.N.W. 
from Pont Aberglasllyn and Beddgelert to Ctemarvoa. 

Geological and Mineralogical characief. — ^Alon^^ part t< 
the coast of the Menai channel there is a narroer strip <« 
carboniferous limestone, which also forms the Great ar.i 
Little Orme's Head. A narrow belt of roclu. eontinna!'.? 
varying in composition, skirts the carboniferous Hneftione or 
the land side, as to its geographical position. Witbm tb .• 
again we meet with the old red sandstone, which exfmi» 
along the coast beyond the hmita of the linestdnew aa tb? 
north-east from Bangor to Conwy, and on the south- vrr«t 
to beyond the point where tlie Menai strait opena \n%» 1 1 e 
bay of Caernarvon ; it appears again just by Braieh y ESrt:. 
which headland is formed by it The other parts of itif 
north-west coast, the plains ffom the shore to the fou of u.« 
mountains, and the banks of the Conwy, are oeeupi«i4 hr 
argillaceous schist, comprehending the clay-slnle aaii cr^T - 
wack^-slate of son^ geologista; and other pnaBitti** n3rk% 
subjacent to this form the summits of the nMunlamn. 

' The greater part of the roek* oomposmg tha Caernar- 
vonshire mountains are sehistose hornblende, schistoaa intra. 
granite, and porphyry, including oonsiderable bloeka c/ 
quartz. The western side (of Snowdon) by which ve de- 
scended is very precipitous, consisting of faomstonc. upm 
which are plaeed a number ef basaltie eohumn^ mavt» «v 
leM legukri/ pentngo&a&i staadiAg parptinUeoliirif to 



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plane of the borison. The colunins are of differefit len^hs, 
about fbar feet diameter, with transverse joints from six to 
ei^ht feet asundsr, and considerable depositions of thin la- 
minated quartz m the joints/ {Journal of a Tour through 
North H^uies, fc., by Arthur Aikin. London, 171)7) 

* If from the central ridge of the Snowdon chain (in which 
term I comprehend the whole mountainous extent of Caer- 
narvonshire from north to south) we proceed to the Menai, 
it will be found that the primitive rocks in mass, such as 
the granites and porphyries, occupy the interior and higher 
peaks : to the side of these are applied the primitive stra- 
tified rocks, then come the slates, whic)i terminate in tlie 
limestone which forms the bank of the Menai. The same 
gradation of strata will appear, if, instead of the western we 
examine the eastern side of Snowdon* (t. «., towards the 
Conwy). ' The variation indeed is not so sudden, but per- 
haps on that very account is mere interesting, as the species 
and varieties of rocks are more numerous, and in larger 
masses. From the peak of Snowdon to Llanrwst through 
Capel Curig are found granite and porphyry in mass, mica- 
ceous schistus, and other primitive stratified rocks; ser- 
pentine in large blocks and of extraordinary beauty, and 
nomblende slate mingled with veins and rocks of quarts ; 
from the vale of Llanrwst to LlaugoUen,* t. e., along the 
valleys of the Conwy and the Dee, 'extend the slates 
which are there (at Llangollen) circumscribed by the lime- 
stone range already mentioned/ (Aikip.) 

It will be observed that Mr. Aikin docs not notice the old 
red sandstone which underlies the carboniferous limestone, 
and rises from beneath it along the banks of the Menai. 
There is a considerable diiTcrence between the chief autho- 
rities which we have followed as to the geological character 
of the shore of the bay of Cardigan. Mr. Aikin describes 
it as composetl of limestone, while in Mr. Greenough's map 
there are no indications of that rock. The omission of all 
notice of the sandstone, by Mr. Aikui, causes also his ac- 
count of the north-west ^oast to diflbr materially IVom Mr. 
Greenough's map. 

There are copper-mioes al Great Orme*s Head, in ihe 
vale of Convnr a little w^^t of Llanrwst, in the vale of 
Llanberi^, and near Pont Aberglasllyn. Lead and calamine 
are obtained in the vale of Cionwy near tl^e junction of the 
Llugwy with the Conwy, and in tliat pact of the counter 
which lies east of the Conwy. MUUtoncs ai'e dug in tlie 
vale of Conwy. Slates are found in various parts of the 
county, and form one of the chief articles of export. The 
finest are those on the west side of the ridge of the Snow- 
donian raountains» and they become finer as they descend 
towards the sea. Not only roofing- slates and writing-slates 
are procured from these mines, but inkstands and other 
fancy articles are made. Slabs ace procuced large enough 
for iomb-6tones and paviag-slabs. 

DivisioHSt TouHis, <$*c.— Cacrnarvonsbiiie is divided into 
ten hundreds. The souLli-west extremity of the county is 
occupied 1^ the hundred of Commitmaen or Cymytmaen ; 
adjacent to this are the hundreds of Pinlaen or Dinlleyn 
on Che noTth-we&t coast, and Gafflogian or Gytlogion ou the 
soutli>east ; tlie hundred of Evionydd or Vfionydd, eceupies 
the remaiudpff of the aoast^f Cajrdigan hay ; md tUuse of 
UwchGocfai or Gwrlju, Is Gorfai or Gwrfdi, and Lleck- 
wedd UchaC occupy the north-vest coast, each extending 
far inland : the upper part of the vale of the Conwy itf 
occupied by the hundred of Nant Conwy, the lower part by 
that of Llechwedd Isaf ; and the parts on the coaat east of 
the Conwy form the bundned of Creuddyn. 

The county tewa ia Caernarvon (papulation ia 1831, 
687r>, on theihore of the Menai Strait, 235 milea north- 
west of London. There is one city* Bangor (population in 
1S31, of city and parish, 47S1). and four marketHowns, 
Pwllbcji* Cooway or Conwy, Nevin or Nefyn, Crickeith or 
Cricoeith, and the newly-built town of Tremadoc. 

Pwllheli, on Ou-digan bay, has a smaU port formed by 
the sDstuarf of three or four small streams, and eonsists of 
one loQ^ vell-built atreeL 'The town appears to be 
fiouriabing ; we observed some new buildings in progress ; 
there are some tubscription building-clubs in the town, and 
it ie propaeed to «i»ct a new church, a subscription for that 
purpose having been raiaed.* (Boundary Reports.) The 
harbour baa at its entrance a round rock, called Cares yr 
Imbill^ about a mile from t^ town, to which it ia joined by 
a raiige of aaad-bilb ; vessels of about 60 tons find the 
barUpur ^qo4« A considerable coasting trade is carried on. 
liaie fu^rU %x» ci)id|y pcoyieions ; t^B imports ace eoaJa> 
cUtoQ goods, and various articles of consumption from 



Liverpool, and limestone and a few articles from Sooth 
Wales. The market is large ; the marketdays are Wed- 
nesday and Saturday ; and there are six annual fairs. 

Pwllheli is in the parish of Denio, which had in 1831 a 
population of 2091, The town has a corporate eharter, 
granted by Bdward prince of Wales <the Black Prince), 
and confirmed by Edward III. it is a contributory borough 
to Caernarvon. 

Conway, or more properly Conwy, or, as it is eometimes 
called, Aber-Conwy (Conwy-Mouth), ts, as its name imports, 
near tbe mouth of the Conwy, on its left bank, 223 milea 
N.W. of London by Whitchurch, Wrexham, Mold, and 
Denbigh, which 19 the shortest road. 

Some antiquanee have proposed to fix here the-Conovium 
cf Antoninus ; but the general opinion identifies Conovium 
with Caer-Rhun. five miles hi^cr up the river. Edwutl I. 
completed a castle in 1284, which he built in order to bridle 
his new subjects the Welsh. Soon after its foundation, a.d. 
1290, the kinff was besieged here by the natives, in their 
revolt under Madoc, an illegitimate son of Llewelyn, and 
reduced to great extremity by femine before the place was 
relieved by the arrival of a fleet with provisions. When 
Richard II. mustered his forces to oppose his rival Boling- 
broke (afterwards Henry IV.), after disgusting his adherents 
and weakening his forces by delay and fickleness, he on a 
sudden cjuitted his army by night and privately sheltered 
himself m Conwy Castle, from whence he was soon after- 
wards allured and delivered into the power of his enemies. 
In the civil war of Charles I. the castle was garrisoned for 
him by Williams, archbishop of York, who appointed his 
own nephew governor. Irritated however at being super- 
seded in the command of North Wales by Prince Rupert, 
the archbishop went over to the side of the parliament, and 
assisted their general, Mytton, in the reduction of tbe town 
and castle. The town was stormed in August, 1646, and the 
castle surrendered in the following November. All the 
Irish aoiong the prisoners were tied back to back aiid 
thrown into the river. The parliament respected this noble 
edifice when they dismantled most other castles in Wales; 
but the xoofs and floors were afterwards removed by the 
Earl of Conwy , to whom, after the Restoration, it was granted. 
One of the towers has a large breach in the lower part* 
caused by the inhabitants undermining it while digging for 
slates. The strength of the masonry has kept the upper 
part in its place. It is to be regretted that the practice of 
excavating the rock on which the castle stands is still 
carried on, to the eod angering of the walls and apartments. 

This fortress, one of the noblest piles in Britain, is in 
form nearly a parallelogram, extending along the verge of 
a precipitous rock on the S.E. side of the town ; two of 
the sides are within the walls of the town : the others are 
washed, one by tbe Conwy, wh»h here expands into an 
oestuary, the other by a small stream which flows into the 
Conwy. Tbe walls, which are partly covered with ivy, are 
of great thickness, twelve to fifteen feet, flanked on each 
of the two sides without the town by four vast circular 
embattled towers with slender turrets rising from them. 
The grand entrapce was on the W., towards the town, but 
there was a oommunicatiea with the river by small advanced 
work and a nairow flight of steps cut out of the rock. The 
interior oonsista of two courts; the apartments are not 
traceable, except in a few instances. Ruinous arches and 
broken walls covered with ivy indicate the extent and rreat- 
ncss of the etate hall, 130 &et or more in length, 32 oroad 
and about 30 high. 

The town is still surrounded by ita antient walls, which 
are strengthened at intervals by 21 towers, besides two 
towers to each ef the three entranoes. The enclosure of tbe 
town walls is triangular, having Ihe castle at one angle ; 
and in the pictusesoue beauty of its situations few plaoea 
can eaual Conwv. The atreets of the town are narrow, 
many buildings m a ruinoue condition, and vacant spaces 
in the atreets show whese others have stood. The cMirch, 
which stands near the centre of the town, was once the 
conventual dmich of a Ciatertian abbey, founded bese, 
A.S. 1186, by Llewelyn ap JorwerUi, prince of Wales. Of 
the three gates, one on the £. communicates with the 
quay and tideway of the river ; the W. gate is towards 
Bangor and Holyhead ; that on the S. communicates witk 
a bridge over the creek that washes on one side the base of 
the castle rock. 

In the river, about 100 yards fiom the reck on which the 
castle stands, is an insulated rook, asstward from which, for 
about half a mile, extend sands covered by the sea when the 

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tide ia up, but <lry, vith the exception of a narrow channel, 
at law water. "When the improvement of the communica- 
tion with Ireland was under the direction of the parlia- 
mentary commissioners, it was determined to throw a sus- 
pension bridge from the castle rock lo that in the river (be- 
tween which rocks is a deep and rapid tideway), and to con- 
nect the latter with the eastern shore by an embankment 
across the sands. The works were begun in 1822 and 
finished in 1826. The width of the bridge, measured be- 
tween the centres of the supporting towers, is 327 feet ; the 
height of the underside of the roadway above the high 
water of spring tides 15 feet; the embankment, which is of 
mountain clay faced wiUi stone, is 2015 feet in length, and 
averages 9 feet in height above the high water of spring 
tides, rising to 13 feet at the end next the bridge; the 
width of the base at the highest part is 300 feet, the breadth 
at the top 30 feet. The spring tides in this river rise 21 to 
24 feet. The architecture of the supporting towers of the 
bridge is in keeping with that of the venerable castle, to 
which the western tower is adjacent. (Account of the 
Menai Bridge, and Notice of Conway Bridge, by W. A. 
Provis, Lond. 1828.) 

Its situation on so important a thoroughfare is the chief 
support of Conwy. There is little trade m the town, which 
is considered to be in a decayed state, with little prospect of 
any revival, unless by the increase of the trade in slates 
quarried in the Caernarvonshire hills. The port is fre- 
quented by a few coasting vessels, and some timber and 
slate are exported. The market is on Friday, and there 
are four annual fairs. Pop. in 1831, 1245. 

The town was incorporated by charter of Edward I. It is 
governed by a mayor, who is constable of the castle, a 
recorder, two bailiffs, and other officers. It is a contributorv 
borough to Caernar\'on. The living is a vicarage in the gift 
of the bishop of Bangor. There are some dissenting places 
of worship, and a school without endowment, for the gratui- 
tous instruction of the poor. (See the Hist, and Antiquities 
of Aberconwy, ^., by the Rev. Robert Williams, Denbigh, 
1835.) 

Pearl oysters are found in the Conwy near this town. 

Nevin or Nefyn lies on a small bay on the N.W. coast of 
the county, 21 miles from Caernarvon along the coast. It 
was made a free borough by Edward the Black Prince at 
the same time as Pwllheli. Edward I. had previously held 
a grand tournament here, just after the conquest of Wales. 
The town consists of a few stragglinghouses ; it has a small 
port, but little or no commerce. The church is a plain 
building ; and there are, as in most Welsh towns, several 
dissenting meeting-houses. The population of the whole 
parish in 1831 was 1726. The market is on Saturday, and 
there are four annual fairs. The living is a vicarage in the 
gift of the bishop of Bangor. 

This borough is contributory to Caernarvon. The little 
harbour of Porth yr Lleyn near Nevin is supposed to have 
been used by the Romans, as strong entrenchments, appa- 
rently their work, may be observed in the neighbourhood. 

Crickeith or Cricceith lies on the bay of Cardigan. This 
is a poor straggling place, with houses built without any re- 
gard to order, and having nothing worthy of notice save the 
ruins of the antient castle. This is probably of Welsh 
origin, though ascribed by some to Edward I., who caused 
some repairs and alterations to be made, to render it more 
secure. The castle stands on an eminence jutting into the 
sea, and, though never very large, was probably of some im- 
portance from its position. The population of Cricceith in 
1831 was 648. Cricceith is a contributory borough to Caer- 
narvon. There is a free school. 

Tremadoc, a place of quite modem date, is on the road 
from London to Crickeith and Pwllheli. It stands upon a 
portion of the Traeth Mawr, a sandy wash at the mouth 
of the river Glas Llyn, recovered from the sea by the enter- 
prise of W. A. Mad'ocks, Esq., who built the town, to which 
he gave his name, Tre-Madoc {tre, a house, home, township, 
or village). Mr. M. laid out the town in the form of an ob- 
long square, having a market-house on the E. side, a hand- 
some building, with the upper story laid out in good assembly- 
rooms. On the other sides of the area are well-built houses : 
a church in the pointed style, a place of worship for dis- 
senters, a bank, and a good inn are to be found here. There 
is a market on Friday. 

There are good quays at P6rt Madoc, about a mile fVom 
the town, to which vessels of 300 tons can come up. Slates 
and copper ore are exported. 

IHvuiomJbr Eccienattical and L^ai PufpoiCf,— Tho 



numbeir of parishes given in the population returns is H, 
and there are 5 parishes which are partly in this and partly 
in the adjoining counties, Denbigh or Merioneth. Of these 
66 parishes 14 are dependent chapelries, 2 are not notic«d 
in our authority {The Clerical Guide), and of 2, by some 
oversight, we have no account. Of the remaining 50, 24 
are rectories, 9 vicarages, and 17 perpetual curacies; to 
which we may add 1 dependent chapelry and 1 perpetual 
curacy, not noticed in the population returns. Neorly all 
the county is in the diocese and archdeaconry of Bangor, 
some few parishes are in the archdeaconry of Merioneth, 
and one in that of Anglesey in the same diocese. Three 
parishes E. of the Conwy are in the diocese of St. Asaph. 

Caernarvonshire is in the North Wales circuit. Tht 
assizes and sessions are held at Caernarvon. The county 
returns one member. Caernarvon is the chief plac« d 
county election ; the polling places are Caernarvon, Coniry, 
Capel Curig, and PwllhelL The borough of Caemanon, 
witn its contributory boroughs of Conway, Cricceith, Nevio. 
and Pwllheli, and the city of Bangor (this last added by tb« 
Reform Act), returns one member. 

Hietory and Antiquities, — There is some difficulty in de- 
termining by what tribe of native Britons Caernart'ooUiife 
was peopled at the Roman conquest The neighbouring 
districts of North Wales were peopled by the Ordovirt;^, 
and we incline to comprehend Caernarvonshire in the xtm- 
tory of that tribe. Many persons, induced probably bi the 
circumstance that Ptolemy gives to the headland of Bfhu-L- 
y-Pwll the name of the promontory of the Cancani, Kayca*^ 
oKpov* (or, according to one MS., Fayyavwv), have a&fti;:ric<i 
this county to tho Cangi. If, however, this be the triU 
against which Ostorius marched in the early part of Li^ 
command in Britain [Britannia.], its situation could UanU} 
be so far W. We derefore cannot agree with thoae a bo 
place the Cangi hereabout Ptolemy does not mentton an) 
such people, and it may be questioned whether KayKovir L> 
the genitive case. That geographer mentions the Cou«a; 
under the name of Toisobtus. The Romans crossed tht> 
countv under Suetonius Paulinus when they attacked Mons 
(Anglesey), about a.d. 59. Tho Ordovices were not« hv.«- 
ever, subdued until the time of Agricola, who nearly e\ii- 
pated them about a.d. 78. In the Itinerary of Antoniou^ 
two stations within this county are given : Segontium, t.^w 
Cacr Seiont [Caernaryo2«1 ; and Conovium, now Curr- 
Rhun, near Conwy, where Roman bricks have been fvuud 
inscribed leg. x, and the foundations of buildings di^v>- 
vered. The name of this station, O)novium. is evident It 
connected with that of the river ; the latter is called in tlie 
map of Richard of Cirencester, Conovius. 

In the division of the territories of Rhodri Mawr. cr 
Roderick the Great, between his sons (a.d. 877), Caerrai 
vonshire formed part of the kingdom of Gwynedd (L^tn 
Vcnedocia) or North Wales, allotted to Anarawd. Wlti. 
the cessation of the northern piracies allowed the CnpK^. 
kings (now of the Norman race) to turn their arms a^uu.N; 
Wales, this county, fh>m its remote situation, difficult acv^»«. 
and mountainous character, became the last asylum of tl c 
independence of Wales. It was, however, with the rest of 
North Wales, completely subdued by Edward I., a.d. iz^s. 
In the subsequent revolt of the Welsh under Madoc, ilir 
illegitimate son of Llewelyn, prince of Wales, CaemanuB 
was taken, and the English settlers massacred. Conwy 
Castle was besieged, but without effect 

Dolbadem Castle is on a rocky eminence near the junc- 
tion of the two lakes of Llanberris. It is not ascertained at 
what time or by whom it was erected, but it is supposed Id 
be of British origin. The foundations of Diganwy Castle, 
near Great Orme*s Head, may be traced. Penrhyn Castle. 
near Bangor, is of the time of Henry VI., and» up to the 
period of the alterations made some years since, prwaentol 
a fair specimen of the domestic architecture of that tnne, 

Caernarvonshire has very few monastic ruina. Tber/* 
was a priory of Black or Austin Canons at BeddgelerL su jr- 

E)sed to be the oldest religious foundation in Wales except 
ardsev, but there are no remains of it. It was emicHed I y 
an endowment of Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, prince of North 
Wales, who reigned at the end of the twelfth centurv. At 
the dissolution its yearly revenue was 70/. 3#. Sd, aeoord:rif 
to Dugdale, or 69/. 3f. Sd. according to Speed. 

Statistics, — Population. Caemarvonshixe ii moetlT aa. 
agricultural county. Of 16,709 males 20 years of «|^ xad. 
upwards, in 1831, there were occupied in agriculture %Idjl« 
Only 143 were en^ged in manulbctures or m making 
nufaeturing maehmery; of these 143 moiethaa !•• 




c^ s 



118 



C/E S 



' Among the chfldren nkSLny attend both the Sunday and 
Day Schools, and they are therefore twice enumerated in 
tlie abbiract. 

Maintenance of SchooU. 



DcMivtlen of 


Bf rndoinncat. By •utacr-pttonj from^SB^w: 


lvtw*q>. and iwy- 
nrat fmm •ghoUn 


SdiU. 


Scho- 
1ft r*. 


ftchU. 


Bcho- 


Schb. 


fkho- 
, Urn. 


•obU. 


Sch»< 
tan. 


Inrant Schouls 
Daily Sch.i«l* 
SaodaySchvoU 


1 

14 

3 


35 
673 
874 


""3 

207 


t3.739 


7\ 


1^ 


1 
9 


140 
8iO 


TolxU 


18 


081 


310 


83.939 


41 


17M 


80 


1304 



Schools established by Difsentefs, included in the above : 

Schooli. SohoUn. 

Infant Schools — — 

Daily Schools 9 SSf 

Sunday Schools 164 20,393 

Schools estabUshed since the year 1818 : — 
Infant and other daily schools 27 containing 171S acholars. 
Sunday Schools 176 „ 2M48 „ 

Lending libraries of hooks are attached to six schools in 
Caernarvonshire. 

C AERPIII LLY. [Glamoro ANSHiRS.] 

C.£SALPINIA, a genus belonging to the tribe CassieSD, 
of the natural order LeguroinosBB, and especially distinguished 
by the lowermost of its sepals being arched, the uppermost 
of its stalked petals being the shortest, its stamens all per- 
fect with shaggy bases, and the fVuit a compressed bivalved 
pod. The species are twes or slirubs, found in both the 
kast and West Indies, with ehowy yellow flowers, abruptly 
pinnated leaves, and stems which are usually more or less 
prickly. It is introduced here because the Brazil-wood of 
commerce is said to be furnished by two of its species. 

One of these, C Bratiliemx9, is a West Indian rather 
than a Brazilian tree, without prickles, downy flower-stalks, 
panicled flowers, smooth obtuse oblong leaflets. The other, 
C, echinata, which is really a Brazilian plant, is a prickly 
tree, with yellow and red blossoms, smelling ddiciously 
like lilies of the valley, prickly pods, and oval bluni leaflets. 
Both these species undoubtedly peld a red wood, but it is 
by no means clear that they exclusively furnish the Brazil- 
wt)od of commerce, as Is commonly stated. According to 
Dr. Bancroft, this article is obtained from a tree with a large 
crooked knotty stem, the bark of which is so thick, that a 
tree as larj^e as a man's body with the bark, will not be so 
thick as the leg when peeled; and he calls thiii species 
C. Brasilctto. a name unknown to botanists : he however 
states that it is railed by the natives Ibiriaitanga, Now that 
is the name given by Marceraaf to the CT echinatai but this 
author says nothing about the peculiarity in the bark. One 
anthnrity however ascribes a particularly thick alburnum to 
C. cchinata. but says nothing of the bark. Malte Brun says 
there are three kinds of mirim or Brazil-wood found in 
Brazil ; but he includes with them the C. Brasiliensis, which 
there is no good authority for considering a native of that 
country. F6e again refers the sappan wood of the East 
Indies (csesalpinia sappan) to one of the Brazil-woods of the 
merchants. Upon the whole it appears that we have no 
good testimony as to what the tree is that yields it ; but it 
is probable that it is the produce of many species, and pos- 
sibly of more than one genus, for De Candolie and Spnn- 
gel doubt whether the csDsalpinia echinata is not rather a 
guilandina. It is much to be cegrstted that travellers gene- 
rally bring Jiome with them no precise information upon 
such points as these ; but Ibr this we have to thank the 
system of education in this country, under which natural 
history is altogether excluded from the studies of young 
men. The best Brazil-wood is said to eome from Pemam- 
buco, where it is called pdo da rainha or aueen*s woed. on 
account of its being a royal monopoly. (Macculloch*s Diet. 
Com., 182.) 

CAESAR {lLal<rap\ the cqf^nomen or distinctive family 
name of a branch of the illustrious Julian gens or house. 
Various etymologies of the name have been given by Ro- 
man writers, but they all seem unsatisfactory, and some of 
them ridiculous, except that which connects it with the 
word ciPsaries. properly * the hair of the head.* It was not 
unuHual for the family names among tlie Romans to be 
derived from some pergonal pecuUarity : examples of this 
are Naso, Fronto, Calvus. &c. The Julian gens was 
one of the oldest patrician houses of Rome, and the 
^ch of it which bore the name of Ciwar deduced its 



origin from luliu, the son of Aneas, and eoascouently 
claimed a descent from divine blood. (Sueton. C0*««ir.) 
The Julian gens is traced back historically to a.u.c. «6S. or 
B.C. 501, but the first person who bore the distinctive fam \j 
name of CsBsar is probably Sextus Julius Caesar, who ^m 
qucstor a.u.c. .'>82, and from whom Cams Julius Cai?»ar, 
the dictator, may be traced through five descents. ( Trant- 
adions c^ihe Rayal Societu 0/ Literature, vol. i. pt 2j 

In pMirsuance of the wul of C. J. Cscsar, the dictator. 
Oetavius, afterwards the Bmperor Augustus, who was the 
grandson of the dicUtor's sister, Julia, took the famili 
name of CsDsar. Tiberius Nero, who was adopted by hit 
stepfather Augustus, ako took the name of C8»«ar. Cals* 

fula and Claudius, his successors, were descended fjom 
ulia, the dictator's sister ; and in the person of Nero, ttie 
successor of Claudius, the family of Csesar became extinct. 
Nero was removed five descents from Juha, the dictator's 
sister. [Augustus.] 

When Hadrian adopted .Alius Verus, who waa thus re- 
ceived into the imperial family, Verus took the name uf 
CsDsar. Spartiaaus, in his life of i£lius Verus. remarks 
* Verus was the first who received the name of CsMar onh . 
and that not by will, as before, but pretty nearly in t!ie 
same way as in our times <the reign of Diocletian) Mavi- 
mianus and Constantius were named Csesars. and thus de- 
signated as heirs to the empire.' Thus the term Auicvstcs 
under the later emperors signified tlie reigning prince, Ard 
Csesar or Ca?sares denoted the individual or mdi\ :«lu?!i 
marked out by the emperor's favour as being in the line uT 
succession. 

CiKSAR, CATOS JU'LIUS, the son of C. J. C<p u 
and Aurelia, was born b.c. 100, on the 12th of Quimi.:«. 
afterwards called Julius, from the name of the person of 
whom we aie speaking. His aunt Julia was the \i.fe 
of Caiua Mariust who was seven times oonj^ul. In h:* 
sewntoenth year he married Cornelia, ilie daughter <f 
Cinna, by whom he had a daughter, Julia. This convievi n 
with Marius and Cinna, the two great opponents of the 
dictator Sulla, exposed him to the resentmci^ of the o)Yp.^- 
site faction. Bv Sulla's orders he was deprived of li« 
wife's dowry and of the fortune which be had inherited \ y 
descent, stripped of his office of priest of Jupiter (Flo ecu 
DiaUs), and compelled to seek safety by flight. iFiuL 
Ctesar^u ; Suetonius, Ceegar.) Sulla is said to have apand 
his life with great reluctance, observing lo those «'»^ 
pleaded his cause, that the youth ' would be the ruin of iht 
aristocratic party, for there were many Marii in Cseear. 

He first served under M. Thermus in Asia, and distin- 
guished himself at the capture of Mitylene (b.c. 80 or 79 > : 
but his reputation suffered by a report (possibly an unfuumitC 
one) of scandalous profligacy during a visit which he paid Cv 
Nicomedes, the king of Bithynia. In the fblWwitiff y<-i: 
ht served under Servilius Isaurious in Cilicia. The ncvA 
of Sulla's death soon brought him hack to Rome, hut \ c 
took no part in the movements of M. iEmilius Lepidu^ v1 • 
made a fruitless attempt to overthrow the aristocrat iril 
party, which had been firmly established during the tyrai.r > 
of Sulla. It is not unlikely, as Suetonius observes, ibmt tu 
had no confidence in Lepidus, and that he had penctrat. *r\ 
enough to see that the time was not come for humbling tl - 
aristocracy of Rome. Whatever opinion may be enter- 
tained as to Casar having very early formed a deaiini le 
seise fm the sovereign power, it is at least eertaui thai 
from his first appearanee in public life he had a aelUed ptir 
pose to break uie power of the aristooraoy, fhom which \ ■ 
and his relatives had suffered so much. Alter bia un»^c 
cessful impeachment of Dolabella for mal-adimnw8racivo .s 
his province, he retired to Rhodes, and for a time became a 
pupil of the rhetorician Molo, one of the greatest ina:&ttrr^ • f 
the art. whose instruction Cicero had attended, jituUalMv 
a year or two before Csosar's visit. 

For some tinie Csssar seems to have had little eoneew in 
public hfe, being kept in the background by the prei}«Hi.i- 
nance of the aristocratical party and the sueccesful vmt^^t i J 
Metellus, LucuUus, Crassus, and Pompey. About n.c. 4'«. 
being elected one of the military tribunes, be had suffir-. u% 
influence to procure an enactment for the reeloratioci of I • 
Cinna, his wiie's brother, and of those partisans of Lrpdiw 
who after his death had joined Sertorius in Spain. 4 Suet - 
nius.) The following year he was quvstor in Spain, utul « - 
his return to Rome, hie was elected ilidile for B.C. €K J i. »i 
befiora entering on ofiioe befell under seme aiMfiiceon U 
being engaged in a coMipiraoy to kaU the 



G MS 



119 



C iE 9 



Torquatus. and effect a revolution. Whether there really 
was a conspiracy or not may be doubted ; Co^&ar s share in 
it atleaiit is not clearly established. The office of i£dile gave 
CcBsar an opportunity of indulging his tas^te for magnifi- 
cence and display, by which at tiie same time he secured 
the favour of the people. He beautified the city with public 
buildings, and gave splendid exhibitions of wild beasts and 
gladiators. Caesar, who was nmr five and- thirty years of 
age, bad enjoyed no opportunity of distiuguishtng himself 
in a military capacity ; while the more fortunate t^ompey, 
who was only six years older, was spreading his name anu 
th(? terror of the Roman arms throujfhout the East. A fa- 
voHrableocx'asion seemed to present itself in Egypt. Alex- 
ander, the king wfio had been hoTwured with ine name oi 
friend and ally of the Roman people, was ejected from 
Alexandria by the citizens. The popular feeling at Rome 
was against the Alexandrians, and Caesar thought he had 
interest enough through the tribunes and the democratical 
party to gttt appointed to an extraordinary command in 
E&cypi. But the opposite faction wao strongly united against 
hiiD, and ho fiulea in his attempt. The next year be was 
more 8Uoeeoi»fnL By a judicious application of money 
among the poorer voters, and of personal influence among 
alt classes (Dion, xxxvii. 37), he obtained the Pontificatus 
Maximiis, or wardenship of the ecclesiastical college of Poa- 
tiftces, a place, no doubti of considerable emolument, to which 
an official residence in the Sacra Via was also attached. 
(Suetoii. Ctetar^ 13. 46.) This union of civil and religious 
functions in the same person, at least in the higher and 
more profitable places, was a part of the old Roman polity, 
which, aiBong other consequences, prevented the existMiee 
of a hierarchy with a distinct and opposing interest. 

At the time of the important debate on the conspiracy of 
Catiline (ax. 63), Caesar was metor designatus (pmtor 
elect for the foUowins year), and accordingly spoke in hi^ 
place in the senate. lie was the only person who ventured 
to oppoee the preposition for putting the conspirators to 
death : he reeommeiided their property to be confiscated, 
and that they should be dispersed through the different 
miiDicipia of Italy, and kept under a strict surveillance. 
Tb« speech which Sallast has put into his mouth on this 
occasion, if the substance of it be genuine, will help ua to 
form some estimate of Cssar's character and his policy at 
this period. The address is singularly well adapted to 
flatter the dominant party, and also to keep up his credit , 
with those who were hostile to the aristocratic interests. | 
His object was to save the lives of the conspirators, under 
the pretext of inflicting on tbcm a punishment more sevMt» 
than that of death. But for C-tio he might probably have ear- 
ned his motion. According to Suetonius, Csesar persevered 
in h» opposition till his life was actually threatened by the 
armed Roman Equites, who were introduced into the senate- 
h'^u^e under the pretext of protecting the senate during their 
dehljeratleos. (Compare Plut. Ceesar. viii.) Cicero, who was 
then consul, Ad in the height of his prosperity and arrogascoi 
roi^ht. it 19 said, by a single nod, have destroyed this ibr- 
midable opponent of the order of which he had become the 
devoted champion ; but either his courage failed him, or seme 
motive perhaps more worthy, led him to check the fury of the 
K<|uites. In the following year, during his prsDtorship, the 
opposite faction in the senate, who were bent en crushing 
L«sar's rising influence, actually passed a decree (deeretum) 
br which Q. Csscilius Metellus Nepos, one of the tribunes 
of the plebs, and (Dcesar, who strongly supported him in his 
measures, were declared incapable of continuing in the 
exerriHe of their official duties. CsBsar still discharged the 
jfldicial functions of his magistracy, till he found that force 
vouM be uaed to compel his submission to this illegal and 
impolitic act of the senate. The populace were roused by 
tins strange proceeding, and Csesar apparently might have 
had their best assistance against his enemies ; but prudence 
f»r the present induced him to check the zeal of his par- 
lizins, and the senate, apparently alarmed by this demon- 
stration, repealed their own decree, and thanked him for bis 
conduct. 

An affair which happened during Qssar's prsDtorship 
eaused no little scandal at Rome. While the ceremonies 
in hooottr of the Bona Dea were performing in the house of 
C«Nar. at which women only could be present, the profligate 
Cl-idius, patting on a woman's dress, contrived to get ad- 
tuf^ion to these mysterious rites. On the affair being dis- 
<^tered Ceesar divorced his wife Pompeia, whom he had 
i»uned aflef the death of Carnelia ; and Clodius, after being 



brought to a public trial on a charge of impiety, only escaped 
by bribing the judices or jury. (Cic. Ep. ad Alt. i. 1 2, &c ; 
Don. xxxviii. 45.) From motives of policy Caesar did not 
break with Clodius : he probably feared his influence, and 
already saw that ha could make him a useful tool, and a 
bugbear to Cicero. 
The year 60 B.C. was spent by CJsesar in his province of 
I Hispania Ultet ior or Southern Spain, where he speedily 
I restored order and hurried back to Rome before his suc- 
cessor came, to canvass tor tlie censulship. The aristocra- 
tical party saw that it was impossible to prevent C»sar's 
election ; their only chance was to give him a colleague who 
should be a checit upon him. Their choice of Bibulus 
seems to have been singularly unfortunate. Bibulus was 
elected with Csesar in opposition to Lucceius, with whom 
Csesar had formed a coalition, on the condition tliat Lucceius 
should find the money, and that C»sar should give him ihe 
benefit of bis intluence and recommendation. The scheme 
of Coesar^s enemies proved a complete failure, Bibulus, 
after unavailing efforts to resist the hnpetuosity of his col- 
league, shut himself «p in his house, an(\ Csasar, in fact, 
became sole consul. (Dion, xxxviii. 8.) In order to stop 
all pnblic business, Bibulus declared the auguries unfavour- 
able ; and when this would not answer, he declared that 
tbej would be unfavourable all through the year. This illegal 
conduct only tended to justify the violent measures of his 
colleague. Tlie affair, though a serious one for the hitlierto 
dominant faction, furnished matter for the small wits of the 
day, who used to sign their notes and letters in the ' Consul- 
ship of Julius and Csesar/ instead of naming both consuls 
in the usual way. 

Csftsar had contrived, by a masterly stroke of policy, to ren- 
der ineffectual all opposition on the part of his opponents, 
Pompey was dissatisfied because the senate delayed about 
confirming all his meaj»ures in the Mithridatic war and dur- 
ing his command in Asia ; Crasausy who waa the richeel 
man in the state, and second only to Pompey in influenee 
with the senatorial faction, was not on good terms with Pooh 
pey. If Cesar gained over only one of these rivals, he made 
the other his enemy ; he determined therefore to secure them 
both. He began by courting Pompey, and succeeded in 
bringing about a reconciliation between him and Ci'assus^ 
It was agreed that there should be a genei-al understanding 
among the three as to the course of policy ; that all Pompey 's 
measures should be confirmed, and that Caesar should have 
the consulship. To cement their alliance more closely, Cos- 
sar gave Pompey his daughter Julia in n^arriage, though 
she had been promised to M. Brutus. (Plut Pomp. 47.) 
CsBtar also took a new wife on the oecasion, Calpuruia, the 
daughter of Piso, whom he nominated one of the consuls fof 
the ensuing year. This union of Pompey, Crassus, and Cte- 
sar is often called by modern writers the first triumvirate. 
The effect of it was to destroy the credit of Pompey, throw 
disunion among the aristocrats, and put the whole power of 
the state, in the hands of one vigorous and clear-sighted 
man. (As to the affaur ef Vettius [Pion. xxxviii. 9.], see 
Ci(:bro.) 

It is unnecessary to detail mmiitely the acts of Caesar s 
consulship, which rather belong to a history of Rome. 
From tlie letters of Ciceroi. which are contemporary evir 
deneOf we perceive that the Senatf at last found they had 
got a masler whom it was useless to resist ; Cato alone held 
out, but he stood by himself. One of the most important 
mcriures of Caesar's consulship was an Agrarian law for the 
division of some public lands in Campania among the poorer 
eitizens [for the nature of these laws, see Aorakian Law], 
which was earried by intimidation. Pompey and Crassus, 
who had given into all Ctesar's measures, accepted a place 
in the commission for dividing these lands. Clodius, the 
enemy of Cicero, was, through Caesar's influence* and the 
help ef Pompey, adopted into a plebeian family, and thus 
made capable of holding the office of tribune ; an event 
which Ciopro had long dreaded, and fondly flattered himself 
that he should prevent by a temporising policy. Clodius, 
the next year, was elected a tribune, and drove Cicero into 
exile. (Dion, xxxviii. 12, tco.) 

The Roman consols, on going out of office, received the 
government of a province for one year. Caesar's opponents 
unwisely made another and a last effort against him, which 
only resulted in putting them in a still more humiliiting 
position : they proposed to give him the superintendence of 
the roads and forests. Vatinius, one of his creatures, forthwith 
procured a law to be passed, by which be obtained for Caesar 



C JES 



120 



Cifi S 



ih6 proviiKe of Chillia Cisalpina, or North Italy, and lUy ricum, 
for five years ; and the Senate, fearing the people might 
f^Dt still more, not only confirmed the measure, hut, mak- 
ing a merit of necessity, added the province of Gallia Trans- 
alpina. * From this moment,* remarks a lively modern 
writer (Schlosser, UnivencU. Hiitor. Uebersiehi), * the his- 
tory of Rome presents a striking; parallel to the condition 
of the French republic durin^^ Bonaparte's first campaigns 
in Italy. In both cases we see a weak republican adminis- 
tration in the capital involved in continual broils, which the 
rival factions are more inwrested in fostering, than in secur- 
ing the tranquillity and peace of the empire. In both cases 
we find a province of the distracted republic occupied by a 
general with unlimited power — the uncontrolled master of a 
territory which, in extent and importance, is equal to a 
mighty kingdom — a man of superior understanding, despe- 
rate resolves, and, if circumstances rendered it necessary, of 
fearful cruelty — a man who, under the show of democratical 
opinions, behaved like a despot, governed a province at his 
pleasure, and established an absolute control over his soldiers 
by leading them to victory, bloodshed, and pillage.' 

The Gtulin provinces at this time subject to Koroe were : 
Gallia citerior, or Cisalpine Gaul (North Italy) ; and Gallia 
ulterior, or the southern part of Transalpme Gaul, also 
called emphatically * Provincia,* (whence the modern Pro- 
vence,) wnose capital was Narbo, now Narbonne. The 
Provincia extended from the Mediterranean to the Ge- 
henna mountains, and included the modern provinces of 
E. Lanzuedoc, Provence and Dauphin^. On the N. it 
joined the Allobroges, then lately subjected to Rome. 
When Cnsar, in his Commentaries, speaks of Gaul, which 
he divides into Aquitania, Celtica and Bclgica, he means 
the Gaul which was then independent, and which he con- 
quered, exclusive of the Provincia already subject to Rome. 

lu March 58 B.C., while C»sar was still at Rome, news 
came that the Helvetians, united with several Cierman 
tribes, were leaving their country with their wives and 
children in order to settle in S. Gaul, and were directing 
their march upon Geneva to cross the Rhone at that place. 
Caasar hastened to Geneva, cut the bridge, and raised a 
wall or entrenchment between the Rhone and the Jura in 
order to close the passage against the Helvetians. The 
Helvetians asked p«rmission to pass through the Roman 
province on their way to the country of the San tones 
(Saintonge), as thev said, and on Cnsar^s refusal they re- 
solved to cross the Jura higher up into the country of the 
Sequani (Franche Comt6), with whom they entered into 
negotiations to that effect. Csesar, foreseeing danger to the 
Roman province if the Helvetians succeeded in settling 
themselves in Gaul, resolved to prevent them at all risks. 
He left his lieutenant Labienus at Geneva, with the only 
legion he had in the province, and hastened back to Cisal- 
pine Gaul, where he raised two firesh legions, and summoned 
three more which had wintered near Aquileia. With these 
five legions (about 30,000 men) he took the most direct road 
to Gallia ulterior, crossing the Alps by Ocelum (Exilles, 
between Susa and Briancon), and marched through the 
province to the country of the Segusiani, the nearest inde- 
pendent Gaulish people, who lived near the confluence of the 
Khone and the Arar (the Saone). The Helvetians mean- 
time having crossed the country of the Sequani had reached 
the Arar, which divided the Sequani from the iEdui, a con- 
siderable nation of Celtic Gaul, who extended IVom the Arar 
to the Ligeris, and who were friendly with Rome. The 
iEdui applied to Cesar for assistance. He watched the mo- 
tions of the Helvetians, and having learnt that three-fourths 
of their number had crossed the Arar, he marched at mid- 
night with three legions, and fell upon those who still re- 
mained on the S. bank with the baggage, and killed or 
dispersed them. These were the Tigurini who, about 50 
vears before, having joined the Cimbri, had defeated and 
kilUd the Roman consul L. Cassius. CsDsar crossed the 
Arar in pursuit of the Helvetian main body. After a use- 
less conference between CsDsar and old Divico the Helve- 
tian leader, the Helvetians continued to advance into the 
country of the Aidui, and Cesar after them. Cesar's 
cavalry, 4000 strong, composed of Gaulish horsemen raised 
in the Provincia and among the iEdui, had the worst 
in an enj^atcement against 50U Helvetian horsemen. Cesar 
cU»covcred that there was a party hostile to Rome amonj.^ 
the ii£dui, at (he heaa of which was Dumnorix, a young man 
of great wealth, inlluence, and ambition, who secretly fa- 
voured the Helvetians, although ho actually commanded a 



body of the auxiliary cavalry under Cesar. At the t^ame 
time the provisions which the JBf\\i\ had promised to supply 
to the Roman army were not forthcoming. Cmstur srnt for 
Divitiacus, the brother of Dumnorix, a Druid, who «^« 
friendly to Rome, and told him nil he knew about his 
brother s double dealing. Divitiacus acknowledged bu br>* 
ther*s fault, and obtained his pardon. We find afterwards (Ik 
Bello Galileo, V. 7.) that Dumnorix continued in his be arc 
hostile to the Romans, and at the time of Cesar's firat vx- 
pedition into Britain refused to embark with his auxiliaries, 
left Cesar's camp, was followed, overtaken, and put toUesub 
The movements of the Helvetians through the country uf 
the ^dui must have been very slow and circuitous, for vc 
find that Cesar, after following them for a fortnight, wa« 
about 18 miles from Bibracte (Autun), which is not alx>\« 
80 miles from the most distant point of the Arar where thr« 
could have crossed. Cesar, who had now only two du} V 
provisions left, gave up the pursuit, atid took the ruad to 
JBibracte the principal town of thciEdui. TheHelvetiana, nu>- 
takiuK this movement for a retreat, turned round and fo! - 
lowea the Romans. Cesar halted on a hill, formed hisi f 'ur 
old legions in three lines half-way up the hill, and placed tn 
their rear higher up the two new legions, as well as tt.e 
auxiliaries. The baggage he assembled and entrenched 
on the summit of the hill. The Helvetians, ubom Cms^t 
on this occasion calls Gauls, for they were in fact a CVIlc 
race, having left all their baggage, waggons, and faniil.t» 
in one spot, closed their ranks and formed their phaUnx, 
repulsed Cesar's cavalry, and advanced to attack bis» fir«t 
line. Numbers were vastly in their favour. Cesar, ha^j.^ 
dismounted, sent away his own and all the other hordes, i ) 
preclude all hope of llight, and having harangued his mea 
gave the signal for battle. The legionaries, from their el<^ 
vated position, threw their javelins with great force upon ihe 
advancing Helvetians, and having disordered their phalanx, 
rushed sword in hand upon them. Owing to the cloee orda 
of the Helvetian ranks it happened that, in many iDstaner«, 
the Roman javelins transfixed two shields at once, so that xht 
bearers being unable to extricate one from the other, «r:e 
ohlic^ed to throw their shields away and fight unpnitectcU. 
At last, covered with wounds, the Helvetians retired U>war\tt 
a mountain a mile distant The Romans followed them. 
but were attacked in flank by the Boit and TuUngi, 15,0oit 
strong, who formed the Helvetian rear-guard. Cesar or- 
dered his third line to face about and repel these new eric- 
mies, while the other two were engaged against the HeUf- 
tian main body who had halted and returned to the charjre 
This double fi<;ht lasted from noon till sunset, during vrL:>-S 
time none of the Helvetians were seen to turn their back^^ 
They withdrew at last, one part to the mountain and the 
rest to their baggage, where they continued to fight despe- 
rately behind their carts during the night, till they verr 
nearly all killed. The other part, to the number of 1 30.0 ) 
individuals, moved off during the night, and marching ic i 
north direction arrived in the country of the Lincon«4 
(Langres) : the Romans were unable to foUow them, bei; c 
detained three days on the field of battle iu attending tj 
their wounded and burying their dead. 

In the Helvetian rump were found written tablets cc-c - 
taining the muster of the diO'erent tribes which oomtMM I 
the emigration, to the number of 368,000 individuals. uT 
whom 92,000 were fighting men. Cesar says the uM**u 
were written in Greek characters : it has been suppowed ?* 
some that they were Etruscan letters somewhat ret>«.*mM • .: 
the old Greek, and perhaps introduced into Helvetia b^ t. * 
Rheti or Rasena, an Etruscan people. 

After three days, Cesar marched tn pursuit of the nv'< 
vetians, who threw themselves on his mercy. C»^-.-- 
demanded their arms, hostages, and the surrender «>f il > 
slaves and other fugitives who had taken refuse an> -n^ 
them ; and they were ordered to return home, and cuUi\ . ■ 
their lands. The Boii alone, distinguished fur their hr^s in. 
were allowed to remain among the Mdui at the rpqur>: 
the latter. A part of one of the Helvetian tnbcN pa^-,. 
Verbigenus, 60U0 iu number, having marched off in t 
midst of the confusion and darkness ofthe night, and tal. 
the way towards the Rhine and Germany, tier« pur>u 1 
by Cesar's order, brought back and * treated as enenut ^/ 
which then meant that they were either put to death or ^ % 
as slaves. The Helvetians, who returned home, vere t . ^ 
tered by Cesar, and found to be 110,000 individuals^ tuc. 
women, and children. 
Cesar says that hia principal object in sending tho RcaJ 



VMS 



121 



Vi MS 



t^tiant btci^ wU to prevent the Germans beyond tHe Rhine 
from occupying their country and becoming formidable 
neighbours to the Roman provinces. The report of C»sar*8 
victory spread rapidly through all Celtic Gaul, the various 
tribes of which began to look up to him as their arbiter in 
their internal differences.. The iSdui complained to him 
that Anovistus, a powerful king of the Germans, being in* 
vited bv the Sequani and the Arverni, between whom and 
the iBdui there was an old rivalry, had crossed the Rhine 
some time before with 15,000 men, who had afterwards in- 
creased to 120,000, had defeated the ^dui and their allies 
in a great battle, had occupied several provinces of Gaul, 
exacted hostages of them, and was in fact oppressing the 
country. The Gauls described' the Germans as an athletic, 
fierce, and formidable people. C»sar, who, during his con- 
sulship in the previous year, had induced the senate to 
acknowledge Ariovistus as a king and friend of Rome, now 
sent to him requesting an interview which the German de- 
clined. Cvsar then required him by message to desist from 
bringing over the Rhine fresh bodies of Grermans, and from 
molesting the ifidui and their allies, who were neighbours to 
the Roman Province, and to restore their hostages. Ario- 
vistus replied that as he had never dictated to the Romans 
what use they should make of their victories, he would not 
be dictated to by them ; that the ^dui were his tributaries 
by force of arms. CsBsar, learning that other Germans, 
and particularly the Suevi, a powerful nation, were ap- 
proaching the Rhine to join Ariovistus, determined on 
attacking him. He occupied Vesontio (Besanfon), a 
strong town of the Sequani, before Ariovistus could seize 
it. The fearful reports of the Gauls about the Germans 
spread alarm in Csesafs camp, especially among the young 
olficers, military tribunes, prsefects, and others, accustomed 
to the luxuries of Rome, and who had followed Ceesar out of 
per»onal friendship (I. 39). Skulking in their tents, they 
famentetl their fate, and were busy making their last wills. 
The panic spread to the veterans, and Csosar was told that 
it would be impossible to advance farther ; that the roads 
were impracticable ; that no provisions could be collected, 
and, in short, that the soldiers would not follow him if he 
raised bid camp. Having assembled the officers, he told 
them that it was not their business to discuss the measures 
and orders Of their general, ridiculed their fears of the 
Grermans, since the Cimbri and Teutones, the most for- 
midable of that race, had been defeated by the Roman 
arms, and signified to them that he would raise the camp 
next morning, and if they refused to follow him, would 
march forth with the tenth legion alone. This was CsBsar's 
fiivourite legion. This harangue had its full effect, and 
Cssar marched from Vesontio to meet Ariovistus. After 
a fruitless interview between the two chiefs, which is gra- 
phically described by Csesar, Ariovistus arrested and put in 
chains Valerius Procillus, Ctesafs fnend and confidential 
interpreter, and Mettius, who had gone to the German camp 
to renew Ute negotiations. Caesar prepared for battle, but 
Ariovistus remained in his camp for several days, because, 
a« Cesar was informed by the prisoners, the German matrons 
had declared that their countrymen would be losers if they 
fought before the new moon. Accordingly the Roman 
general determined to make the attack. The Germans came 
out, and formed for battle in phalanxes by order of nations, 
the Harudes, Marcomanni, the TrilH)cci, the Vangiones, the 
Nemetes, the Sedusii, and the Suevi ; and they placed their 
^^SSons, baggage, and women in a semicircle behind them 
so as to prevent escape. The signal being given, both 
armies rushed to the encounter with such rapidity that the 
Romans had not time to throw their javelins, and at once 
resorted to their swords. Caesar, perceiving that the left of 
the enemy was the weakest, commenced the attack on that 
point; many of his soldiers went up, and, grasping the 
enemies' shields, tried to snatch them away. Meantime 
the German right was preying hard upon the Romans, who 
were much inferior in numbers, when young Crassus (the 
eon of Licinius), who commanded the cavalry, moved the 
Kl^id or rear line obliquely to the support of the left, and 
thtu recovered the advantage. The Germans gave way, 
and fled towards the Rhine, which was 50 miles distance. 
Wing pursued by Cflssaf s cavalry. Many fell, some swam 
the river, others, and Ariovistus among the rest, 
it in boats. Ariovistus s two wives and one daughter 

killed in the flight; another daughter was Uken. 
Valerius Procillus and Mettius were both rescued^ to the 

satisfaetion o{ Cmart 



Caesar, having thus terminated the campaign, put hit 
troops in winter-quarters among the Sequani, and himself 
crossed the Alps to Citerior or Cisalpine Gaid, to hold the 
usual courts for the administration of justice and the civil 
business of the province. 

The campaign of 57 B.C. was against the Belgic Gauls, a 
powerful race of German origin, who had been long settled in 
the country between the Rhine and the Sequana (Seine). 
Alarmed by the advance of the Romans through Celtic Gaul^ 
the Belgae had. during the winter, formed a confederacy, and 
prepared themselves for resistance. Caesar, with the usual 
logic of conquerors, found in these preparations a pretext for 
attack. He raised two more legions in Cisalpine Gaul, and 
proceeded at the beginning of summer to his camp in the 
Sequani. He then* advanced with eieht legions, and in fif- 
teen days reached the countrv of the Remi, the first Belgio 
people on that side. The Remi made their submission, 
and gave him every information concerning the extent and 
the strength of the confederacy, which amounted, they said, 
to 300,000 fighting men. After crossing the river Axona 
( Aisne), Caesar fixed his camp on the right or farthest hanky 
and fortified it with a rampart 12 feet high and a ditch 18 
feet deep. The Belgae meantime besieged the town of 
Bibrax (BiSvre ?), belonging to the Remi, 8 miles from the 
Roman camp. Caesar sent to its relief his light troops, 
namely, his Numidians, the Cretan archers, and the.Ba* 
learic slingers. The Belgae, raising the siege, advanced 
towards Caesar's camp, and made some demonstrations, but 
Caesar kept quiet in his entrenchments, and the Belgo 
broke up for want of provisions, and resolved to fight each 
in his own territory. After subjecting the Suessiones, the 
Bellovaci, and the Ambiani, Caesar marched against the 
Nervii, the most powerful of the Belgic nations. A despe- 
rate battle was foueht on the banks of the Sabis (Sam- 
bre ?), in which the Nervii actually surprised the Roman 
soldiers while in the act of tracing and entrenching their 
camp, and before they had time to form or put on their 
helmets. Caesar's cavalry, auxiliaries, servants, drivers, and 
followers of the camp all ran away, spreading the report of 
the defeat of the Romans. Caesar hurried from legion to 
legion, encouraging the men, and finally succeeded in re- 
establishing order. The tenth legion came to turn the scale. 
The Nervii fought desperately to the last, and their nation 
and name, says Caesar, were nearly extinguished on that 
day. It was reported that out of 60,000 fighting men only 
500 remained. The women and children sued for mercyj 
and Caesar restored to them their territory and towns. The 
Aduatici were the descendants of a body of Cimbri and 
Teutones, who had settled towards the confluence of the 
Sabis and the Mosa. While on their march to support 
the Nervii, they heard of the total defeat of their allies, 
upon which they retired to a strong natural hold, where 
they were regularly besieged by Caesar, who formed a line of 
circumvallation. when they saw the moveable towers and 
the battering ram approaching their walls, engines of which 
the Gauls hud no idea, they sued for peace. Caesar required 
them to throw their arms outside of their ramparts. They 
did so, but concealed one-third of them ; they then opened 
their gates and mixed with the Roman soldiers. On the 
evening Caesar withdrew his men within his lines, but at 
midni^t the Aduatici came out in arms and attempted to 
scale Caesar*s entrenchments. Being repulsed with great 
loss, their place was entered the next day, tind the people 
were sold as slaves to the number of 53,000. 

Crassus, being detached by Caesar across the Sequana into 
Western Gaul, received the submission of the Aulerni, 
Unelli, and Veneti, and other maritime people on the coasts 
of the ocean ; and as the season was growing late, the army 
went into winter- quarters in the country of the Carnutes 
(about Orleans), Turones (Tours), and other parts of central 
Gaul. Caesar set off, according to his custom, for Cisalpine 
Gaul, where his friends flocked from Rome to congratulate 
him on his successes. The senate, on receiving irom the 
victorious general the usual official letters, ordered fifteen 
days of public thanksgiving to the gods, a period never 
granted before for any other general 

Caesar's third campaign, 56 B.C., was against the Western 
Gauls. Crassus, while wintering with one lenon among 
the Andes (Anjou), sent tribunes and other officers to the 
Veneti (Vannes in Britanny) and other people on the 
Atlantic coast to ask for provisions. The Veneti, a power- 
ful commerciid sea-faring people who had numerous ships 
in which they traded liritb Britain and other countriei^ 



Ma 354s 



[1:HB penny CYCLOPiBDIA.] 



TobYlr— R 



C iE S 



122 



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liiYing tteorered from the alarm of Cstar'a eonquetts, ar- 
XMiod the officers of Crassuit, and refuaed to give them up 
until their own hostages were restored. AU the neigh- 
bouring maritime tribes made common cause with the 
Veneti. Ciesar immediately ordered galleys to be con- 
structed on the Ligeris (Loire), and sent also to collect 
ships on the coast of the Pictones and Santones (Poiton 
ana Saintonge), who were friends with Rome. He directed 
the fleet to attack the Veneti by sea, while he marched 
against them by land. He exclaimed loudly against the 
breach of treaties, and the arrest of the Roman officers after 
tlie Veneti had naade submission and given hostages, while 
he acknowledges in his ' Commentaries ' that he was afraid 
othes- nations would follow the example — ' Knowing that it 
is the nature of all men to love liberty and hate servitude.* 
This was a critical time for the Roman general, but his pre- 
sence of mind never forsook him in difficulties. He sent Lar 
bienus towards the Rhine to watch the Belgians and Ger- 
mans, Crassus into Aquitania, gave the command of the fleet 
to Decimus Brutus, and himself marching against the Veneti, 
took several of their towns on the coast. But he soon found 
that by means of their ships they easily moved from one 
point to another, and that the only way to conquer them 
efectuallv was by sea. The description of the ships of the 
Veneti, their naval Uctios, their habits and mode of life, is 
one of Caraar's most interesting sketches. [BaETAOifX.] A 
great naval battle, which lasted all day, ended with the de- 
struction of the fleet of the Veneti, to the number of above 
200 ships. Ciesar, determining to strike terror into the 
neighbouring people, put to death all the senatore or chief 
men of the Veneti, and sold the rest as slaves. The Unelli 
(in the neighbourhood of Cherbourg) were likewise con- 
quered by Titurius Sabinus; and Crassus defeated the 
Aquitanians, though with considerable difficulty, and re- 
ceived hostages from various tribes of that remote region. 
Ca3sar himself marched against the Morini and Menapii 
(Boulogne, Calais, &r., and further to the N. and E.), but 
the rainy season setting in, the soldiers could no longer re- 
main under tents ; and accordingly, after ravaging the coun- 
try, he placed his troops for the winter among the Aulerci, 
J^xovii, &c. (Normandy). It would appear by the following 
book, iv. 6, that he went as usual to pass the winter in 
North Italy. (Compare also ▼. 53.) 

The fullowtng year, 55 B.C., Pompeius and Crassus being 
consuls, two Crerman tribes, the Usipetcs and the Tenchteri, 
being harassed by the Suevi, crossed the Rhine near its 
mouth into the country of the Menapii, between the Mosa 
and the Scaldis (Scheldt). CiBsar gives an interesting ac- 
count of the Suevi, the principal German nation with which 
the Romans were then acquainted. Being resolved to 
check any disposition on the part of the Germans to cross 
tho Rhine, he set off for the army earlier than usual. He 
found, as be suspected, that several Gaulish nations had 
an underfttanding with the Germans. The Usipetes sent to 
ask permission to settle in Gaul. Cssar answered that 
there was no vacant place in Gaul for fresh emigrants, but 
that if they chose to settle among the Ubii on the banks of 
the Rhine, who were themselves at war with the Suevi, he 
would employ his good offices for the purpose. 'While ne- 
gotiations were gomg forward, Ca)sar*s Gaulish cavalry, 
5000 strong, was suddenly attacked near the banks of the 
Mosa by 800 Grerman horsemen, and, as usual, routed. The 
next day a number of German chiefs and elders came to 
CsBsar's camp to apologize for the affray. CsBsar arrested 
them all, and immediately marohed against their camp, 
which being thus surprised and unprepared was easily en- 
tered, when the Romans made a dreadful carnage of the 
Crermans. The survivora fled as far as the confluence of 
the Mosa and the Rhine, where most of them perished. 
This was the action about which Cato exclaimed so loudly 
against Caesar in the Roman senate. 

The Ubii being annoyed by the Suevi appealed to CsBsar, 
and offered him boats to cross the Rhine. Declining this 
offer, he constructed a bridge by means of piles driven in 
the bed of the river. He gives a minute description of 
the process of building the bridge (iv. 17). The briage was 
finished in ten days, when Cssar marched across, ravaged 
the country of the Sicambri, and re>assured the Ubii by his 

I presence. Hearing that the Suevi had assembled all their 
brres in the interior of their country, and considering ' he 
had done all that the honour and interest of Rome re- 
quired,* he re-crossed the Rhine after spending 1 8 days on 
Cerman ground 



He next made his first expeditton into Briteta (hf vbicfa 
see Britannia). On his return he cnastized Uie Morini. who 
had attacked some of his detachments, put bis troops into 
winter-quarten in Belgio Gaul, and then repaired to Cisal- 
pine Gaul, as usual. In this year Cesar's period of go- 
vernment was extended for five years mora by a Senatus 
Consul tum. 

The next year, 54 B.C., Csssar, after making an excursion 
into Illyricum, which formed also part of bis government, 
returned into Gaul, where he had ordered a fleet to assemble 
at Portus Ititts (between Boulogne and Calais) for a serofvl 
attempt upon Britain. Meantime he visited the Trevin. the 
most powerful nation in cavalry of all Gaul. A dispute h^d 
arisen between Induciomarus and Cin^etorix about the »u« 

Sreme authority; Cosar, knowing Cmgetorix to be wt.iI 
isposed to the Romans, support^ his claims. This lf>>k 
place just before the expedition to Britain. On his retun« 
from Britain he repaired to Samarobriva (Amiens), «her^ 
he held a council of the (raulish deputies. On account of 
the bad harvest and scarcity of provisions, he was oblic*-'! 
to disperse his legions in various parts of the country for the 
winter. This proved nearly fatal to the Roman arrns. He 
himself remained in Belgic Gaul to see his legions proprr'y 
quartered. A fortnight only had elapsed when the Ebu- 
rones (Tongres), excited by Induciomarus, revolted and 
attacked the camp of Titurius Sabinus and L. Cotta, w)^^ 
had one legion and five cohorts with them. Ambiorix, kin? 
of the Eburones, alarmed Sabinus by telling him that tUt 
whole country was in arms, and that the Germans «ere 
coming. Much against Cotta's opinion, Sabinus resolred 
on retiring towards the next Roman garrison, which vas 
exactly what Ambiorix wished. The Romans were at- 
tacked on their march by numerous forces, surropndr'l, 
and all cut to pieces. Ambiorix, elated with this success, 
next attacked the camp of Quintus Cicero, brother tu tic 
orator, who was stationed with one legion in the countrt 
of the Nervii. Quintus made a brave defence. After 
several days* siege, the Gauls threw combustibles into tht 
camp and set fire to the huts of the soldien, which were 
thatched after the Gaulish fashion. At the same time tl.« 
Gauls advanced to scale the ramparts. But the legionariH 
stood firm at their post, and Caasar, having at last receurd 
news, through a Gaulish slave, of the danger of his rorn. 
marched with two legions to their relief, defeated the Gau s 
and entered Cicero*s camp, where he found not one-tentn 
of the soldiers free from wounds. He praised Chcem, br 
praised the men, he spoke of the catastrophe of Sabmai 
and Cotta as a consequence of imprudence, and a les<ori 1 1 
other commanders. lie then resolved to pass the winter ir. 
Gaul, and stationed himself with three legions at Sam3r.>- 
briva. Induciomarus, having attacked Labienus, was de- 
feated and killed. 

The following year, 53 B.C., which was the sixth <( 
Cflesar*s government, symptoms of general disaflTerfi n 
manifested themselves throughout Gaul. The people K)-J 
.been overawed but not subdued. The hanhness and n* 
pacity of the conquerors made the Gauls wish to shake it 
the yoke ; but all their attempts were detached, partial, ar>d 
not combined, and they failed, after giving, however, fill 
employment to the Romans. It was a year of deftuU.n 
though destructive warfare. CoDsar obtained of PomrK*f 
the loan of one legion, and had recruited two legions mo'r 
in the Cisalpine province. He had now ten legions («0.oi o 
men) under his orders, which was considered a very Urfe 
Roman army. He first defeated the Senones, the'Ntr^ t. 
and the Menapii : the Treviri were defeated by Labienoi^ 
Cssar then crossed the Rhine again from the eountrt ^^f 
the Treviri, bavins constructed a new bridge a liftle bebw 
the former one. He expected that the Suevi would attack 
him, but that wary people withdrew inland to the entrance 
of the great forest called Bacenis (the Hart?), which Uv 
between their territory and that of the Cherusci, ftnd there 
waited for Caesar to advance. But the Roman avoided the 
snare, and withdrew his army across the Rhine* lettvin^ 
part of the bridge sUnding for a fViture oceasion. Be then 
marched against Ambiorix and the Eburones, who did o«4 
wait for him, but took reflige in the fbrests and narsbi-«L 
where they kept up a partizan or guerrilla warlkre, d^^v 
ordered the country of the Eburones to be thoroughly ^^as- 
tated, and invited the neighbouring tribes, Germans ai^ 
Gauls, to assist in the work of destruction. One German 
tribe, however, the Sicambri, who had erossed the Rhine 
for the purpose of booty, thought it expedient le itiKk the 



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imp of Qaiatus Cicero, which they 'had nearly forced. 
Ambiorix escaped, notwithstanding all endeavours to seize 
him ; but sentence of death was passed against Acco, the 
leader of the previous revolt of the Senones. His accom- 
plices, who hfad escaped, were banished. Having put his 
legions to winter among the Treviri, Lingoncs, and Se- 
oones, Cflssar repaired to Cisalpine Gaul. 

The disturbances which occurred at Rome in consequence 
of the murder of Clodius made CsDsar turn his attention 
towards that quarter. He raised troops in every part of the 
Cisalpine province. These rumours spVeading amon^: the 
trans- Alpine Gauls, exasperated as they were by the execu- 
tion of Acco and Caesar's fearful vengeance upon the 
Bburones, they thought the time was come for one great 
etfurt while Csesar was enga«:ed in Italy. The Carnutes 
began by massacring all the Romans whom they found in 
the town of Genabum (Orl^ns). Vercingetorix, a young 
man of one of the first families of the Arverni, was placed 
at the head of a confederacy of the whole of Ct^Itic Gaul. 
The Biturtges joined the league, and the JEdui themselves 
wavered in their allegiance. Cffisar hearing this news, and 
seeing that the affairs of Rome had through Pompey's in- 
fluence assumed a quieter aspect, set off in the middle of 
winter (beginning of 52 B.C.) for the province of ulterior 
Gaul, repaired to Narbo, which was threatened by the 
Gauls, and having collected some troops, crossed the Ge- 
henna and spread alarm through the country of the Ar- 
verni, who hastily recalled Vercingetorix to their defence. 
Having thus effected his object of causing a diversion, 
CaD:uir moved quickly northwards to the country of the 
Lingones, from whence he went among the Carnutes, 
attacked and took Vellaunodunum, Genabum, and Novio- 
dunum. Verringetorix, in a great council of the chiefs, 
advUed, as the only means of harassing the Romans, to 
burn and destroy the whole country around them. This 
was executed in the country of the Bituriges, the villages 
and towns of which were set on fire, except the town of 
Avancum (Bourges), which was garrisoned by the Gauls 
Caesar laid siege to Araricum, and took it after a most brave 
defence, when the Roman soldiers killed all, old men, 
waxuen, and children. The next siege was that of Gerguvia 
(neiAr Clermont, in Auvergne), which, after a murderous 
attempt to storm the place, Cassar was obliged to raise. 
The iEdui, till then the firmest allies of Rome, had now 
thrown off the mask, joined the league, massacred the 
Romans at Noviodunum (Nevers), and seized the depots, 
the baggage, and the treasury, which Csesar had deposited 
there« Cesar's next movement was to the north into the 
country of the Senones, in order to join Labienus and the 
legions under him. The defection of the JEdui rendered 
Caesar^s position in the centre of Gaul very diincult. 
Having effected a junction with Labienus, he directed 
his march towards the Lingones and the Sequani. Mean- 
time he was enabled to collect a body of German cavalry 
from beyond the Rhine, which was of the greatest service 
to him during the rest of the campaign. Vercingetorlx, 
who followed CsDsar closely, had his cavalry defeated by 
these new auxiliaries of the Romans, upon which he re- 
tired to Alesia (now a village called Saint Reine, and also 
Alise, near Flavigny and Semur, in North Burgundy, ten 
leagues N.W. of Dijon). Caesar immediately invested the 
place, and began his lines of circumvallation. For this cele- 
brated siege of Alesia we must refer to Csesar's own account. 
The whole forces of the Gallic confederation, stated at about 
300.0UO men. advanced to the relief of Alesia. Caesar 
fiiund himself besieged in his own lines, having to fight 
Verrtn?etorix from within, and the confederates from with- 
out. After a desperate battle, in which the Gauls penetrated 
into the Roman entrenchments, they were, at last repulsed 
by Ciesar, wbo was well supported by his lieutenant Labie- 
nus. The Gaulish eonfederates, having sustained a tremen- 
dous loss, broke up the camp and returned home. Next 
dAy Verctngetorix assembled his council in Alesia, and 
offered to devote himself to save their lives, by giving him- 
self up to Cesar. Alesia surrendered, and Vercingetorix 
was afterwards taken to Rome, Several years afler, he 
walked before the triumphal car of the conqueror; after 
villa h he was put to death in prison. 

The Mdui and the Arverni now made their submission 
to CaMar. who took their, hostages, and restored their pri- 
e^nera. Aiier putting hit army into quarters, he sta- 
lioited himself at Bibracte ibr the winter. This was the 
hardest foaght campaign of all the Gallic war. 



CfBsar 8 eighth and last campaign In Gaul (51 B.C.) h 
related by Hirtius, who has continued his ' CoumentariefT 
by writing an eighth or supplementary book. After the 
great but unsuccessful exertions* of the Gauls in the pre- 
ceding year their spirit was broken, but they still made 
some expiring efforts. Caesar easily defeated the Carnutes, 
where his soldiers made an immense booty. He had moiB 
trouble with the Bellovaci (Beauvais), a Belgic nation, who 
at last submitted and gave hostages, all except Comius, the 
chief of the Atrebates, who had once been a friend to 
CsGsar. He had joined in the general revolt of the pre- 
ceding year, in consequence of his life having been at- 
tempted by Labienus, who sent to him Volusenus Quad- 
ratus under pretence of a conference, but in reality with 
orders to kill him. During the interview, a centurion of 
Volusenus's escort struck Comius and wounded him on 
the head, when the Gaulish escort interposed and saved 
Comius's life. From that time Comius swore he would 
never trust himself to a Roman. This disgraceful trans- 
action, not mentioned by Caesar, is related by Hirtius (Beli. 
GaU,, b. viii., 23). A revolt in western Gaul was quelled 
by C. Fabius, who subjugated all Armorica {Hirtius, 31). 
Gutruatus, chief of the Carnutes, who had joined in the re- 
volt, was taken to Caesar's camp, whipped with rods till he 
fainted, and then beheaded. Hirtius says that this in- 
human act, repugnant to Caesar*s nature, was forced upon 
him by the clamour of his soldiers. Caesar next besieged and 
took Uxellodunum, a stronghold of the Cadurci (Cahors). 
Here Caesar's clemency, which Hirtius repeatedly extols, 
did not prevent him from sentencing all the men who 
had shared in the defence of Uxellodunum to have their 
hands chopped off. Caesar entered Aquitania, the people 
of which gave hostages. From thence he repaired to 
Narbo, and there distributed his army in winter-quarters. 
He placed four legions among the Bel^ae, under M. Anto- 
nius, afterwards the celebrated triumvir, Trebonius, Vati- 
nius, and Q. TuUius Cicero; two among the Mdui, two 
among the Tu rones, and two among the Lemovices, near 
the borders of the Arverni. He then visited the Provincia, 
held the courts, distributed rewards, and went to winter at 
Nemetocenna (Arras), then within the limits of the country 
called Belgium. During the winter he endeavoured to heal 
in some measure the wounds which he had inflicted upon 
the unfortunate countries of Gaul. He endeavoured to 
conciliate the principal inhabitants by great rewards, 
treated the people with kindness, cstablishea no new taxes, 
and by rendering the Roman yoke smooth and light, he 
succeeded in pacifying Gaul, exhausted as it was by so long 
and so union unate a struggle. 

In the spring, 51 B.C., he set off for Italy, where he was 
received by all the municipal towns and colonies of his 
government with great rejoicings. On his return to Belgic 
Gaul he reviewed his troops, and soon after returned to the 
north of Italy, where the dissensions between him and the 
senate had begun which led to the civil war. This was the 
ninth and last year of Caesar*s government of tho Gauls. 

Before the close of his Gallic campaign, Coesar had pro- 
bably determined not to divest himself of the command of his 
army. He feared, and apparently with good reason, that if 
he were once in the power of his enemies at Rome, his life 
would be in danger. His connection with Pompey had been 
dissolved by the death of Julia without any surviving off- 
spring, and by the growing jealousy and fear with which his 
success in Gaul and his popularity with his army had filled 
all the aristocratical party. Caesar's object now w'as to ob- 
tain the consulship a second time, and a special enactment 
had been already passed enabling him to stand for the con- 
sulship in his absence. But Pompey, who at last was 
roused from his lethargy, prevailed upon the Senate to 
require him to give up the command of the armv and come 
to Rome in person to be a candidate. Csesar, who was now 
at Ravenna, in his province of Gallia Cisalpiiia, sent Curio 
to Rome with a letter expressed in strong terms (Cic. Ep, 
ad Div, xvi. 11), in which he proposed to give up bis army 
and come to the city, if Pompey would also give up the 
command of the troops which he had. These troops of 
Pompey comprised two legions which had been taken from 
Caesar ; and by a decree of the Senate were designed for 
the Parthian war, but had been illegally put into the hands 
of Pompey by Marcellus the consul. The Senate, acting 
under the influence of Pompey and Metellus Scinio, whose 
daughter Pompey had married, passed a decree that Caesar 
should give up his army by a certain day, or be considered 

R2 



CMS 



124 



CiE S 



aft eneny to tb« tUI»« The tribunes, H. Antonlus and Q. 
CftsiiuB, the friends of Casar, attempted to oppose the 
measuie by their inUreesnOf which was perfectly legal ; 
but their opposition was treated with contempt, and thus 
they gained, what they were probably not sorry to have, a 
good excuse for huirying to Cossar with the news. (Cic. 
lip* ad Div0 xvi. 11.) Upon receiving the intelligence, 
Gsesar crossed the Rubicon, a small stream which forme.d 
the southern limit of his province, and directed his march 
towards the south. The city was filled with confusion— coun- 
eiU wera divided and.hesiuting— «nd Pompey, who was the 
commander-in-chief on the side of the Senate, was unpro- 
vided with troops to oppose the veterans of the Gallic wars. 
Domitius, who iiad thrown himself into Corfinium to defend 
the place, was given up to Cesar by his soldiers, who joined 
the invading army. The alarm now became still greater, 
and it was resolved by the senatorial party to pass into 
Greece, and for the present to leave Italy at the mercy of 
Cesar's legions. Pompey, with a large part of the Senate 
and his forces, hurried to Brundisium, whence he succeeded 
in making good his escape to Dyrrachium, in Epirus, though 
CsBsar had reached the town some days before Pompey left it. 

From Brundisium C»sar advanced to Rome, where he 
met with no opposition. The Senate was assembled, with 
due regard to forms, to pass some ordinances, and there was 
little or nothing to mark the great change that had taken 
place, except C»sar*s possessing himself of the public money, 
which the other party in their hurry bad left behind. His 
next movement was into Spain, where Pompey's party was 
strong, and where Afranius and Petreius were at the head 
of eight legions. After completely reducing this important 
province, C»sar, on his return, took the town of Massilia 
(MsrseiUes), the siege of which had been commenced on 
his march to Spain. This antient city, the seat of the arts 
and of polite learning, had professed a wish to maintain a 
neutral position between the two rival parties {Bell* CiviL i. 
35) and their respective leaders. We might infer from one 
passage in Strabo, that Marseilles suffered severely either 
during or immediately after the siege (Strabo, p. 180) ; but 
another passage seems to imply that the conqueror used 
his victory with moderation. (Strabo, pp. 180, 181.) 

The title of Dictator was assumed by Cesar on his return 
to Rome ; but he made no further use of the power which 
it was supposed to eonfer than to nominate himself and Ser- 
vilius consuls for the following year (b.c. 48). The cam- 
paign of the year b.c. 48 completed the destruction of the 
senatorial party. It is given at length in the third book of 
the Cinil Wan (where, nowever, there appears to be a con- 
aidevable lacuna), and comprises the operations of Cmsar 
and Pompey at Dyrrachium (now Durazxo), and the sub- 
seouent defeat of Pompey on the great plain of Fharsalus, 
in Thessaly. Surrounoed by near 200 senators, who acted 
like a oontrolUng oouneil, with an army mainly composed 
of raw, undisciplined recruits, the commander-in-chief, whose 
previous reputation was more due to fortune than to merit, 
was an unequal match for soldiers hardened by eight years' 
campaigns, and directed by the energies of one skilful 
general. It seems difficult to comprehend the movements of 
Pompey after the batUe. He turned his face to the east, 
once the scene of his conquests, but he had no friends on 
whom he could rely, and instead of going to Syria, as he at 
first intended, he was compelled to change his course, and 
accordingly he sailed to Pelusium, in the Delta of Egypt. 
CsBsar, wno had pursued him with incredible celerity (BeU. 
Civil, iii. c. 102), arrived a little after Pompey had been 
treacherously murdered by Achillas, the commander of the 
troops of the young king Ptolemyt and L. Septimius, a Ro- 
man, who had served under Pompey in the war with the 
pirates. Pompey was fifty-eight years old at the time of 
his death. 

The events which followed the death of Pompey need 
only be rapidly glanced at. The disputes in the royal 
family of Egypt and the interference of Cesar brought on 
ft contest between the Romans and the king*s troops, which 
•nded in a new settlement of the kingdom by the Roman 
generaL (See the book on the Alexandrine war.) Here 
Cesar formed his intimacy with Cleopatra, then in her 23rd 
year. Cleopatra afterwards followed him to Rome, where 
she was living at the time of Csesar s death [Clbopatra]. 
Early in the following year, b.c. 47, Cesar marched into 
the province of Pontus, and entirely defeated Phamaoes, 
the son of Mithridates, who had exercised great cruelties on 
the Roman citixens in Asia. He returned to Italy in the 



autumn, by way. of Athens. At Bmndtsiutt lie vas net 
by Cicero (Plut. Cic, 39), who was glad to make his peac«, 
and bad no reason to be dissatisfied with his reception. On 
his retutu to Rome, Ctesar was named Dictator for one year, 
and consul for the following ye4r, trith Lepidus. During 
the winter he crossed over into Africa, where the party of 
Pompey had rallied under Scipio, gained a complete victory 
at the battle of Thapsus, and was again at Rome in the au- 
tumn of B.C. 46. In the year b.c. 45, (^sar was sole con* 
sul, and Dictator for the third time. During the greater part 
of this year he was absent in Spain, where Cn. Porapey, the 
son of Pompey the Great, had raised a considerable forte, 
and was in possession of the southern part of the Peninsula. 
The great battle of Munda, in which 30,000 men are said 
to have fallen on the side of Porapey, terminated the cam- 
paigns of Cesar. Pompey was taken afYer the battle, and 
n is head was carried to (3esar, who was then at Hii^palts 
(Seville). 

On his return to Rome, Cesar was created consul for ttn 
years and Dictator for life. On the ides (15th) of March, 
B.C. 44, he was assassinated in the senate- house [Brotv^]. 
After his death he was enrolled among the gods (Sueton. 
C€e9ar, 88), under the appellation of ditos iylits, as ap- 
pears from bis medals. 




[BriuMiu. Actual fliew Bronw. Wdcbl 347i ffniv.} 

Cesar did not live long enough after acquiring the eove- 
rei^n power to rebuild the crazy fabric of Roman polity 
which he had demolished in fact, though not in form. But 
a state which had long been torn in pieces by opposmg fac- 
tions—whose constitutional forms served rather to cherish 
discord than to promote that general unity of intero>t» 
without which no government can subsist — where life ^vA 
property were exposed to constant risk — could find no repose 
except under one head. A bloody period followed the death 
of C^ar, but the fortune of his name and family at last 
prevailed, and Rome and the world were happier under tb« 
worst of his successors than during the latter years of the 
so-called republic. 

The energy of Cessr's character — ^his peisonal accnsi. 
plishments and courage — ^his talents for war — and hi« 
capacity for civil affairs — combine to render him one of the 
most remarkable men of any age. Though a lover of plea, 
sure, and a man of licentious habits, he never neglected 
what was a matter of business. He began that active oi- 
reer which has immortalized his name when he was fort r 
years of age — a time of life when ordinary men's powers uf 
enterprise are deadened or extin^ished. As a writer and 
an orator he has received the highest praise from Cioen> : 
his Commentaries, written in a plain, perspicuous style, en- 
tirely free from all affectation, place him in the same c]a»s 
with Xenophon and those few individuals who have aaec«>«- 
fully unitea the pursuit of letters and philosophy with the 
business of active life. His projects were vast and matrDi- 
ficent ; be seems to have formed designs (Suetonius. C<rf. 
44) far beyond what the ability of one man could execute* <.r 
the longest life could expect to see realised. His reform of 
the Roman calendar, under the direction of Sosigenea. and 
his intended consolidation of the then almost unmanage^l^Ie 
body of Roman law, do credit to his judgment. He 
established public libraries, and gave to the learned V^rro 
the care of collecting and arranging the books. Of tl.e 
eight books of his Commentaries, the last is said to ba%-« 
bmn completed by some other hand. The three booka 
of the Civil War were written b^ Cesar; but the sas^le 
books on the Alexandrine* African, and Spanish warv 
respectiveljTt are generally attributed to another h«nd« 
though it is not at all unlikely that Cesar left the ma- 
terials behind him. He wrote a number of other thinea» 
the publication of which Augustus suppreued* The 



C m S 



12S 



CAP 



editionA^of the ConneBitftries ara vevy namerous ; the hest 
itf that of Oudendbrp, Leiden, 1757, 4to. They have been 
frequently translated into Spanish. French, English, Dutch, 
Gennant and Italian. The Grreek translation of seven books 
of the Gallic War, attributed to Planudes, was first printed 
m Jungermann*s edition, Frankfort, 1606, 4to. (See the 
articles A^rroKU>^s*a Itin, ; Acta ; Augustus ; Pompbt.) 

CiESAR'EA (Kat9<Sp(ta), the name of several towns 
to called in honour of the Roman Qsesars. CoBsar^a, now 
Kesarieh, the capital of Cappadocia (according to Stephanus 
Bvs.), or in CUiela (according to Strabo), at the foot of 
Mount ArgflBus, wa« originally cal)ed Mazaca. (Strabo, 
p. 537.) Kesarieh is still a considerable town. Cssarea in 
Palestine, on the sea-coast {Acts viiL 40., xxiii. 23), the birth- 
place of Busehiiis Pamphili, received that name from King 
Herod, in . compliment to Augustus CsBsar : under Ves- 
pasian, it became a oolonia and received the name of Flavia. 
Another Csesarea in Palestine, north of the sea of Galilee, 
is distinguished from that just mentioned by the name of 
Philippi ( Matlh' xvi. 13), having been repaired by Philip 
the tetrarch. [Ba.ni as,] Sometimes a town received a 
name compounded of botn the titles, Ceesar and Augustus, as 
CflDHar Augusta, Sar:-agossa, in Spain [Augusta]. 

CiSSlUS BASSUS. a Roman lyric poet, who lived in 
the reign of Nero and Vespasian. Persius addressed his 
sixth satire to him. Quintilian (xi. i.) speaks of him as per- 
haps next, but still very inferior to Horace. The Scholiast on 
Persius (Sat vi. i.) says that he was burnt with his house 
in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius. 

CiSSU'RA, or its Greek equivalent rofi4* (that is, 
cutting, the two words bein^. respectively derived from the 
sterna eaed and <em, cut*) is the name given by antient 
grammarians to the division of a verse into two or more 
portions by a pause or pauses, the position of which must be 
consistent both with the rhythm of the metre and the 
meaning of the words. If in any metre the termination of 
every foot coTnvida vkfa the termination of a word, a painful 
monotony arises which would soon offend the ear; as in 
the lines^ — 

Spanto Iwiiti* loDgh campus ipleodet et hiirret.-— Aki, 
Ditperipe Host**, distTahe, dklue, divide, differ. — Sim, 
Hei ree ad te scripUs Loci mieimtts AalL— iiiictf. 

This has led some grammarians to hold the opinion that 
the several feet of a verse should be blended together ; yet 
this principle might lead to results no less offensive than 
tlie lines that have been just quoted, as may be seen in the 
following verses : — 

Sole oodtDte juTPseaa aratia rellquit in arro. 
noXXa i* avavra Koravra irapavra re SoxfAW t riXOov, 

yiuch that has been written about the coDsura betra>'8 an 
iniicouracy, which has arisen from a neglect of the principle 
of accent. Those who define verses by the mere order of 
the long and short syllables find it necessary afterwards to 
lay down what appear to be arbitrary canons. Thus a word 
of three long syllables, such as prorumpunt, might, accord- 
i:)^ to the usual definition of an hexameter verse, occupy 
any plare which did not interfere with the two short syllables 
of the fif\h foot. Yet an ear acquainted with the true 
rhythm of this verse would be violently offended by any line 
beginning with Et prorumpunt, or Continuo prorumpunt, 
oi Omttnuo nostrt jam prorumpunt utulantea. Tlie true 
objection to these lines is that the accent of the word prO' 
rumpunt, which of course falls upon the penult, is incon- 
sistent with the demands of the verse, which, in the positions 
nerc given to the word, would compel us to falsify the 
accent, and pronounce prSrumpunt, [Hbxambtrr.] A 
part of these ditficulties they evade by adding to the previous 
definition of the hexameter a canon to the effect that there 
must always be a csesura at the end of two feet and a half, 
or three feet and a half, with the additional proviso that the 
syllable immediately preceding the ctesura must not be a 
monosyllable. To this canon there are two serious ob- 
jections besides its arbitrary character: one that it does not 
exclude prorumpunt from its position in the third example ; 
t!ie other that it lays down a rule which is violated in many 
of the finest verses of the ^neid. The same neglect of 
af*cents has led to precisely the same difficulties in the other 
metres. 

On the best places for the pause in the partienlar metres, 
Me Dactylics, Hxroic Vsrsb, Lyrics, Iambics, Tro- 

CHAICS. 

The name of evrara or ro/iq ^or K6fift(tf which has the 



same meaning) a Bometimes given to that portion of a Terse 
which precedes the paute. 'Tnbs when the pause occurs at 
the end of the fourth fooi of the hexameter, that fourth foot 
being a dactyl, which is common in the bucolic writers, the- 
four first feet so cut off bear the name of a bucolic csesura. 

(Hermann! Eiem. Doctr, Metr.* p^. 32-37 and 934-343.) 

CAFEIC ACID, a peculiar vegetable acid existing in 
coffee, from which it is separated by precipitating the de- 
coction of coffee with a solution of acetate of lead, and th» 
subsequent action of the subaeetate, sulphuretted hydrogen* 
and alcohol. 

Cafeie acid separates fh>m solution in alcohol in the state" 
of brown translucid scales. One of the principal oharaeten 
of this acid is the aromatic odour of burnt coffee which it 
yields by dry distillation ; when the decomposition' is com-' 
plete, H is dissipated without any residue. 

Cafeie acid appears to exist in coffee, combined lime, 
magnesia, alumina, and iron. The alkaline cafeates are of 
a pure brown colour without any admixture of green, -and- 
by evaporating the solutions they are obtained in the state 
of brown homy masses. Lime and barytes water are pre-* 
cipitated of a yellow colour by cafeio acid ; these pre* 
cipitates are soluble in nitric acid. Cafeie acid does not 
alter the colour of solutions of the persalts of iron ; it pre- 
cipitates a solution of albumen,- but the supernatant fluid 
has not a slight green tint, which distinguisnes it from the 
tannin of coffee. [Coffxb.] According to Pfiiff, cafeie aoid 
is composed of 

Carbon . • . • 29*1 
Hydrogen , . . 6*9 
Oxygen • . • 64 

100-0 
CAFBTNE, a neutral vegetable product obtained ftem 
coffee, and which was at first supposed to be an alkali. It 
is procured from the decoction by the action of acetate of 
lead, sulphuretted hydrogen, &e. Its propertiea are that 
during the cooKng of a concentrated solution it crystallizes 
in slender flexible needles, which are opaque and of a silky 
lustre ; when they are obtained by alow apontaneous evapo* 
ration, they are long fine prisms, which are transparent and 
but slightly flexible. Cafeine has little taste, but it is bit^ 
ter and disagreeable. It reauires 50 parts of cold water to 
dissolve it ; but hot water takes up a much larger quantity* 
and on cooling a crystalline magma la obtained. It is not 
very soluble in anhydrous alcohol, but readily so in alcohol 
of 70 or 80 per cent. In sother and oil of turpentine it is 
insoluble. Acids and alkalis do not combine with or alter it» 
but they dissolve it more readily than Water. Cafeine 
readily fuses, becomes transparent, and sublimes without 
residue, and concretes in crystals resembling thoee of benzoic 
acid. The salts of imn, copper, and lead produce no effect 
when mixed with solution of cafeine. 

According to Pelletter- and Caventeu, this substance is 
composed of 

Carbon • • » 46*51 

Hydrogen • « 4*81 

Oxygen , • . 27*14 

Azote •••• 21*64 



100 

This substance is distinguished ftom most others which 
contain azote in not putrefying when a solution is exposed 
to the air in a warm place, and in not being precipitated by 
infusion of galls. 

CAFFA. [Kapfa.] 

CAFFILA is the term used in Northern Africa for those 
companies of travelling merchants which in Asia are called 
caravans. The order in which they are arranged is the 
same, but the eaffilas being generally less numerous than 
the caravans, this order is not so strictly observed. 

CAFFRARIA, CAFFRELAND, or more properly 
KAFIRLAND, from the Arabic word * Kafir,' which 
means ' unbeliever,* ' not Mussulman,* is the name given 
by Europeans to the eastern part of S. Africa, from the N.E. 
frontiers of the Cape colony, about 32° S. lat to Dalagoa 
Bay, or perhaps to Cape Corrientes or Inhambane in 24** S. 
lat. But the Cafire race extends still farther N. ; perhaps 
as far as the Zambezi River, N. of which are the Makooas 
and other genuine negro tribes. The natives whom Salt 
saw at Sofala Bay, 2^ S. lat., he conceived to be nearly 
allied to the Caffres. The various Betchousoa tribes, as 
well as the Makweens and others to the N,E« of them 



C A F 



126 



C AF 



and the Damant on the W. or Atlantie coast, between 22"* 
and 25^ S. lat^ are of the Caffre race [Bbtchovana]- The 
complexion of the CaiTres varies from a yellowish brown or 
copper hue to that of deep black, but this last colour is not 
Tery common. The nose approaches to an arched form; 
they have thick lips and hair curly, but less woollv than the 
negroes. The Caffre females are among the handsomest in 
Africa. 

The Arabian and other Mussulman traders and con- 
querors who formed establishments on the Mozambique 
ooast, bestowed ^ general appellation of KaBr on the 
natiTe population, with whose name ther were unac- 
quainted. This was especially the case witb the coast S. 
of Cape Coffrientes, which the eastern navigators always 
dreaded, as destitute of harbours and inhospitable, and on 
whioh therefore they made no settlements. The Portuguese 
who succeeded the Arabs on the Mosambique ooast adopted 
the word Caffra and Caffraria for tbis extent of coast, upon 
which for similar reasons they did not venture. The name 
has been adopted by the Dutch and the English also, 
though the naUves themselves are unacquainted with it. 

CaflQrmria, properly so called, extends ibr about 6U0 miles 
along the eoast, from the Great Key River to Dalagoa Bay, 
and inland as far as the high land which divides the waters 
that flow into the Indian O^an, from those which flow into 
the Orange river and the Atlantic, and separates the land 
of the Caffres from that of the Koranna Hottentots, the 
Bosjesmans and the Betcbouana tribes. It runs in a N.E. 
direction at an average distance of about 100 miles from the 
sea. The eastern or Caffre side of the ridge is more abrupt 
than the western, which slopes in a sort of table-land to- 
wards the Atlantic. Caffraria is a land of ru^rged hills 
and deep valleys. The following sketch is by Lieutenant 
Steedman. 

In travelling through the Amaponda oonittry (between the 
St. John River and Port Natal), the waggon path lies over 
an undulating ridge, three or four miles in breadth, and 
about 800 or lOUOfeet above the level of the sea; nume- 
rous streams are seen rushing down the deep ravines and 
valleys ; the country is nigged and hilly, exhibiting valleys, 
ravines, beds of rivers, bush and forest covering the declivi- 
ties of some of the hills, while the others look bare and red 
from the iron ore which they contain. Caffre villages are scat- 
tered about, and numerous herds of cattle are seen grazing 
in the plains, while the lower sides of the hills exhibit patches 
of cultivated ground in all kinds of irregular shapes. To the 
eastward the view is bounded by the Indian Ocean, which 
is just visible on a dear day, while to the westward a high 
ridge of mountains is seen extending for a length of from 
fifty to sixty miles, which separates the country of the 
Tambookies mm the deserts of the Bosjesmans, which lie 
io the direction of the Orange River. Beasts of prey arre 
not numerous : now and then a lion, and more frequently 
a tiger, or rather leopard, are met prowling in the more 
secluded ravines. Elephants were once numerous, but are 
now become scaree, except in the large forests near the St. 
John River and Port Natal. The hippopotamus is found in 
most of the rivers, and its flesh is eaten by the natives. 
Rhinoceroses lurk about the thick bushy coverts, as well as 
hyoenas of a very ferocious species. The country abounds in 
game, antelopes, hares, pheasants, and partridges. There 
are quantities of baboons and monkeys, and also serpents 
and other reptiles. Copper and iron ore is found in the 
mountains. 

Four principal nations, originally of one stock, occupy the 
country fVom the frontiers of the Cape colony to D:ila^oa 
Bay, the Amakosa, the Amatimba, called by the Dutch 
Tambookies, the Amaponda or Hambona, whom the Dutch 
have christened Mambookies, and the Vatvahs or Zoolahs, 
sometimes called Amozoolah. The chief of the Ama- 
kosa was until lately the well-known Hintza, who resided 
on the left or E. bank of the Great Key River. Gaika, 
one of his subordtuate chiefs, resided on the ri^ht bank 
of the Key, and between that and the Kciskamma, 
and on the immediate borders of the colony. To the N. 
and E. of the Amakosa are the Amatimba, whose west- 
ernmost districts border on the back territory of the co- 
lony, towards the sources of the Zwart or Black Key. 
Voiiani, the chief of the Amatimba, died in 1 830. The tliird 
tribe, the Amaponda or Hambona» dwell ea^^tviard of the 
Amatimba, and extend along the coast towards Port Natal. 
Their Umknmkani, or great chief, is called Fako, and is 
Mid to be powerful ; one of their subordinate chiefs, Dapa, 



is the son of an Englishwoman^ who was wreeked on this 
coast. The Amaponda are said to be m numerous tribe, and 
more industrious than the Amakosa and Amatimba: whii«c 
the latter leave all the labour of the field to their women, the 
Amaponda men work as well as the women : they gtx>w 
millet or Caffre com, beans, pumpkins, sweet potatoes or 
yams, maize, and tobacco. In the Amaponda territory a 
small tribe of mixed European and Caffre blood baa been 
discovered, the descendants of the crew of some ve»««l 
wrecked on this coast. (Captain Riou*s Narrativt qf Vam 
Reeneni Expedition^ London, 1 792.) 

The fourth great tribe of Caffres, and the ikrthest N.E. 
from the Cape, is the Zoolas or Vatvahs, who under thrtr 
chief Chaka have overpowered, dispersed, or destroy e«l all 
the surrounding tribes, from King George's River N. of 
Dalagoa Bay down to Port Natal, a tract of above 300 miles 
in length from N. to S. The Oratontahs, who in 1 82 1 -11 ^ 
ravaged the country near the Portuguese settlement at 
Dalagoa Bay are the same people as the Vatvahs. The Vat- 
vahs were originally a small tribe ; they came about fifteen or 
twenty years since from the N., somewhere aliout or l»e\ ond 
the mountains W. of English River, which falls into Dalagoa 
Bay. Their language is different from that of the Amaku^a 
and other southern Caffres, and is said to have more 
aflinity to the 8ichuana or Betcbouana language. The 
Vatvahs are well acquainted with the use of iron* and sr>me 
of them have muskets, which they obtained from Amertcan 
traders at Port Natal. Thev are a fine athletic rare; it 
war they carry large oval shields of bullock's bide, and an 
umconto or spear, besides a bundle of assagais. Chaka 
brought his warriors into a most strict state of discipiine, 
any deviation from which he punished with death. He 
is described as sanguinary and rniel, like all harbanaa 
conquerors; but he received kindly, in 1825. Lieutenaut 
Farewell, Mr. Fynn, and other Englishmen, and allij%ird 
them to settle in his dominions near Port Natal, and grantrd 
them a large extent of country, and men to assist tliem ta 
cultivating it. There is an account of their visit to lum, 
and of the habits of the people, in the appendix to Thon:p> 
soil's 'Travels and Adventures in South Africa.' The 
country is represented as very line, rich in pasture, anJ 
ahounding with cattle. The Vatvahs go generally nakni. 
except when they put on their war-dross, consisting of »k \\% 
round the middle, and feathers on the head ; the woineo 
wear an apron of hide about the middle. Two traders fi m 
the Cape, Messrs. Scoon and M*Luckie. after vi^ittn;; ^a 
1827 the town of Kurichane in the Moorootzee couia:>. 
crossed the river Mariqua, and travelled first eastward a. J 
then southward, for about 140 miles, to the town of MaLi- 
katzee, a Zoolah chief, where they traded to the arooLnt 
of 18U0/. sterling. 

The tribes who live in the lowlands round Dalagoa Ba; 
are said by Captain Owen {VoyageM to explore the ff-xi^t 
o/u^/rt'cci) to be industrious, well-behaved, and ftivounxKi 
disposed to trade with strangers. He mentions the arri\ i\ 
at Dalagoa Bay of a caravan from the intenor, conswtir c 
of lOtiO natives, with from 300 to 400 elephants' tusk«, ard 
a great quantity of cattle. Captain Owen represents t.'.e 
people as honest in their manner of dealing ; their prude{;< c 
will not allow them to give their merchandize for the 
momentary gratification of rum or tobacco; but they bau» a 
great desire for cloth. A similar obsen'ation was in3(K\ 
more than three centuries ago, by Vasco de Gama as to ti.e 
natives whom he saw about Cape Corrientes. In the * Nir- 
rative' by the late Captain Boteler, (1835). are found jIo 
many particulars concerning the natives of Dalagoa P.»*. 
and those of Inhambane and Sofala, who are all coaMdcurl 
to be of the Caffre race. 

Of the countries to the N. of Dalagoa Bay we kn iw \c*t 
little. The Makweens are known to be in that direct .orj, 
perhaps ?00 miles to the N.W. ; their country is a bi:!.- 
land, and is said to rise several thousand feet above the %«. i. 
The great western ridge which divides the waters iliat tl- » 
into the Indian Ocean from those of the Gartep i» «• .- 
tinctly seen from Dalagoa Bay. An expedition, under Ca.n- 
tain Alexander, was to proceed by sea to Dalagoa Ba\ .-. 
1835, and thence to set off for the interior to explore K ^ z 
George's River or Manica, and to ascertain iu idcnt . 
with the Marique of the Moorootzees, and to open, if r>.^- 
sible, a communication with the Makween councrv, T: o 
instructions given to Captain Alexander are found in :: c 
fourth volume of the 'Journal of the London GeofcraphirAl 
Society/ 1834. We have as yet seen no account ot Ca|naii 



C AF 



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Aleiandtfv # acrinl at DaUfoa Ba|r. Anoihar aspedition, 
under Dr. Smith, »et eff in 1 834 to explore the sources q{ the 
Mapoou River, and lately returned to Cape Town. The 
]:i;purt i» said to be most satisfactory. 

Of the maaners and habits of the southern Caffires wko 
aie nearer the borders of tlie Cape colony, we have aoeountd 
from several late traTellers» Thompson, Steedman, Moodie, 
Rennie, &c. Tha aceount by the Rav. Mr. Brownlee, a 
missionary, who resided sevan or eight yeara among them, 
is perhaps the most full and satisfactolry, and is given in the 
appendix to Thompson's ' Travels/ The government of the 
CalTres is a sort of clanship systam. The population of each 
Caffre tribe ia divided into kraals or hamlets, containing 
from ten to twenty £unilies, each family occupying a sepa- 
rate hut. There is a petty chief in each kraal, who exer- 
cises a kind of patriarchal authority over the people. A 
higher chief rules over a whole district, containing a certain 
number of kraals. These higher chiefs are hereditary and 
independent of each other, although they acknowledge to a 
certain extent the authority of the Umkumkani. or great 
chief of the whole tribe, whose counsellors they are, and who 
cannot determine upon any important measure concerning 
the whole tribe without consulting them. The chief, like 
most Asiatic and African sovereigns, is supposed to be the 
original possessor of all the land and cattle within his terri- 
tory. This pretended right, however, is seldom acted upon, 
but an acknowledgment of it is retained in the custom, that 
no individual is allowed to kill any of his cattle without per- 
mission of the chief, who claims part of the carcase as his 
right; likewise the first fruits of the season are not allowed 
to be gathered without permission of the great chief of 
the tribe. The right of individual families to the land in 
restricted to the patches of ground which they have enclosed 
for cultivation ; all the rest is held in common by the ditferent 
families of each kraal for grazing their cattle. The Caffres 
have no written laws, but certain long-established principles 
and usages, any infraction of which by a chief would be 
opposed by his subjects at large. There ia however an evi- 
dent disposition on the part of the chiefs to make themselves 
absolute, aa Chaka succeeded in doing among the Zoolabs. 
A great engine of despotism is found in the Amakira or 
witch doctor, who acts as a sort of inquisitor ; and when in 
secret understanding with the chief, serves him to remove 
out of the way or frighten all those who might have opposed 
him. The unfortunate individual accused of witchcraft is 
put to a cruel death, and his cattlo divided among his 
accusers. In other matters the punishment of death ia not 
common, most offences being expiated by a fine, excepting 
robbery on the property of a chief. The Caffres acknow- 
ledge the existence of a supreme being, for whom they 
have several names in their language, but they have no 
form of worship, and their notions of a future life are very 
vague and unsettled. They have no idols, but have other 
superstitions, believe in witchcraft, spirits, apparitions, 
and Uiey sacrifice animals to propitiate the ghosts of the 
dead. A Cafl^ swears by the spirit of his father, or by his 
chief. They circumcise boys at the ase of twelve or four- 
teen, and the ceremony is attended with considerable 
solemnity ; they seem however to have no distinct idea of 
the object of the practice, or whence they derived it. They 
have a decided aversion to swine-flesh, and also it is said 
to fi»h, except shell-fish; accordingly they have neither 
boats, canoea, nor nets, or other implements for fishing. 

The huts of the Caffres are hemispherical, and mostly 
from eighteen to twenty feet in diameter, and from six to 
seven feet high. Poles are stuck into the earth, and 
flexible boughs are twisted between and arched over the 
Cop ; they then are thatched with straw, and plastered over 
with clay or oow-dung; a small aperture is left for the door, 
which is made of basket-work. The fire-place is in the centre 
of the hut, and there is no aperture to let out the smoke 
but through the doorway. A few mats, coarse earthen- 
ware pota of native manufacture, a rush basket so closely 
W4n'ea aa to contain liquids, a calabash, and a bundle of 
a^sagaya— -these constitute all the furniture of a common 
Catlrft hut. Some have milk sacks made of bullock*s hide, 
and wooden Tesselt carved out of soft wood. They preserve 
their millet or oom in pits dug in the ground, like the 
Berbcra and other North Africans. The kaross, or cloak 
ina4a of softened hile, is the dress of both men and women. 
The fesaalea wear besides a petticoat of leather round the 
louis, aad usvally also a eoverhig over the bosom : the men 
g9 often totally naked. The beauty of the Caffre women 



has baen much sfiokcii of, and probably exaggerated. The 
men are tall, stx^ht, robust, and musoular, firm of ear- 
riage, open and manly in their manners, and when at peace 
have a remarkable expression of good nature on their coun- 
tenance. They bring to market, en the borders of the Cape 
colony, ekphanla' tusks, gum, hides, maU, rush basketii, &e., 
to a considerable amount As yet the southern Calhes, 
unlike their brethren of the Betchoaana and other northern 
tribes, hold Buropaan cloth in Uttle estimation, but are very 
fond of beads and other oniameuti ; they also purchase 
knives, tinder-lwxes, and other hardware artides. 

The result of the last Caf&e war in 1636 has been to ex- 
tend the limits of the colonial territory, from the Keit- 
kamma, the former boundary, as settled by a treaty widi 
the late Gaika, to the Great Key River, by which a large 
and fine tract of country has been evacuated by the Ama- 
kosa, and left at the disposal of the British authorities. 
Another result has been, that a tribe called Fingoes, who 
were the remains of a numerous race, who between ten 
and twenty years had lived N. of Port Natal, whence they 
were driven away by Chaka and thrown for refiige among 
the Amakosa, by whom they were treated as bondsmen or 
as a sort of Helots, having claimed the protection of the 
British government, have been removed from their state of 
bondage and brought into the oolony, where they have been 
located, to the number of 17,000 individuals, between the 
bwer Keiskamma and Great Fish Rivers. The Fingoes 
are spoken very favourably of, and may become very useful 
colonists, and form an efiSdent border mihtia. (Account by 
Captain Alexander on the Caffre war, in the fifth volume 
of the Journal of the Geographical Sodeiff, 1 835.) 

There has been evidently of late yeara a pressure of tribes 
from the N. upon the southern Caffres, and it becomes an 
important question how the latter are to be assisted and 
protected against extermination or starvation. Hintxa, the 
late Umkumkani or great chief of the Amakosa, finding 
that tho Fingoes, weary of oppression, wished to plaoe them* 
selves under British protection, began to decimate them ; 
and when Sir Benjamin D'Urban, the governor of the 
oolony, remonstrated with him on this act of eruelty, Hintxa 
replied, * What is all this about ? Cannot I kill my dogs 
if I choose ?* 

CAFFRISTAN, a region to the N. of Cabul, bounded 
on the N.E. by Cashgar ; on the N. by Badakshan ; on the 
N.W. by Koondooz ; and on the W. and S. by Cabul « its 
boundary to the E. is not defined, but is said to extend to 
the N. part of Cashmere. This region stands at a con- 
siderable elevation, and occupies a part of the Hindu Cosh 
Mountains, a name sometimes given to that part of the 
Himalaya chain which lies W. of the N.E. point of Cash- 
mere. The height of one of the peaks of the Hindu Cosh 
Mountains has been stated at 20,493 feet, and on this and 
the hei^shts connected with it, the snow remains throughout 
the summer, while the thermometer in the nearest valley 
stands at 1 1 3° Fahrenheit. There are no roads, properly 
speaking, the only travelling being along foot-tracks, which 
are frequently obstructed by rivers and mountain-streams, 
and ihese are crossed either by wooden bridges, or by swing- 
ing bridjfos made of the pliant withes of trees. 

No cultivation is carried forward on the hills, some of 
which are covered with pine forests, while others afford sOs- 
teuance to numerous flocks of goats. The valleys are 
mostly of small extent but very fertile, and produce abun- 
dant crops of wheat and millet, with large quantities of 
grapes, which form an important object of cultivation. 
These valleys, besides, furnish pasturage for sheep and cattle. 

The people, to whom the name of Caffres or infidels has 
been given by their Mohammedan neighboun, and hence 
the name of this region, Caffristan, have no general name 
by which they distinguish themselves, but are spUt into 
numerous tribes, each of which has a name peculiar to 
itself. The only accounts we have of their characters and 
habits are derived from the various tribes of Mohammedans 
by whom they are surrounded and with some or other of 
whom they are constantly at war. In their persons the 
Caffres are a fine race of people, with handsome features 
and fair complexions; the distinction made between dif- 
ferent tribes, some of whom are called black Caffres and 
othere white Caffres, is derived from a peculiarity in the 
dress of the former, who clothe themfielves in black goat- 
skins with the hair outside other tribes wear dresses made 
of white cotton. 

At regards their civil gownment^ it does not appear that 



CAO 



128 



C AG 



Iha Calf rat aokuowMigt uijr general liMd» each tribe 
goveroed in all things by its own rulen, and engaging at 
times in feuds with other tribes* Their hostile raelings 
towards their Mohammedan neighboun ara probably engen- 
dered by the incursions which these ara constantly making 
for the purpose of carrying oflT the Caffres as slaves : the 
captives thus made ara mostly females, who are much 
■ought after on account of their beauty. The hatred thus 
caused shows itself in mauT of the customs of the people of 
Caffristaa* Until they shall have slain a Mohammedan the 
men go constantly baraheaded, but after this proof of prowess 
they wear turbans in which long feathers ara placed, their 
number indicating the number of foreign enemies who have 
fallen by the hand of the wearer. The same information 
as conveyed by means of bells worn round the waist, their 
number being regulated in the like manner. A Caffre who 
has not slain a Mohammedan is besides not allowed to 
flourish his hatchet during the dance. Peace is sometimes 
made between the Caffre tribes and their neighboun. when 
they ara ready to extend towards their former enemies all 
the rites of hospitality. Their warlike weapons ara a bow 
about 4| feet long and arrows of reed with barbed heads, 
which ara sometimes poisoned. For closer conflict they are 
each provided with a dagger and a knife: recently they 
have oegun ta adopt the use of swords and muskets, in 
Imitation of their enemies* 

The Caffre villages ara mostly built on the slopes of 
hills, the houses, which are made of wood, being placed one 
above another, the roof of the lower house forming a path- 
way to the one above it. One of these villages is said to 
contain 500 houses* 

In their raligion the Caffres are said to acknowledge. only 
one supreme God, to whom they apply the name of D^un, 
but they worship numerous idols, the representatives of 
great men of former times, and who are supposed to inter- 
cede with the Deity in favour of their worahippera. It is in 
agreement with this account that the idols of one tribe have 
no reputation for sanctity with the other tribes. It does not 
appear requisite for impartins; thiA sanctity that any length- 
ened period must elapse after the death of a roan ko ho- 
noured, his contemporaries beins willing to pav their worship 
to his elfigy immediately after his decease. When he die^, 
the Caffre is dressed in his best clothes, and is placed upon a 
bier with his weapons beside him ; his male relations then 
carry him about with singing and dancing, while the fe- 
males give themselves up to lamentation, after which the 
body is inclosed in a sort of coflln and left in the open air, 
usually under the shade of a tree. 

A Caffre man procures his wife by purehase. paying to 
ber father sometimes as many as twenty head of cattle, or 
sheep and goats in proportion. Domestic slavery is prac- 
tised, the slpves being natives of Caffristsn, soinettroes 
taken in feuds with hostile tribes, and sometimes being 
orphans of their own tribe, it being not uncommon for tlie 
more powerful men to seise children who are unprotected, 
and either to sell them to some neighbouring country or to 
retain them in slavery. 

The more usual food of the people is bread, cheese, but- 
ter, and milk ; they likewise eat beef, mutton, and bears' 
flesh. They have a variety of fruits, among which are 
grapes, apricoU, apples, almonds, and walnuu. They make 
three sorts of wine, viz., red and white, and a kind having 
nearly the consistency of jelly, which is very strong : both 
males and females are said to drink occasionally to excess. 
The favourite amusement when they meet together is 
dancing : their music consists of a pipe and tabor. 

Several dialects are spoken by the different tribes in 
Caffrisian, but there are many words which are common to 
the whole people : the original language is supposed to have 
bren derived from the Sanscrit. No estimate has been 
made of the numbers of the people. (Blphinstone's Cabul.) 

CA'GLIARI (the Roman Carelis or Carales), the 
principal town of Sardinia, and the residence of the 
viceroy, is in the south part of the island, on the fine 
hay of the same name, in 39^ 13' N. lat, and 9^ 7' £. 
long. It is built partly on the sea-side, and partly on 
the slope of a steep hill, on the highest part of which is 
the castle, with the royal palace. The town is divided into 
four districts, Castellob Stampace, Marina, and Villanova. 
The population in 182ft waa 27,300 (CtUendario Sardo). 
Cigliari is an arahbishop s see, which dates from the be- 
ginning of the fourth oentuiy : St. Lucifer was one of its 
«arlteat bishopa. Thera it a univenity, with the lour laeul- 



tiee of theology, law, medicine, mnd pUtowplif nud bellee 
lettras; a library of 15,000 volumes ; anmseomwith good 
collections of minerals, birds of the island, and tnedals, in* 
eluding soma of the Carthaginian period ; a royal society of 
agricultura and public economy, a college for the nobility, 
a diocesan seminary, a public granimar-school, and several 
elementary schools estaolished since 1623. The cathedral, 
a large building, rich in marbles, was built by the Pisans 
during their possession of the island. Thera an many other 
churohes ; ten convents of men, two of which ara Seolopii, 
who keep pubUc schools, and one of Ospedalieri, who have 
an hospital for the sick ; and four convents of women. The 
reale audiensa or high judicial court for the south division 
of the island sits at C&gliari, as well as the commereial 
tribunal. The town enjoys great municipal privileges and 
revenues. The harbour is safe, and large ships find good 
anchorage in the bay. C&gliari is the chief port of Sar- 
dinia, and almost the only one freauented by foreign vessels 
In 1831, 210 ships cleared out or the port of C4gliari, of 
which 159 were Sardinian, 20 Neapolitan, 10 Austrian, 
6 French, 5 Swedish, 4 English, &c. Cigliari exports 
cheese, wine, oil, salt, flax, hides, and horses. Hke im- 
portation of foreign goods into Sardinia amounts to above 
four millions of francs annually. Near C&gliari are ex- 
tensive saline works, in which salt is collected from the sea- 
water. There is a royal manufactory of tobacco, the plant 
being cultivated in the north part of the island. C&gUan is 
the head town of an intendensa or province, which includes 
the southernmost part of the island, with a population of 
1 12.000. It is bounded on the north by the province of I*aii« 
on the north-east by that of Lanusei,and on the west by tbst 
of Igleties. It is divided into four districts, C4gliari, Sinnai, 
Guusila, and Siliqua. The principal town besides C4glian 
is Quarto, about 5 miles east of C&gliari ; population 50vu; 
it is known for its Malmsey wine. There are several lAwns 
of between 2000 and 3000 inhabitants. The east and west 
distrietd of the province are mountainous, but the central 
tract north of C&gliari is a fine and rich plain called Cam- 
pidano. watered by the UUa and its ailluents. The UUs 
enters the sea we»t of C&gliari. The air of the plains is 
rather unwholesome in the summer months, especially ta 
foreigners. A good carriage-road, lately finished, leads Iwm 
C&ffliari to Sassari and Bono Torres, through the whult 
length of the iHlond. 

CAGLIA'RI. PAOLO, called PAOLO VERONESE. 
from the place of his birth, was the most eminent master ui 
what may be termed the ornamental style of painting, lie 
was b<>rn at Verona, in the year 1 532, arcordwg to Ridolfi, 
but mure probably iu 1530. His father, Gabriele Caghsri, 
was a sculptor, and originally intended his son for his own 
profession ; but in consequence of the boy's determined pnt* 
ference for the sister art, he was placed under bis unckw 
Antonio Badile, to be taught painting. He iaipra\ed 
rapidly, and very early in life enjoyed an extensive and pra- 
Stable patronage. 

While yet young he Waited Venice, where he waa commift- 
sioned to execute some paintings in the church and sacnuy 
of St. Sebastian. The pictures excited uuiverbal admimiion* 
from the originality of tho style and the vivacity of tLe 
design. Commissions for oil paintings poured in upon him, 
and a portion of the walls of the ducal palace waa allotted 
to him for embellishment. From this time his fame and 
wealth increased rapidly. 

He subsequently went to Rome ; and in the course of bit 
life visited numerous towns of his native country, m «hich 
he left behind biro many lasting memorials. He was m> \%etl 
satisfied with his honours and emoluments at home, that he 
declined accepting the invitation of Philip IL to vi^t Spain, 
and contribute some works to the Escunal. He liwd a uft: .^ 
uninterrupted labour and success, and died at Venice in the 
year 1 588, leanng great wealth to his twosonsr GabrteW 
and Carlo, who were also his pupils. They did not, hu«- 
ever, attain their father's celebrity ; one died young ; ti.* 
other abandoned painting for meroantile pureuita. PauU 
had a brother, Benedetto Cagliari, who waa a sculptor. 

Paolo Veronese ranks amons the greatest masters of the 
art, especially as a cdourist. His colouring is less true to na- 
ture than Titian's, and less flowing in the tints ; but it iaric^ 
and brilliant, and abounds m variety and pleaaing contrast 
His style is florid and ornate, his invention easy and feniUw 
and his execution characterised by a masterly laeility. H^ 
principal worka are at Venice, but his prodiaetiona «i« $m bn 
met with in moat ooUectiona, 



GAG 



129 



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CAGLIOSTRO (ALEXANDIR, odnmioiily called 
COUNT DB)« one of the most impudent mnd sncceftsAil 
impostors of modern times. His real name was Joseph 
Bal!iamo, and he was born at Palermo on the 8th June, 
1 743. His friends designed him for the monastic profession, 
but during his noviciate he ran away from his convent, and 
thenceforward lived upon his wits and the credulity of man- 
kind. The first exeroise of his ingenuity, in a public way, 
was to forge tickets of admission to the theatres. He then 

groceeded to forge a will, and having robbed his uncle, and 
eing Boeused of a murder besides, he was thrown into prison. 
He was liberated, again imprisoned, and again set free; 
but was finally obliged to fly from Sicily for cheating a 
eoldsmith of a large sum of money under pretence of show* 
mg him a hidden treasure. He went successively to Alex* 
andria, Rhodes, Malta, Naples, Rome, and Venice, at one 
of which places he married a woman whose great beauty 
and profound immorality were very useful to him. 

Quitting Italy this couple visited Holstein, where CagU- 
otnro professed alchemy, and thence they went to Russia, 
I^>Und, &e. In 1 780 they fixed themselves at Strasburg, 
where the soi-duani count practised as a physician, and 
pretended to the art of making old women voung. As his 
handsome wife^ who was only twenty, vowea she was sixty, 
and had a son, a veteran captain in the Dutch service, they 
for a time obtained a good deal of practice among the old 
women of Strasburg. Thence they went to Pans, where 
Cagliostro exercised the profitable profession of Egyptian 
firee-masonry (as he called it), and pretended to show people 
the ghost of any of their departed friends. In 1785 he was 
deeply implicated with the Cardinal Duke de Rohan in the 
notorious affair of the diamond necklace in which the name 
and fame of Marie Antoinette, the unfortunate queen of 
FVance, were committed. Cagliostro was, in consequence, 
shut fip for nine months in the Bastille, and on his expul- 
sion from FVanoe he went to England, where, during a stay 
of two years, he found no lack of credulity. What took 
him again to Rome we know not, but in December, 1769, 
he was arrested in that city, imprisoned in the castle of 
Sant* Angelo, and after a long trial condemned to death 
for being — a/reematon, (See Processt &c., published at 
Rome — a very curious document). His severe Sentence 
was commuted for perpetual imprisonment, and he was 
transferred to tho fortress of San Leo, where he died in 
1795. His wife was also arrested, and condemned to pass 
her life in a convent. 

C AGNCyLI, ANTO'NIO, bom at Zante, September 29, 
1 743. He was attached to the Venetian embassy at Paris, 
and formed a taste for astronomy and an intimacy with 
Laiande. He built an observatory in the Rue Richelieu, 
and continued to make it usefol till 1766, when he went to 
Verona, where he built another. This last was damaged by 
French cannon-shot in 1797, but the owner was indemnified 
by General Bonaparte, who removed him to Modena. He 
was aftervrards president of the Italian Society, and died at 
Verona abont 1816. (We have found no further materials 
for his life: see Lakinde, Bibliog. Astron. p. 599.) 

Cagnoli wrote a work on trigonometry, first published at 
Verona in Italian (1786), and translated into French by 
M. Chompr^. The second edition of the translation bears 
Paris, 1808. Besides this he wrote various astronomical 
treatises and papers, mostly in the memoirs of the Italian 
Society, which should be consulted firom the beginning to 
find them. The title of these memoirs is * Memorie di Ma- 
tematica e Fisica della Soeieti Italiana, Modena,* quarto. 

Cagnoli's trigonometry is one of those invaluable works 
which bring up the state of a science completely to the time 
at which it is written, and furnish those who want the 
means of application with varied stores of methods. Ele- 
mentary writers on the practical ]iarts of mathematics are 
among the last to adapt their rules to the actual state of 
science, unless somebody, who is well versed in the theory, 
performs the service which Cagnoli did foe trigonometiy. 
The consequence has been, that works on that subject have 
assumed a better form, and the constant reference which has 
been made to Cagnoli*8 treatise is the test of the freouency 
with which it has been used. The late Professor Wood^ 
bouse, whose treatise on trigonometry has powerfully con- 
tributed to foster a taste for analysis in this country, seems, 
on a smaller scale to have taken Cagnoli for his model. 
The work we speak of is a quarto of 500 nages (in the 
Frmeh translation, the second edition of which is aug- 
iBeated by the author's oommQmcations)^ and treats very 



largely of the applleations of tiigoaometry to asirtmotty and 

geodesy. 

CA AORS, a city in the south of France, capital of tho 
department of Lot (population in 1832, 283,827), situated on 
the right bank of the river Lot» in a small peninsula formed 
by a bend in its coarse ; 370 miles S. by W. of Paris, through 
Orleans, Ch&teauroux, and Limoges ; in 44"" 27* N. lat, and 
1^ 26' or r 27' E. long. 

Cahors is a very antient place. Its nanle is variously 
written in the Greek and Latin authors. Ptolemy calls it 
Awif^rt^a^Dtteona; in the Theodosian table it is Bibona; 
but Ausonius is considered by M. D* Anville to have given 
the true orthography — Dilxma, a word in the Celtic lan- 
guage denoting a fountain sacred to the gods. It was tho 
capital of the Cadurci ; and towards the dose of the Roman 
dominion in Gaul assumed, according to the nomenclaturd 
then introduced, the name of the tribe to which it belonged j 
whence come the modem name of the town, Cahors, and 
that of the province, Querei, of which it was for many cen- 
turies the capital. On the downfall of the Roman empire it 
came successively into the hands of Goths and Franks; 
was afterwards subject to the Counts of Toulouse, then to 
its own bishop; was taken by the English during their 
wars in France, and retaken from them ; and carried by 
assault and pillaged in 1580, after a gallant resistance, by 
Henry IV., while as yet only king of Navarre and head of 
the Protestant party. 

The town is situated partly on a rocky eminence, and has 
steep, narrow, crooked streets. The houses in what is called 
the upper town are commonly built with terraces command- 
ing a wide prospect. There are few remarkable buildings s 
the cathedral is supposed to be the remains of an antient 
temple, with the addition of a portico and other parts of 
modem date ; the seminarv for the priesthood is a fine and 
large building ; the bishop s residence presents no point of 
interest There are some Roman remains, the rmni of a 
theatre, and an aqueduct, and a monument to M. Lucterius# 
erected in the reign of Augustus CsBSor. There aro two 
antient bridges at Cahors, one on the W. side of the town, 
called Le Pont de Valendus, defended by some antient 
fortifications ; and another culled Le Pont Notre Dame, so 
much decayed as to be impassable for carriages. We pre- 
sume this to be the bridge on the S. of the town which in 
the large map of France by Messrs. Maraldi and Cassini is 
called Le Pont Vieux ; the same map marks a third bridge, 
communicating with the Faubourg ot. George on the other 
side of the river, E. of the town, called Le Pont Neuf, tho 
name of which indicates a more modem origin. The ram* 
parts form a public promenade ; it is probably on a part of 
this called Le Foss6 that a monument was erected in 1820 
to the memory of F^n61on. 

The population of Cahors in 1832 was 10,818 for tho 
town, or 12,050 for the whole commune. The chief manu« 
factures are woollen cloth, leather, and paper. The neigh* 
bourhood yields wheat and oats of good quality, but not suf- 
ficient for Uie consumption of the inhabitants ; flax, hemp« 
and especially wine. The wine of the neighbourhood of 
Cahois combines deep colour with good flavour and 
strength ; a great quantity is sent to Paris. 

The town has a sendnary for the priesthood, a college or 
high school, a library, a museum of natural history, and a 
theatre. Pope John XXIL, a native of the town, founded 
herein 1321 a university, which continued to exist iu the 
reign of Louis XV. Clement Marot, a poet of the sixteenth 
century, was bom here. 

The arrondissement of Cahors, one of the three into which 
the department is divided, contained in 1832 a population 
of 116,336. Cahors is the seat of a bishoprick, erected in 
A.D. 257, and now comprehending the department. The 
bishop is a suffragan of the archbishop of Aiby. 

CAICOS ISIJUNDS, one of the groups comprehended 
under the general name of Bahamas. They lie between 
21^ and 22^ N. lat^ and between 71** and 73'' W. long., and» 
as is the case with all the groups belonging to the Bahama 
islands, on the E. and N. side of a bank facmg the Atlantic 
Ocean : the bank extends to the W. of them towards tho 
West Indian Islands. When seen from the E. they appear 
like low rocks ; thev consist of corals or madrepores, which 
are covered with a thin layer of sand, intermixea with shells. 
Towards the W. thev sink lower, till their beach mixes 
with the moving sands of the bank. They are fertile, and 
produce a little cotton and provisions : the inhabitants do not 
exceed 1000* Tho Caioos aio six in number, beudes some 



No. 355. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPADLaL.] 



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vninhabittd rooks; W. Caicon, ProvulencialeSp N. Caicos, 
Great Caicon, K. Caicos, and East Harbour. There is 
anchorage near some of them ; the best is at East Harbour. 

CAIMACA'N, a Turkish name which corresponds to 
our lieutenant, or rather lieutenant-governor. The caimacan 
of Constantinople is the lieutenant of the ^nd vizier, and 
is governor of the city. It is an office of importance, and 
the person who fills it is generally styled pacha. (La Croix, 
Mim<nre9 sur F Empire Ottoman,) The pachas or go- 
vernors of provinces have also their caimacans or lieutenanta, 
irbo often act as governors of the principal towns* 

CAIMAN. [C&ocoDiLB.] 

g A^ 1RA\ literally • It shall go on/ meaning that tlie re- 
volution must proceed. This was the beginning and the bur- 
den of a song made by the more violent revolutionists about 
Paris, 1789 or 1790. The song went on denouncing death 
against the aristocrats, who were to be disposed of by being 
hung * k la ianteme (on the lamp-posU), which was actually 
done in several insUnces. When the wholesale massacres be- 
gan in August and September, 1 792, the ' Q^ irV was the fa- 
vourite song by which the murderers encouraged each other 
in their work of destruction. The tune was quick and hur- 
ried, and calculated to keep up ]x>pular frensy. As a com- 
position, the 'Q&iri* was very inferior both in the words 
and the musio to the 'Aliens, enfans de la patrie* (the 
Marselloia Hymn), which was a lofty and heart-stirring 
appeal to all patriots for the defence of their country when 
atUoked by the foreign powers. After the period of terror 
was over, the ' Q& iri* became disused* and at last was for- 
bidden to be played under Bonaparte, as an inauspicious 
memento of a sanguinary epoch. 

CAIRN, or CARN, a heap of stones thrown together in 
a conical form. Lhuyd, in his * Additions to (ISamden's 
Britannia in Radnorshire,* asserts that in the C^mbro- Bri- 
tannic Kaem is a primitive word, appropriated to signify 
aueh heaps of stones. Cairns and tumuli of earth were the 
common monuments which the antient Britons erected in 
honour of their great men. Which of the two kinds was to 
be adopted was probably determined by the circumstance 
of the country being stony or otherwise. 

Pennant, in his ' Voyage to the Hebrides,' 1772 (4to. 
Lond- 1790, vol. ii. p. 208), speaking of the cairns, says, 
* These immense accumulations of stones are the sepulchral 
wotections of the heroes among the antient natives of our 
islands : the stone chests, the repositories of the urns and 
ashes, are lodged in the earth beneath; sometimes one, 
sometimes more, are found thus deposited; and I have 
one instance of as many as seventeen of these stone chests 
being discovered under the same cairn. The learned have 
assigned other causes for these heaps of stones ; have sup- 
posed them to have been, in times of inauguration, the 
places where the chieftain-elect stood to show himself to 
the best advantage to the people ; or the place from whenoe 
judgment was pronounced ; or to have been erected on the 
road-side in honour of Mercury ; or to have been formed 
in memory of some solemn compact. (See Rowland*s Mona 
Antiqua, p. 50 ; Borlase's Antiq. qf Cornwall^ p. 209.) 
These might have been the reasons, in some instances, 
where the evidences of stone chests and urns are wanting ; 
but those generally are found to overthrow all other systems. 

* These piles,* Pennant adds, 'may be iustly supposed to 
have been proportioned in size to the rank of the person, or 
to his popularity : the people of a whole district assembled 
to show their respect to the deceased, and by an active 
honouring of his memory soon accumulated heaps equal to 
those that astonish us at this time. But these honours were 
not merely those of the day ; as long as the memory of the 
deceased existed, not a passenger went by without adding 
a stone to the heap : they supposed it would be an honour 
to the dead, and acceptable to his manes. To this moment,* 
be continues, ' there is a proverbial expression among the 
bighlanders allusive to the old practice : a suppliant will 
tell his patron, Curri mi clock er do chame (I will add a 
•tone to your eatm), meaning, when you are no more I will 
do all possible honour to your memory.* 

Jamieson, in his Etymological Dictionary, says, ' In 
Angus, where any person has been murdered, a cairn is 
erected on the spot* 

Pausanias (10, fi. 4) mentions monuments of collected 
■tones, and in another passage (8, 13. 3) he speaks of 
similar monuments near Urchomenus, in Aircadta, for per* 
aona who had fallen in battle. 

CAIRNGORUM, or CAIRNOORM MOUNTAINS, 



are situated in the Highlands of Scotland* to tbe N. of the 
central Grampians, between 57^ 10' and 57^ SO' N. lat., and 
3° and 3° 20' W. long. They consist of enormous masses of 
rock, overtopped by several heights, and enclosinic the lake 
of Avon. This lake, whiah is at an elevation of 1 650 feet 
above the sea, is surrounded by steep and frightful prccu 
pices. The mountains Cairngorm and Bein-bainac n^e 
almost perpendicularly from its N. and W. edges, and the 
vast masses of Ben Muc D*hu and of Bain -main overlian;; 
its southern shores, so that for several months in the winter 
the sun never shines on the surface of the lake. The^e 
enormous rocks are without vegetation. No shrub, no 
living creature, is seen on their precipitous sides. Tlie rive r 
Avon issues from the lake in a large stream, and ttows 
through a deep, dark, and uninhabited glen. Sixteen miles 
from the lake the first habitations of men occur. The^r 
enormous masses are considered as constituting the highest 
land in Great Britain. Ben Muc D*hu, the highest of the 
summits, rises 4389 feet above the level of the sea, and if 
therefore higher than Ben Nevis. But there are still M>mc 
doubts about their respective height. (Sir Thomaa Dick 
Lauder's Account of the Great Floods i and li*Culi4ich, 
Highlands and Western Islands.) 

CAIRO. [Kahira.] 

CAISSON. [ConPBE*0Aic.] 

CAIUS. [GAiut] 

CAIUS,* Dr. JOHN, was born at Norwich, Octobet (, 
1510. After receiving the first rudiments of learning in 
that city, he was sent to Gonville Hall, in tho University ^f 
C])ambridgo i he took the degrees of B.Au and M.A. at the 
usual times, and was chosen Fellow of his college in 1 &J3. 
His literary labours began at the age of twenty, by a irAos- 
lation into English of St, Chiysostom *De Mode orandi Deum.' 
This was followed by a translation of Erasmus * De veri Theo- 
logi&,* which, he says, * I dyd geue to maister Augvsune 
Stiwarde, alderman of Norwiche, not in the ful as the autbur 
made it, but abbreuiate for his only purpose to whom I sent 
it, leuying out many subtile things, made rather for fov^t 
and learned diuines than for others.* His third production 
was a translation of Erasmus's paraphrase upon the epistle 
of St. Jude. His excuse for writing in English is cui .>ui 
enough : * These I did in Englishe the raUier because si 
that tyme men ware not so geuen all to EngUahe, but that 
they dyd fauoure and mayteine good learning contetncd m 
tongues and sciences, and did also study and apply diligvnt]} 
the same themselves. Therfore I thought no hurt« doneL 
Sence that time diuerse other thynges f haue wrictiro* but 
with entente neuer more to write in the Englishe toixiEu«« 
partly because the eommoditie of that which is to written 
passeth not the oompasse of Bnglande, but remaineiib en- 
closed within the seas,' &e. {A CaunnUl ogmmsi the 
Sweat, fol. 4.) 

It was probably soon after this that he travelled into Italy, 
where he remained several years. He studied medicine at 
Padua under Baptista Montanus and Vesalius, and took the 
degree of Doctor at Bologna. In 1542 be gave leetuiva at 
Padua on the Greek text of Aristotle, in conjunction with 
Realdus Columbus, the salary being paid by tome noble 
Venetians. The following vear he made the tour of ItaiU, 
visiting the most celebrated libraries, and collating MS S\ 
in order to improve the text of Gralen and Celsus. At Pt*^ 
he attended the medical lectures of Matthsus Curtios ; and 
then returned home through France and (vermany. i.)a 
his return he was incorporated Doctor of Phytic at Cam- 
bridge, and practised with great distinction at Shrewsbury 
and I^orwich. By the appointment of Henry VUL he mU 
lectures on anatomy to the Company of Surgeons ; but be 
does not appear to have settled in London till a later period* 
when he was made physician to Edward VI. He xetauwd 
his appointment unaer Mary and Elisabeth. 

In 1547 Dr. <3aius became a Fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians, and was ever a strenuous upholder of its right and 
interests. A diflEerence having arisen between die ph>»t- 
cians and surgeons in the reign of Elixabeth, as to whethex 
the latter might administer internal remedies incaeea vhere 
their manual assistance was required. Dr. Ckius, then pre> 
sidentt was summoned to appear before the lofd mayor end 

• Bb real auM vm Kfiy«» at Key, wkieh b« U tinlawt by C«taft It « rrt 
a UltU MDguUr Umt Sbakipoare •bould bare given the aaiae of Cai«* w> «2« 
foolUIi KreDch doctor to the ' Merry Wlvee of Wladtor ' Parmev'a «ap4acMi a 
tbat Shaki|ieare waa little acqaalated wHh Uleniry hMmx, mad, Iban ^t* » ■ 
vauai name, atippoted Caiva to bave beea a fbi»i||o qiM<«* la v«r> 
tory. It did not require any acquaintaaee witb Uternrr bJatPcy te k^uv 
Caiiu had been Coort'pbytfeitfa la ttie tteM Joat ptwMiaf hb i 



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others of the queen's delegates. On this occasion he pleaded 
the physicians' cause so ably, that although the surgeons 
were supported by the bishop of London and the Master of 
the Rolls, it was unanimously agreed by the commissioners 
that it was unlawful for the surgeons to practise medically 
in such cases. Dr. Caius was president of the College of 
Physicians for more than seven years. He left behind him 
a book of the college annals, from 1555 to 1572, written 
with his own hand, in a clear Latin style. Having obtained 
permission from Queen Mary, with whom he was much in 
favour, to advance Gonville Hall into a college, which still 
hears his name, he accepted the Mastership of the college, 
and passed the last years of his life in it. That his retire- 
ment was not owing to any gloomy distaste to the world, 
but to a fondness for learned leisure, appears from the nu- 
merous literary labours m which he was engaged to the last 
moments of his life. Before his death he was reduced to a 
state of great weakness ; and it appears from the following 

auaint passage in Dr. Mouffet's ' JUealtfa's Improvement, or 
lules concerning Food,' that he attempted to sustain his 
flagging powers by reverting to the food of infancy. ' What 
made Dr. Caius in his last sickness so peevish and so full of 
frets at Cambridge, when he sucked one woman (whom I 
spare to name) froward of conditions and of bad diet ; and, 
contrariwise, so quiet and well when he sucked another of 
contrary dispositions? Verily, the diversity of their milks 
and conditions, which being contrary one to the other, 
wrought also in him tliat sucked them contrary effects.* 

Dr Caius died July 29, 1573, in the sixty-third year of 
Lij age, and was buried in the chapel of his own college. 
His monument bears the pithy inscription ' Fui Caius.* 

The most interesting of the works of Dr. Caius is his 
treatise on the sweating sickness. The ori«^nal edition is a 
small black-letter and extremely scarce duodecimo of 39 
folios* * imprinted at London, by Richard Grafton, printer to 
the kynges maiestie. AnnofKi. 1552.* It is entitled 'A 
boke, or counseiU against the disease commonly called the 
sweate, or sweaty ng sicknesse. Made hy Jhon Caius, doctour 
in pfaisicke.* This was intended for the public in general ; 
but in 1 556 the author published it in an enlarged form, 
and in the Latin language, under the title ' De Ephemeri 
Britannic^.* The epidemic described by Caius was that 
of 1551, the fifth ana last of the kind. It was an intense 
fever, of which the crisis consisted in a profuse perspiration. 
The death of the patient often followea two or three hours 
after this symptom, but if he survived the first attack of the 
disease twenty-four hours, he was safe. 

The works of Dr. Caius are exceedingly numerous, and 
display his talents as a critic, a linguist, a naturalist, and 
za antiquary, aa well as a physician. The original works of 
Dr. Caius consist at treatises, ' De Medendi Methodo,* ' De 
Ephemerd BritanniciU* ' De Ephemerfi Britannici ad Popu- 
lum Britanmcum«* ' De Antiouitate Cantabrig. Academie,* 
' De Historii Cantabris. Academisa,' * De Canibus Britan- 
nicis/ * De Rariorum Animalium atque Stirpium Historic,* 
* De Symphonii Vocum Britannicarum,* ' Die Thermis Bri- 
tannicis,* * De libris Galeni qui non extant,* ' De Antiquis 
Britannia Urbibus,' ' De Libris ptopriis,' * De Pronuncia- 
ttoue Grmem et Latina Lingua cum Scriptione NovS,* ' De 
Annalibos Collegii Medicina Lend.,' * De Annalibus Col- 
legii GonevilU et Caii,* 'Compendium Erasmi Libri de 
veri Tbeologii.' He also edited, translated, and com- 
mentad upon^ many pieces of Hippocrates, Galen, and 
others. 

Several of his treatises were re-printed, under the snper- 
intendettoeof Dr. Jebb, Lend. 1729, 8vo.; and his treatise 
' De Ephemerfi Britannicd' has been lately edited by Dr. 
J. F. C. Hecker, Berolini, 1833, 12mo. 

la the present age, when the writin^rg of the founders of 
the healing art are rarely studied, it is difficult to sympa- 
thise with the deep veneration of Caius for their opinions ; 
yet it should never be forgotten that it is to such as he 
that we are indebted for that general diffusion of medical 
knowledge which has rendered the best parts of the practice 
of Hippoerales and Galen familiar to those who have never 
read a line of their works ; and that the great founder of 
Caius College was not only an able physician himself, but 
»av«d th0 way for Uie Heherdens, the CuUens, and the 
HttQtcra. 

(Hutchinson's Biographia MecHca; Aikin*s Bio^^ra- 
ptkieai MtmoirM of Medicine in Great Britain; Der 
Mmffiieeke Schweiee, von Dr, J. F. C. Heeker.) 
CAIUS COLLEGE, Cambridge, or more properly Gon- 



Tille and Caius College, was founded in 1348 hy Edmund 
de Gonvill, rector of Terringrton and Bushworth in Norfolk, 
who at the instance of Walter de Manny, one of the 
founders of the Order of the Grarter, obtained a license for 
that purpose from Edward HI. 

Gonvill laid the foundation of his colle^ on the spot (as 
Speed tells us) where the orchard of Corpus Christ i College 
is now standing (1605), and dedicated it to the honour of 
the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin ; but dyin^ before 
his intentions were fulfilled, he left a large sum of money to 
William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, in trust for the com- 
pletion of his building, and for the support of a master, four 
fellows, and twenty scholars. Bishop Bateman removed 
from the spot selected by (Gonvill, and having purchased 
houses * near to his own hall,' erected on their site the new 
building which he called Gonvill Hall ; and he increased its 
revenues by his own bounty. Mr. Dyer, on the authority of 
Dr. Caius, says that the bishop did not build, but confirmed 
the hall. 

Various other benefactors added to its endowments, espe- 
cially Dr. Perse, who founded six fellowships, and gave to 
the college the right of appointing the master of the free 
school, wnich he had established at Cambridge. Thus in 
1557 there were, according to Speed, a master, twenty-two 
fellows, • one conduct,' and forty-five scholars, ' with officers 
and servants of the foundation, and other students.* 

In 1557 Dr. John Caius, having rebuilt a large part of 
the college, erected the chapel, and endowofl tliree addi- 
tional fellowships and twenty scholarships, obtained from 
Philip and Mary leave to be a co-founder, and to change 
the name from Gonvill Hall to Gonville and Caius College. 

The present establishment is as follows: — A master; 
twelve senior follows, of whom three are of the original 
foundation, three of Dr. Caius's foundation, two of whom 
must be physicians, and all Norfolk men, and six of various 
founders, five of whom must be priests, and two of these 
must belong to the diocese of Norwich ; ei^ht junior fel- 
lows, one of whom must be a priest of the Norwich diocese — 
out of these the senior fellows are elected ; six fellows of Dr. 
Perse*s foundation, preference being given to scholars of 
Perse*s Grammar School; three fellows of Mr. Wortley's 
foundation, one confined to part of Devon and one to Nor- 
folk; making in all twenty- nine fellows: twenty-nine 
scholars, the aggregate revenue of whom is 1035/.; two of 
the scholarships are confined to students from Harrow 
School, and one to a student in chemistry. There are eight 
exhibitions, amounting together to 120/. per annum. Among 
the celebrated men educated in this college, may be enu- 
merated Dr. Caius, the co-founder. Sir Thomas Gresham, 
Bishop Jeremy Taylor, and Lord Chancellor Thurlow. The 
number of members resident and non-resident in 1835, 
according to the Cambridge Calendar, was 272. The an- 
nual value of the church livings in the patronage of this 
society amounts, according to the Ecclesiastical Returns 
(1835), to between 800U/. and 9000/. (Speed's Chronicle; 
Dyer s History of Cambridge; and the Cambridge Calen- 
dar of 1835.) 

CAITHNESS. This county occupies the north-eastern 
extremity of Scotland. It is bounded on the west by Suther- 
landshire ; on every other side it is washed by the ocean. 
The coast-line presents numerous indentations or bays. On 
the north, where it is separated from the Orkneys by the 
Pentland Frith, the projections of the coast form two bold 
precipitous headlands; the one on the north-east, called 
Duncansby Head (58** 37' N. lat., 3^ 1' W. long.), the other 
on the N.W., called Dunnet Head, &b? 40' N. lat, and the 
most northern point of Great Britain. Nearly in the centre 
of the strait or frith, between these two points, lies the Isle 
of Stroma, forming a portion of the shire. The mountain- 
range which separates the table-land of Sutherland from the 
plains of Caithness does not rise to a great elevation in its 
course from north to south, and within these limits it does 
not exhibit any remarkable summit. But it attains a moun- 
tain character in the southern parts of Caithness, where it 
turns to the east, forming two distinct and high ridges, of 
which the northern contains the Maiden Paps, with the 
high summit of Morbhein, rising about 2334 feet above the 
sea ; and the southern terminates on the east c^ast with the 
Ord of Caithness, which advances into the sea. 

The plain of Caithness, which lies between the ridge of 
the Maiden Paps, the Pentland Frith, ana the moun- 
tains that bound the county of Caithness on the west, com- 
prises about four-fifths of the county; but it is not a 

S2 



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perfbet leveL Where it borden on the numntauis to the 

K»uth it contains many small hills, which form nearly a 
continnons chain, terminating in the caoe of Glyth Ness. 
North of this range the country extends in wide levels, 
covered with moors, and slopes gradually to the heds of the 
rivers. A few insulated hills are of moderate elevation. 
Some of the moors may he from 200 to 300 feet ahove the 
sea, and are not cultivated, hut many parts of them aflbrd 
pasture. Agriculture is confined to the large tracts of level 
land along the water-courses, and to the slopes of the 
elevated plains. These elevated moorlands sink lower to> 
wards the north-east, and terminate in a low plain between 
Sinclair Bay on the east coast, and Dunnet Bay on the north- 
west. From the innermost part of Dunnet Bay there ex- 
tends a very low tract of land, covered with heath and rough 
grass, and about two miles wide, in a straight line to Keiss 
Castle on Sinclair Bay. It is hardly more than 30 feet 
above high-water mark in any part. North of this tract the 
peninsula enclosed between Sinclair and Dunnet Bays runs 
to the Pentland Frith, and terminates in Duncansby Head 
and Dunnet Head. The greater and more elevated part, 
which may be 100 feet above the sea, has a light sandy soil ; 
but though it was long neglected it now contains a con- 
siderable amount of land under cultivation, which is daily 
and rapidly improving. 

The extreme length of Caithness, by a line drawn from 
its south'We«t point to Duncansby Head, is 43 miles : the 
greatest breadth fiom east to west is about 30 miles. The 
county contains nine parishes, and a portion of a tenthi 
the remaining portion being in Sutherland. 

Parithet. Popolatioii ia 1881. 

Bower • • • • 1,615 

Canisbay . • • . 2,364 

Dunnet . • • • 1,906 

Halkirk .... 2.847 

Latherton • . • . 7,0'iO 

Olrick . • . . 1,146 

Reay(partoO . . . 1,868 

Thurso, including the town • 4,679 

WaiUn .... 1.234 

Wick, including the burgh • 9,850 

Total population 34,529 

The population of the shire in 1801 was 22.609 ; in 181 1, 
23.419; in 1821. 30,238. Of the population under the 
census of 1831 there were 16,359 males, 18,170 females. 
The number of families was 6904, of which 3680 were 
chiefly employed in agriculture; 1487 in trade, manufac- 
tures, and handicraft; and 1837 were not included in these 
two classes. In the specification of males more than twenty 
years of age eni^aged in handicraft, &c., out of 2*/57 so em- 
ployed there were 309 carpenters, 245 masons and wallers, 
101 blacksmiths, 87 boat- builders, 69 fish-curers, 43 millers, 
151 tailors, 268 shoe-makers, 88 publicans or inn-keepers, 
and 113 small shop-keepers. 

The chief, and indeed the only town, with the exception 
of Thurso, is Wick, on the bay of Wick, on the east coast. 
It has increased considerably of late years ; and Pultney 
town, which is situated on the opposite side of the harbour, 
and connected with Wick by a bridge, has been entirely built 
witliin the present century, on land held under lease by the 
British Fishery Society. The herring-fisliery has given 
life and animation to the north-east coast of Scotland, 
where formerly there existed but little stimulus to indus- 
try. In Wick, which has a good harbour, and forms the 
greatest station in the north for the herring fishery, there 
are, during the summer months, usually from 1500 to 2000 
boats sUtioned. Grain, wool, and the proceeds of the fishery 
are the principal exports, and furnish cargoes to a number 
of trading vessels; but there is no manufaoture of any im> 
poitance. Wick, along with Kirkwall, Dornoch, Dingwall, 
Tain, and Cromarty, returns one member to parliament 

Thurso is on the N. coast, about 20 miles N.W. of Wick. 
It lies in a vallev or bay formed by Holbum Head and 
Dunnet Head. A stream, called Thurso Water, enters the 
■ay close to the town. There is an anchorage, called Scrab- 
ster Roads, under Holbum Head ; the coast to the west of 
this promontory is wild and rugged, the roeks being rent, 
and holk>wed by the waves into caverns. A mass of rock, 
eallad the Clett, the resort of innumerable sea-fbwl, is sepa- 
imted from the main-land near Thurso by a chasm. The 
Ihmtly mansion of the late Sir John Sinclair is at Thuno • I 
H waa fermerly a Mat of the earla of Caithnen; at a short I 



diataiice finom it he eseeted a loir droular Imilding, tur- 
mounted by a sort of embattled parapet, which he inteodetd 
should mark t^ grave of Harold, earl of Caithness, who 
was killed about VSm spot many centuries ago. It is a con- 
spicuous object in a country comparatively oara and dsso- 
late. The parish of Thurso, owing to Sir John Sinciair^s 
exertions, is the most improved district in Caithness. 

The ilireot distance between Dunnet Head and Dun- 
cansby Head, the two points of the northern extremity of the 
peninsula, is about 13 miles. The small island of Stroma, 
which is about a mile in length, and half a mile in bread tli, 
lies about 3 miles off the main-land. The navigation of the 
Pentland Frith is somewhat dangerous from the strength 
of the currents, and breakers or reefs. On the nortli i»ide 
of Stroma there is a small vortex or whirlpool, nanifd 
Swalchie, and nearer the main-land there are breakers 
called the Merry Men of Meyi which are probably produoMi 
by a current setting strongly on a hidden reef. The tall 
white steeple of Canisbay, near Duncansby Head, serves a* 
a land-mark ; a hffht-honse has been recently erected on 
Dunnet Head. The Stalks of Duncansby are two in- 
sulated columns of freestone, detached from the clifT, of 
which they originally formed a part; they are inhabited 
during the summer by thousands of aquatic birds. Dun- 
cansby Head, which rises to a considerable height, is charac- 
terized by Macculloch as being *red, square, and ugU.* 
Near it is the ferry to the Orkneys, a village coosistinie of a 
few houses, and a place of entertainment, railed the Houiia 
Inn. What is termed John O'Groat's House is a piece i4 
g^reen turf on the east side of Duncansby Head, on wkuch it 
is possible a house may have stood, but there has been no 
trece of one for many years. 

The general appearance of Caithness is far from ^letnK 
attractive, but it hardly deserves the unqualified obsertatua 
of Macculloch, who says, ' an uglier country than Caiiluie^s 
from one end to the other, would not easily' be found.* Tlic 
cold winds which, during a great part of the year, su««p 
across the country from the north-east and north- ««f»t« 
stunt all vegetation ; trees will not rise higher than the 
shelter which is afforded to them. But oooMderabU im- 
provements have been effected latterly : new roads hkst 
been formed ; and should the herring-fishery on the rx< 
coast prove a permanent source of employment, it will Uuil 
to draw out the resources of the country. 

Caithness returns one memlier to Parliament. 

The county gives the title of eari to the family of Sincla.r. 
which is descended from the St. Claire of France. Tbc caii 
of Caithness is lord- lieutenant of the countv. 

(Physical and Poliiiral Geographf qf Great BnUtin .»( 
the Society for the Diffusion of U^efUl Knowledge. ISrt 
IV.; Macculloch's Highlandi, \ol. ii. ; Summer Btm.b^^t 
in the North Highlands; Boundary Beports, SeotlastJ; 
Population Returns.) 

CAJEPUT. [MXLALIUCA.] 

CALABAR. OLD, a river of Africa, which falls into 
the Bight of Biafira, about 52 miles N. by W. of Fernan*W 
Po. It is the largest river on this coast, and form* an 
mstuary 9 miles wide, which is full of shallows and i^nd* 
banks. Although so far to the eastward of that branch uf 
the Quom which has been traced to the sea, it appears to 
be one of the outleu of that great river, which it prob^bif 
joins above Eboe town. 

The principal place on the river is called Dukes cr 
Ephraim Town, which stands on the eastern bank, about >t 
miles from the entrance: slave- vessels and tradere generalir 
anehor off this place. This town is on elevated grouiid'; 
the houses are mostly of clay, like those of the Eboe peiipW, 
and are built without regularity along the banks of trie 
river, which is here about a third of a mile wide. Alib«ic^& 
there is no esublisbed oustom-house for the payniwni of 
duties, the chief is careful to esact a tax under the natse itf 
a present, without which no vessel is allowed to ooiiiiDWDce 
treffic. Twelve miles above Duke Town is another laxse 
village, called Creek Town. 

The river is Tory winding, and the shores ar« low and 
swampy; the country is overrun with bushes« piinaimUy uf 
the mangrore, and there are few cleared spots oo Chw Inaks 
of the river. The right bank is much inteneetad by efw^ks» 
through which the natives assert they can in their cMiurs 
communicate with all the riven that &1I into the Gulf c^ 
Guinea between this and the Benin, forming the giwttt Ue2u 
of the Quorra. To the eastward of the Calabar is the bi^ 
land 9i Ouuaoons. Tha canoes of the aativea 



GAL 



109 



C A L 



thoM of the Bboe people, bat tre not lo large. The nver 
abounds in alligatora» from 12 to 14 teat Ioo|c : there aie fev 
fish. The water ia not conaiderad good, owing to the quan- 
tity of decayed animal and ▼egetable matter which it con- 
tains. It ia high water at the entraooe of the river at six 
o'clock : the rise is about six feet. 

CALABAR, NEW, another river to the westward of 
the Old. and 52 miles eaat of Gape Formosa, empties itself 
into the same SMtnary with the Bonny. It is a iride but 
sluggish stream* with a bar acroaa the entrance, which ren* 
ders it accessible only for veaseto drawing about 12 feet 
Tire miles up however there is an average depth of 30 feet. 
By the Portuguese it was called Rio lUal, and it is evi* 
dcntly one of the branches of the Qnorra. The town of New 
Calabar stands on an island formed by two branches of the 
river, and contains about 300 houses. 

The commerce of these two rivers, as well as the others 
along this coast, consists in slaves, ivorv, and palm-oil, which 
are bartered for Manchester goods* hardware, gum, and 
powder. Salt, which is made by evaporation fk'om sea-water 
m large brass pans,